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Univ. OF 
Toronto 
Library 



:] 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZLNE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, IJOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 

(dEI.VO a C0KTI:*0ATI0N of tub 'A-HNALs' combined with LOUDON AND 
CIIAJ-vLESWOUTH's ' JIAGAZINB 01' NATUKALHrsTORY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

WILLIAM CARRUTHERS, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
ARTHUR E. SHIPLEY, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., 

AND 

WILLIAM FRANCIS, F.L.S. 




VOL. XVIL— EIGHTH SLKiES. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS. 

SOLD BY 8IMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, ANT) CO., LD. ; 
BAILLIERE, PARIS: AND HODGES, FIGGIS, AND CO., DUBLIN. 

1916. 



"Omnes res crenta? sunt diviiiae sapientise et potentia; testes, divitiaj felicilatis 
liiiinanH: : — ex haruiu usu bonitas Creatoris; ex pulcliritudine sapientia Domini ; 
ex ceconoiiii& in conserTatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia niajestatis 
eluoet. Earuni itaque indi>gntio ab lioniinibus sibi relictis semper isestiii.ata ; 
a vere eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; male doctis et barbaris semper 
inimica fuit."— Link.eus. 

"Quel que soit le principe de la tie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir lesyeux pour 
voir qu'elle est le chef-d'ea\ivre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel so rappor- 
t«nt toutes ses operations." — Bkuckneii, Thiorie du Systeme Aniinal, Leyden, 



1767 



The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons; from their deepest dells 

The Dryatls come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet; the I^ymphs 

That press with nimble step the mounhvin-thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But seattor round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep: the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop tlie lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits tiie bold adventurer's tread. 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us imlock tlieir secret stores 

And pay tlieir cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818. 



I 

9^ 



f^ f 



7 




lO 



CONTENTS OF \'OL. XVII. 

[EIGriTH SERIES.] 



xXUMBER 97. 

Pagp 

I. Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews.— 
No. XXXVIII. By Prof. M'Intosh, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
(Plates I.-IV.) 1 

II. New Lepidoptera from Dutch New Guinea. By J. J. Joicky, 
r.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S., and G. Talbot, F.E.S. (Plates V.-VIII.) . 68 

III. New Species of Lice. By Bruce F. Cummixgs, British 
Museum (Natural Hibtory) 90 

IV. On the Systematic Position of the Genus Mi/cetobia, Mg. 
(Dipteva Nematocera). By F. W. Edwards, B.A,, F.E.S 108 

V. Notes on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. — XIX. On new Species 
from Australia. By Rowland E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S 116 

VI. The Porcupine of Tenasserim and Southern Siam, By 
Oldfiei-d Thomas 136 

VII. On the Grouping of tlie South-American Muridce that have 
been referred to Phyllotis, Euneomys, aud Eligmodontia. By 
Or.DFiELD Thomas 139 

VIII. On Crassicauda crassicauda (Crepl.) [Nematoda] aud its 
Hostd. By H. A. Bavlis, B.A \ 144 



iv CONTENTS. 

NUMBER 98. 

Pago 

IX. Rhynchotal Notes— LVIII. 15y ^V. I.. Distant 149 

X. Descriptions of new Freshwater Shells from Japan. By 11. B. 
riiF.STON, F.Z.S. (Plate IX.) 159 

XI. On the Nomenclature and IJeutity of some little-lniown 
British Spiders. By A. Raxdell Jackson, M.D,, D.Sc 163 

XII. Note on tlie Thorax in Anojiltira ar,d in the Genus Nesio- 
tinus of the Mallophaga. By Bnuct: F. Cummings (British 
Museum of Natural Ilit-tory) 171 

XIII. Two new Genera of African Mu^^coidea. By Ciiaulks 

II. T. Tow.N.sE.ND, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D.C 174 

XIV. A new Genus of African Mongooses, with a Note on 
Gdhrigcus. By R. I. PocoCK, F.R.S 17C 

XV. On the Generic Names of cei'taiu Old-World Monkeys. By 
Oldfikld Tuomas 179 

XVI. Notes on Argentine, Patagonian, and Cape Horn Muridce. 

By Uldfield Thomas 182 

XVII. On the African Shrews belonging to the Genus Crocidura. 
—VII. By Guy Dollman 188 

Neu' Book: — Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca. Atlas of 

Plates. By H. Sutek 209 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 210 

NUxMBER 99. 

XVIII Brief Descriptions of new Thysanoptera. — VII. By 
Richard S. Bagxall, F.L.S 213 

XIX. The Nematode Genus Tanqua, R. Blanchard. By II. A. 
Baylis, B.A 223 

XX. Preliminary Notice of some Irish Sponges. — The 3Ionaxo- 
r.ellida (Subord r Sigmatomonaxonellida) obtained bj' the Fisheries 
Branch of the Departm-^nt of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, 
Ireland. By Jane Stepuex.s, B.A., B.Sc., Irish National Museum. 232 



CONTENTS. V 

XXI. De5!pription of a new Snake of the Genus Coluber from 
Northern China. By G. A. P.orLKXGRn, F.R.S 243 

XXII. Depcriptions of Three new Cyprinid Inshes from East 
Africa. ]?y G. A. Eoulengkr, F.K.S. ." 244 

XXTTI. Two new Species of the Ilymenopterous Genus Megalijra, 
Westw, r>y IJowLAND E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S 240 

XXTV. Notes (in Fossorial Tfynienoptera. — XX. On some Z^jtw^ 
in the British Museum. By Kowi.and E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 248 

XXV. r)(v-!criptions of a new Species and Subspecies of Evnea 
from NoHhi-rn Nigeria, and a Correction in the Original Description 
of E. reesi, Preston. By II. B. Preston, F.Z.S 259 

XXVT. On the Course of the Internal Carotid Artery and the 
Foramina connected therewith in the Sluills of the Felidce and 
Viverriihe. By R. I. POCOCK, F.R.S., Superintendent of the 
Zoological Society's Gardens. (Plates X. & XI.) 261 

XXVII. A new Binturong from Siam. By Oldfield Thoma.s . 270 

XX\'III. A new Genus for Sciurus poensis and its Allies. By 
Oi.DFiKLD Thomas 271 

XXIX. Notes on Bats of the Genus Histiotus. By 0ldfii:li> 
Thomas 272 



NUMBER 100. 

XXX. Descriptions and Records of Bees. — LXXI. By T. I). A. 
Cockerell, University of Colorado 277 

XXXI. Some Nemertinea, Free-living Nematodaand Oiigochfeta 
from the Ftilldauds. By II. A. Baylis, B.A 288 

XXXII. Notes on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. — XXI. On the Austra- 
lian L(irnn<B of the Genus Tachytes. By Rowland E. Turnkr, 
F.Z.S., F.E.S ". 2J>9 

XXXIII. On a new Species of Solpurja from the Belgian Congo. 

By St.xnlky Hirst 306 

XXXR'. On a now Variety of European Tick (Dcnnacoifor reti- 
culatus, var. aii/icus. var. nov.). By Stanley Hirst 308 



VI fH^NTl'.X'IS. 

Paga 

XXXV. A Tliird Specins of the Cieiius Elporia, Edw. (Diptera, 
lilvpharovfruhp). Bv F. W. Edwards, H.A., F.E.S .309 

XXXVI. A now Genus of Pi/thitkf (Coleoptera) from the Falk- 
land Islands. By (t. C. Champion, F.Z.S :!ll 

XXWII. niiyncliotal Notes.— MX. By W. I,. Distant 313 

XXXVIII. Uu some of the External Structural Characters of the 
Striped Ilyasna (Ili/fPna hycena) and related Genera aud Species. 
By B. I. I'ococK. F.K.S. ." .-^,0 

XXXI.X. Fidviophthalma from South America. By Alfiikd O. 
Wai.kkh 343 

Proceeding* of the GeoloL-'ical Society 347 

I'areiasaurian Nomenclature, by IJ. Broom ib. 



NUMBER 101. 

XL. New Tipuliflee from the Malay Peninsula. By F. W. 
Edwards, B.A., F.E.S 349 

XLI. A new Species of the .\niphipodan Genus Hi/ale from New 
Zealand. By Chas. Chilton, MA., U.Sc, LL I)., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., 
Professor of Biology, Canterbury College, New Zealand 362 

XLIT. Ants from British Guiana. By W. C. Ckawlky, B.A. . . 3C.6 

XIJII. Descriptions of new Species of Lepidoptera. By G. T. 
Bkthine-Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S 378 

XLIV. Notes on the Synouymy of the Genus 0(/yn's. By G. T. 
Bbthune-JUkkk, F.L.S., F.Z.S 380 

XLV. The B&ces of Dremomys pemj/i By Oldfikld Thomas. '■','.)] 

XL VI. A new Genus of Anthicidce (Coleoptera) from the Islands 
of Mysol and Waigiou. By G. C. Champion, F.Z.S 39.5 

XLVII. Brief Descriptions of new Thy.sanoptera.— VIII. liy 
KicuARD S. Bagnall. F.L.S 397 



CON ri. NTS. vil 



NUMBER 102. 

Page 

XIi^'IlI. Ou some of the External Characters of Cryptoprocta. 

By W. I. PococK, F.R.S 41.3 

XLIX. A new Rat from Teniisserim. By Oldfield Thomas .. 42o 

L. On a new Species of Microtus from Asia Minor. By W. F. 
Griffitt Blacklee, M.A., F.Z.S 420 

LI. Descriptions and Records of Bees. — LXXII. By T. Ij. A. 
CocKKRELL, University of Colorado 428 

LIT. Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XXII. On new Ethiopian 
Species. By Rowland E. Tuuneh, F.Z.S., F.E.S 4.35 

LIII. Notes on the Apidce (Hymenoptera) in the Collection of 
the British Museum, with Descriptions of new Species. By 
Geoffrey Meade-"\Valdo, M.A. — VII 448 

LIV. New Species of the Genus Platamops, Reitt. [^Sjnthobates, 
Champ.] (Coleoptera), from Tropical South America. By G. C. 
Champion, F.Z.S 470 

\j\ . Some new Lepidoptera from Siam and Africa. By Lord 
Rothschild, F.R.8., Ph.D 474 

LVI. A new Sphingid and little-known Butterflies from Africa, 
By J. J. JoicKY, F.E.S., F.L.S., and G. Talbot, F.E.S. 
(Plate XII.) 477 



Proceedings of the Geological Society 478, 479 

I ndex 481 



PLATES IN VOL. XVU. 
Plate L ] 

;"■• ^-SabelUdse. 

in. I 

IV.J 

V."l 

VI I , 

■ VNew Lepidoptera from Dutch Xew Guinea. 

VIILJ 
IX. Freshwater shells from Japan. 

' > Internal carotid canal in Viverridse and FelidsB. 
XII. A new Sphingid and little-known butterflies from Africa. 



THi!; ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL EISTORY, 

[KIGHTII SICIUKS.] 



" perlitorasparj^ite museum, 

Naindt'S. et cireum vitrcos consiilitc fontfs : 
PoUice virjjineo teneros hie cariiite (lores: 
Floribiis et pietura, divse. replete canistrum. 
At V08, o Nvmphae Cmterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, reeurvato varinta corallia triinco 
Vellite muscosis e rupiljiis. et mihi conchas 
Ferte, Dese pelagi, et pingiii conchylia suceo." 

N. Parthenii Giannettasi, Eel, 1. 



No. 97. JANUARY 1916. 



T. — Notes from the Gatti/ Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 
—No. XXXVIII. By Prof. M^Lvtosh, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

[Plates I.-IV.] 

1. On the British SaheUidfP. 

i. On the Sahelli'JtP dredged by II.^I.S. 'Porcupine' in 1869 and 1870, 

and bv H.M.S. ' Knijilit Ernint ' in 1882. 
;}. On the Te rebel I ill (s nnd Sdhplliche dredired in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 

Canada, by Dr. Whiteaves in 1871-73. 
4. Ou the SabeUkhe dredged by Canon A. M. Xorman off Norway and 

Finmark. 

1. On the British Sabellidfe. 

The British Sabellicis number more than twenty, exclusive of 
some forms not yet fully investigated from lack of good 
material. lu this respect, therefore, tliey compare favonr- 
al)ly, in this preliminary notice, with those from other 
:iri;;is. 

Thus, for example, Sars* in 18G1 gave 10 species of 
Sabellids, including one of Mijxicola, as occurring in the 
piolific Norwegian waters. De Quatrefages, in his ' Anneles,' 
mentions about a dozen of the forms which have been found 
in Britain, excluding double entries like Sahclla penidllus 

* Forhandl. Videnskabs-Selsk. Chri.-^tiania, 1861, pi>. 116-131. 
Aun. it- Mnj. X. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol xvii. 1 



2 Prof. M'Iiitosli'.s Xotesfrom the 

aiul S. pnvonina, Sabel/a reniformis and <S. aaxicava, and 
FaOricia amjihicora and F. johnstoni. In Malm<;ron'a 
' Annulata l*olyclia4a/ of Spitzlicrjioii, Grccnlaiid, Icclaiul, 
and Soaiulinavia, nineteen ^ahellids (iiiclu(lin<; Mijuicola) 
are entered, and sonic of these appear to be j)nrely nortliern 
in distrd)Ution, and do not oecur in onr waters. Only six 
are entered by Dr. Johnston in the * Catalogne of Worms 
in the British Mnsenni ' (18G5), bnt two refir to the same 
form, viz., Sabella ]/e)iici//us, and another {S. saviynii) is 
nneertain. 

Six sjiecies, including Myaicnla sfeenstrvpi, are recorded 
by Tlieel* (1879) from Nova Zerabla. Langerlians (1880) 
ionnd ten species at ^ladcira. Aljout twenty-seven species of 
Sabellids occur in the laborious memoir of Miss Katherine 
Bush t from the vast area of the Pacific. Fifteen species 
occur in the careful ' Survey of Clare Island, on the rich 
\Vest Coast of Ireland' by jNIr. Southern (191 1), several not 
having hitherto been found in Britain. Thirteen species of 
Sabellids are entered by Prof. Fauvel (1914) in his fine work 
on the Polychaeta procured by the Prince of Monaco in his 
yaclits ' Ilirondelle* and 'Princess Alice.' In the recent 
(1915) list of the Polycha?ta procured at Plymouth by 
Dr. Allen, thirteen species are entered, and a few are ex- 
clusively southern forms. Comparatively few species {e.g., 
from two to five) pertaining to this family, as a rule, occur 
in local catalogues in the British area. These will be 
elsewhere alluded to. Moreover, it is perhaps more difficult 
to separate the Sabellids by their bristles and hooks than, 
for instance, the Terebellids, and coloration disappears, as a 
ride, in spirit-specimens. 

The first form is the widely distributed Sabella penicillus, 
I. \Vlien the branehiie of this species are thrown off' the 
cephalic region presents a truncated surface, in the centre of 
which is a frilled eminence, which, when carefully inspected, 
shows two lateral membranous wings, which unite in the 
middle line below and send a process ventrally between the 
two great ventral lamime; whilst the upper edges pass above 
the mouth in a series of short frills. In the mid-dorsal line 
over the mouth is a triangular flap with an acute apex, the 
base of which is grooved dorsally, the whole resembling an 
epistomc. Dorsally the cephalic plate is deeply grooved by 
the dorsal furrow, the firm and thick edge of the rim which 
carries the branchiae being severed and neatly curved on 

* Kong). Sv. Vet.-Akad. Hand!. Bd. 16, No. •% p. 65. 
t 'Harriinan Expedition to Alaska' (Xew York, 1905). 



Gdilij ]f'ii!nc Luharalorij , St. Anilrcics. '.\ 

cacli side;; the rim, then passiiij^ vcntrally to the base of tlie 
great flaps, is folded inward and upward, and is fused on 
each side with the (irui median mass over the mouth. In 
the perfect condition with the hranchiie attaclied, the pedicle 
ijctwcen the ventral Haps pa^^ses upward as a l)ilid process, 
then expands into a lateral tla[) or winj^ on each side, which, 
after a short progress, bends backward and upward, making 
a kind of frilled knee, and becomes continuous with the 
lininj^ membrane of the branchiae of its side, its outer 
border inferiorly pas^^ing into the basal semicircle of the 
l)ranehi:e, to which it is fixed throughout. Such is the 
arraut^enient connected with the floor of the mouth and 
the lower lip. Dorsally the membrane forming the roof 
of the mouth splits, considerably in front of the median 
fissure of the lower lip, into two limbs, each of which at the 
base has an axis with a narrow ventral web, and a thinner 
and broader dorsal web which tapers distally ami goes much 
furtiier along the axis than the former, the axis finally 
tapering to a long delicate tip. The whole forms the so- 
c.dled tentacle wiiich in the preparations is concealed in 
each branchial semicircle. Viewed from the inner surface 
of each branchial fan the "tentacle'' has the web on its 
dorsal edge connected with the dorsal edge of the fan, whilst 
its ventral web passes ventrally to the central region dorsal 
of the mouth. The inrush of water along the inner surface 
of the branchial fan wouhl thus be swept toward the mouth, 
the tentacles and their webs probably aiding in this function 
and keeping the stream in each fan to its own side, as it 
rushes down the groove by the outer border of the smaller 
anterior web into tiie mouth. 

The branchial fan arises on each side from the firm base 
formerly mentioned, a spiral twist being evident dorsally 
and more especially ventrally at its commencement. Each 
in preservation has the ventral edge curved inward, and a 
narrow membranous web passes from the frill of the inferior 
oral membrane for some distance along its edge. This 
ventral border is the thickest, and gives origin to the 
majority of the branchial stems, the rest springing from 
the middle and posterior parts of the basal semicircle. 
The number of these filaments varies, the two sides seldom 
being identical — thus, for instance, 38 may occur on the 
right and 41 on the left. The fan on each side is long and 
graceful, banded with regular markings of dull red and 
white. The circles of colour do not go evenly round the 
expanded fan, but slant from the ventral fissure. Dorsally 
a greenish hue occurs in some at the base of the fan. lu 

I* 



4 Prof. M'liiiosli's Notes from the 

others n;rcon or p\ar|)le predominate, <au(l the thiid in which 
tiie animals lie is always tinejed with |;reen (Dalycil). 

Eacii filament has an elastic cliordoid and canierated axis, 
the canier;e hc^ig after the fashion ot the bristles of Nereis 
or Ancia. They are nnited by a web inferiorly (abont tiie 
level oltlie first pigment-i)aud), but free tla\)nghi)ut the rest 
of their extent, and are somewhat flattened processes with a 
smooth external edge, near which the axis lies ; whilst its 
inner border is fringed with a dense series of slemler pinna», 
Aviiieh likewise have a translucent axis jointed at intervals 
li^e the bristles of the (Jhloroemidie. Tlie filaments and 
tiieir translucent axis gradually diminish distally, bnt the 
axis can be traced almost to the extrcnnity. Toward the tij) 
of the filament the pinnae gradually diminish in length, 
finally forming mere papillse, and thereafter the tapering 
tip is smooth and of moderate length. When the branchiie 
liave lost their distal ends and regeneration has considerably 
advanced, the long filamentous processes projecting from 
the tii)s give a novel character to the organs. 

Anteriorly the buccal segment occupies a hollow between 
the two pillars of the dorsal fan, a more or less separate fan- 
shaped lamella occurring on each side, tinted of a deep 
reddish brown. From this the marginal collar passes 
ventral !y to expand into the prominent and generally refiexed 
lamella on each side of the meilian fissure, where it is dis- 
tinctly thickened. A band on each side of the median oral 
process joins it to the fold a little higher. 

The first shield on the ventral surface behind the collar is 
continuous from side to side, and is the largest of the series 
of glandular scutes. Though it is opposite the first bristle- 
bundle, that would seem to pertain to the segment behind it. 

The month leads into a simjjle alimentary canal, which, 
when seen from the dorsum, forms a raoniliform tract from 
end to end — wider anteriorly and narrower posteriorly. 'I'he 
septum in each segment retains it firmly in position. The 
contents can be seen through the trans[)arent walls of 
the canal, an 1 in one consisted anteriorly of pale granules 
and posteriorly of jninldy sas d. 

The budy shows little or no narrowing anteriorly, remains 
of similar diameter for a considerable distance, then in 
preservation may increase in breadth behind the anterior 
third, and thereafter gradually ta[)ers to the' tail, ending 
in the aims, which is often bilohed. In lateral view the 
margin of the vent slopes from above downward and back- 
ward, the ventral edge thus projecting considerably. From 
above the aperture is bitid inferiorly, and a triangular area 



Gatty }f urine Laboratory ^ St. AnJreics. 5 

is differentiated on tlic dorsum in front of tlie aperture. 
Both dorsal and ventral surfaees are plano-convex, tiius in 
transverse seetion beini;^ more or less elliptical, the dorsal, 
however, l)eiug generally more smoothly rounded, with a 
pale streak in the middle line from the dorsal vessel. The 
ventral surface has a continuous series of scutes from one 
end to the other, and, with the exception of the first, all are 
divided by the median groove, giving a right and a left 
scute to every segment. The number of segments varies 
from 200-.270'or more. 

The first region of the body (the so-called thoracic region) 
is distinguished by the direction of the bristle-tufts, which 
slope upward and backward, and by the presence of ventral 
rows of hooks. The setigerous processes of this regitni vary 
from seven to eleven pairs, one side occasionally having nine or 
ten and the other ten or eleven. The first setigerous process 
arises immediately behind the dorso-latcral lamella, and is 
smaller than those following; moreover, it has no row of 
hooks dorsally. The bristles are arranged in a rather dense 
group and show a longer and a shorter series. The longer 
forms havecylnidrical striated shafts, slighlly narrowed toward 
the origin of the wings, which are narrow, the bristle there- 
after ending in a translucent and somewhat strong though 
flexible tip. No serrations on the edges of the wings have 
been seen in these, though striie go to the edge. Tlie bulk 
of the group of bristles is made up of \\\e>Q with shorter 
shafts and broader wings, the whole tip beiug rather broad 
until near its extremity, where it is somewhat abruptly 
tapered to a fine point. In the cluster of bristles in the tuft 
various stages occur in the developing bristles — some re- 
sembling a long narrow knift-blade, others a deep-bellied 
shorter blade. The succeeding tufts are of similar shape 
(that is, somewhat flattened), but they are longer and stronger, 
and the edges have distinct serrations. The anterior seti- 
gerous processes form a somewhat flattened cone, the base 
ventrally b;ing prolonged into a prominent ridge, bearing 
the hooks which lie between two raised margins, constituting 
a narrow flap posteriorly in each segment. Moreover, a 
distinct papilla occurs on the anterior edge of the tip. 

The setigerous processes of the second region form stifp 
narrow cones which project nearly straight outward, the 
bristles only being visible at the tip. A soft and rather 
swollen process bearing the hooks lies above their dorsal 
edges. The bristles form a kind of pillar, narrow at the 
base and enlarging at the tip to about double the diameter 
at the base of the wings, which give to the diNtai end a 



f5 Prof. M'lutosh's AiUe^ from the 

characteristic lanceolate enlargement, from -svliicli the taper- 
ing: tips slope slightly inward. Tlicse dilfer from the 
anterior groups in being all of one length, and appear to 
be ranged round a central papilla. The tips are com- 
paratively short, with somewhat broad wings, which are 
oijliquely striated and serrated along the wide or lower 
edge. The setigerous processes and bristle-tufts remain of 
the foregoing structure till near the posterior end, where 
longer and finer bristles project from the small processes. 
In these modified processes the bristles are fewer and of two 
kinds — viz., a long slender series without a visible wing, 
which have long, gently tapered, and slightly curved tips; 
and, secondly, a shorter series with rather longer tips than 
those in front and with striated wings. 

The anterior iiooks are typical avicnlarian forms with a 
marked forward curvature of the crown and a single acute 
main fang, the free edge of which is minutely serrated 
tliroughout the greater part of its extent, leaving little 
more than a third smooth, and the tip is often slightly 
turned up. The anterior outline has a wide gulf under the 
fang and a boldly rounded prow, whilst the j)osterior outline 
is convex, and the base is consideiably p'rolonged in this 
direction and abruptly finished. Curved strite occur at the 
throat, longitudinal strise on the body, and horizontal striae 
in the base of the hook. The hooks form a single row. 
Accompanying each hook in this region is a paddle-shaped 
bristle, the wings and tip of which are membranous and 
translucent. The huoks in the middle and posterior regions 
likewise form a single row, and have very much the same 
structure as those above-mentioned, except that the pro- 
longation of the base posteriorly is less, and no paddle- 
shaped bristles occur. The posterior hooks, moreover, are 
considerably less. 

In a small specimen, j*j of an inch long, only three rows 
of ventral hooks were present, so that the number increases 
with age. Six brown pigment-specks occur behind the 
branchicP, The tube of this example is leathery and 
brownish, with minute mud-particles on its surface and 
clear granules here and there. Another young form was in 
a tube projecting from a mass of Alojunidtuin parasiticui/i 
growing on Serlularia ruyosa and Ascidians tossed on shore 
at St. Andrews. 

A young example procured on the West Sands, after an 
October storm, measured after preservation -^q of an inch, 
and it had about 60 segments. The first two bristle-tufts 
are somewhat short, the third to the sixth are long, and 



Gatfy Marine Lahuratory, St. Aii(li>'u:<t. 7 

tliese corresponded to the first region of the body, con- 
sequently only five pairs of dorsal hook-rows arc present. 
Tlie seventh pair of bristle-tufts is slender and small, so that 
the outline is narrowed, the adjoining tufts being longer. 
Toward the tip of the tail elongated, slender, simple bristles 
occur as in the adult. The bristles correspond in arrange- 
ment and structure with those of the adult. The anterior 
hooks ditfer in having a shorter posterior basal process, but 
they are accompanied by the same paddle-shaped bristles. 

The anal segment is bilobed, and has a peculiar series of 
dark pigment-specks. Four pairs of setigcrous processes 
bearing short bristles occur behind the last hooks, which 
are small and only three in nunil)cr. The bristles increase 
in length at the sixth from the tip. The opaque glandular 
tissue splits at the termination of the rows of dorsal hooks 
at the second ring from the latter, since the first has a bar 
obliquely bevelled at the lower edge. The splitting con- 
tinues to the tip of the tail and gives a regular arrangement 
to the parts. 

Both anteriorly and posteriorly the bristles commence 
before the hooks. Four pairs of bristles occur before hooks 
appear, the first hooks being between the fourth and fifth 
bristle-tufts, and their bases are undeveloped. The first 
five pairs of bristles are short, but the sixth are decidedly 
longer. 

The tube may reach a length of 2 feet, and is fixed to a 
stone or other structure. 

No form has attracted greater interest than the second 
species, viz., Putiunilla reaifonnis, Leuckart, the Sabella 
saxicava of De Quatrcfages — which abounds amongst cal- 
careous formations, such as Cellepora, Litliothauinion, the 
Balani of the Gouliot caves of Sark and elsewhere, and is of 
special interest in connection with its power of perforating 
such structures. 

The cephalic plate, when the branchice are shed, presents 
dorsally a bilobed collar or lamella, the deep dorsal farrow 
terminating in the centre. The outer e.(\^Q of eacli fiap is 
continued as a broad rim nearly to the mid-ventral line, 
where a notch separates the two sides, which curve forward. 
The truncated surface has a projecting transverse fold at the 
upper end of the ventral incurvation, and two folds meet 
above it — so as to make a triradiate aperture. 

The branchiae are about 10 or 11 in number on each side, 
and comparatively short, whilst the pinnae are long. Eacii 
filament has tlie transversely barred or camcrated chordoid 



8 Frof. M'lutoslj's Notef from fhe 

axis, and tapers to a sliort, slender, filiform tip, which, how- 
ever, is usually enveloped by the long pinnie or is in screw- 
like coils. The pinnse have the translnccnt axis, as in 
6'. penuillus, with long joints, and are riilily ciliated. la 
life the branchi;B are of a pale green marked with white 
touches, so that they form a whitish ring around the collar 
vitiiin which they are attached. The pinme are variegated 
with pale greenish and white, and show vermiform move- 
ments when cast oft". In some the branchise are of a pale 
buti" hue, with a little yellow at the tips of the filaments. 
]u contraction they are generally of a dull stone-colour. 
l.euckart's examples had whitish branchiie with browuisfi 
touches, and Ue St. Joseph describes l»is examples as 
vinous-brottn. iSars states that his specimens had yellowish- 
white branchiae with four or five orange bands. Just above 
the whitish ring at the base most of the filaments, externally, 
have two boldly marked and elevated brown or reddish- 
brown ocular specks, separated by an interval from each 
other. De St. Joseph states that in his specimens each 
contained about thirty ovoid *" crystallines " in a mass of 
brownish pigment, Moreover, the eyes of those from the 
^Mediterranean are more numerous than those from the 
north, whilst Marion considered that tho>e from deep water 
had fewer eyes than the littoral forms. They are absent in 
a few of the filaments. The longest filaments are dorsal, 
those at the ventral edge being considerably shorter and 
slightly reflexed. 'i'he ocular pigment in some fades in 
spirit. The tentacle is comparatively short, but its mem- 
bianous web on each side a])pears to agree with that in 
>:ubtlla jjcnicdlus. 

Tlie body is comparatively short — about | of an inch in 
length — and has from GO to 100 segments. It is rounded 
doisally, slightly Hatteiied ventrally, and marked by a 
groove which at the tenth segment bends from the side 
inward to the mi^ldle line and divides all the scutes which 
follow into two. The nine or ten scutes in front of these are 
split transversely. The ventral scutes are conspicuous by their 
wiiitisli or pinkish colour, and are even visible through 
certain parts of the tube. Anteriorly the brownish dorsum 
is marked with dark brown pigment at the bases of eleven 
setigerous processes, the succeeding region of the dorsum 
being leddish brown. The bodv is paler in the median line 
dorsally and ventrally. It is slightly tapered jjosterioily, 
and ends in a papillose anus, tiirce papillre being distinct, 
and the colour of the tip is orange ratlier than brown. 

The setigerous procesbcs are ranged along the lateral 



Gattij Marine Lahuratorij^ Si. Andrews. 9 

regions (roni the second segment baekward, a differentiation 
oecurring anteriorly by tlie inflection of the groove which 
often passes behind the tenth bristle-tuft to the mid-ventral 
line, though in others it is further back. Each of the 
setigcrous processes anteriorly has dorsally three longer 
Ijristlcs with straight shafts, tips bent backward, and 
moderate wings. The edges of the wings appear to bo 
minutely serrated. Following these is a double series of 
comparatively stout bristles, with short and broad wings, 
making a spatulate tip with a filament in frhe centre. These 
bristles also have a dorsal curve, the filament trending in 
that direction, so that they would brush an opposing 
strncture with the convex surface. From the nature of the 
parts, the shafts are somewhat abruptly tapered at the tip. 
Some of the bristles have modified tips, so that they resemble 
a sliort and broad knife-blade, as iu certain forms in 
Cfice/opterus, the shaft not being continued along the centre 
as in the ordinary winged types. 

In the posterior segments the bristles alter, being shorter, 
fewer in number, and with modified tips, which have 
moderately wide wings at the base, but they soon diminish, 
and the long central tapering tip projects far beyond them — 
thus performing the functions of the simple bristles of this 
region in other forms. 

'Ihe anterior rows of hooks are below the setigerous 
processes, and consist of a long series of avicular forms, 
with serrated rows sloping to the sharp main fang, a rather 
long, slightly striated neck with straight sides, the anterior 
outline curving forward into the rounded prow and the 
posterior into the well-marked basal process. Accompanying 
each is a broad bristle, the shaft ot which has a curvature 
toward the distal end, and the tip has a region with 
shoit wings so modified as to resemble a hook with a 
long shalt and a main fang. Two forms of accompanying 
bristles thus are present in this species, viz., those with 
broadly spatulate tips and those with a slightly enlarged 
})OSterior curve and a beak-like point anteriorly, nearly at 
right angles to the shaft. In a small example from Perelle 
Bay, the latter was large and with distinct wings. Tlie 
hook has a larger space between the main fang and the 
prow than in Sabella penicillus. 

The hooks behind the foregoing region are above the 
setigerous processes, and they become fewer and fewer, as 
well as smaller and with a longer base, iu their progress 
toward the tail. 

The tube is formed of a touirh hornv secretion of an olive 



10 Prof. M'liitosli's Xutes from the 

hue, and tlic exposed parts are covered with minute sand- 
particles. 

An allied species (AB) occurred under stones between 
tide-marUs both in Guernsey and llenn, with only five pairs 
ot" anterior bi'istles, and shows dilTcrenccs from both 
Putainilla renij'onnis and P. torelli. The cephalic plate lias 
a narrower collar than in P. renifunnis, a feature well 
marked in the small, pointed, ventral lobes. The edge is 
snu)oth at and near the mid-dorsal groove, then at each side 
is a lateral flap which trends to the hunellie on the ventral 
surface. These lamelUe are smaller than in Sabeila pavonina. 
Besides the small lamelhe which [U'oject ventrally, the niaigiu 
is incurved at the middle line. 

The body is comparatively small, about | of an inch 
in length, and the number of segments is between sixty and 
seventy. It is rounded dorsally, with the exception of the 
region of the dorsal groove anteiiorly, slightly Hattened 
vcntrally where a median furrow runs from the middle of 
the sixth scute backward to the tail. The anterior region 
is composed of tive bristled segments and apparently the 
same numl)er of uncinigerous rows. Posteriorly it tapers to 
a somewhat pointed tail. The branchive seem to be com- 
paratively short — like those of Potamilla reniforniis, and the 
pinnee of moderate length or rather short, whilst the terminal 
filament is long, large, and is often in screw-coils, thus 
diH'ering essentially from those of P. reniforniis, P. torelli, 
ami P. ne(jlecta. Moreover, there are no ocelli on the 
filaments, and none on the first segment or on the tail. 

The first region of the body has only five pairs of seti- 
gerous processes. Each bears a tuft of comfjaratively short 
bristles, the tips of which, unfortunately, had for the most 
part disappeared — probably from their brittle nature as well 
well as from rough usage. Those which are perfect have 
shafts which slightly dilate from the base to rather beyond 
the middle, then diminish at the neck and swell out at the 
origin of the wings, tapering thereafter to a somewhat long 
attenuate extremity. At the upper edge of the fascicle are 
the longer and more slender forms, the shafts of the others 
being thicker. No trace of spathulate tips is observable. 
The anterior hooks form a single row, and present a sharp 
main fang, the rest of the anterior face of the crown above 
it (about half the extent) being finely serrated in lateral 
view. As usual in such hooks, when the crown is examined 
from the front, this region is densely spinous. The posterior 
outline is more or less straight below the forward bend at 
the crown, whilst the anterior — also straight immediately 



Gaily Marine halioralory^ St. Andrews. 11 

below the main fang — curves forward over the rounded 
prow. The projection of the base posteriorly is narrow, 
but somewhat shorter than in Potam'Ula reuij'ormis. Each 
is accompanied by a short, broad, cuspidate or penniform 
bristle. The hooks l)e]iind the anterior region (in the 
fragmentary example) do not materially diti'er, though the 
neck is longer, the base somewhat stouter, and their size 
less. 

The small number of the anterior segments, so unusual in 
the group (though this number has been found in P. turelli), 
raises the question as to its relationship to the latter, from 
which it diHers in the terminal processes of the branchiie 
and in the narrower web in the anterior bristles, but further 
investigations may clear up the divergencies. Like other 
Sabellids it is acid to litmus paper. In the example from 
St. Peter Port, Guernsey, the tube is composed of a trans- 
lucent horny secretion, somewhat like that of Poiamil/a 
reniformis. Some examples have nearly ripe ova. 

Potamilla turelli, the third form, is closely allied to the 
foregoing, and could scarcely be distinguished by the bristles 
and hooks. The general aspect of the cephalic plate, when 
the branchiae are removed, agrees Mith that of its allies, and 
in the preserved examples some have a prominent T-shaped 
projection formed by tlie developing bases of the branchiae — 
a condition not observed in other forms. The collar has a 
narrow slit dorsally, then it extends on each side laterally 
and ventrally with an even edge to the ventral lamellie, 
which are reflected in protrusion and somewhat triangular 
in outline, and are separated from each other by a deep 
V-shaped notch. No eyes are visible in the spirit-prcjja- 
rations from Britain or from Canada. 

The branchial filaments are of moderate length and are 
pale in the preparations. The structure of each filament ia 
typical, and it ends in a short thick process distally. The 
jjinnte are of average length, and it is only at the tip of the 
organ that shorter forms occur, the last ten or twelve 
gradually diminishing to end in a short papilla-like rudiment 
at the base of the distal process. The number of the fila- 
ments appears to be from twelve to fourteen in each fan. 

When the oral region is in a state of expansion a fold 
passes on each side from the ventral lamella) nj)ward, and 
Its end fuses with the middle of each branchial fan, and, 
indeed, appears to be the only representative of the tentacle 
of other forms. Malnigren states that it is very short, 
broad, and subcircular. This fold is quite separate from the 



12 Prof. M'lntosli's Stoles from the 

ventral edge of the ba<al tissue of the branchiae. On the 
other hand, a eonsick^raljle portion of ea(;li dorsal edge of 
tlic base of the branchia? is bordered by a free and mobile 
flaji — the ventral od^c adjoining the month. 

The body is of small size in the examples from Plymouth, 
viz., about an inch in length and of tlie thickness of 
Btout thread, whereas in the Canadian forms it is be- 
tween 2 and 3 inches long and as thick as a crow-quill. 
l)e St. Joseph also found large examples at Rocher. It is 
grooved dorsally in the anterior region, rounded po^^teriorly ; 
whereas the ventral surface is more or less flattened, and 
marked by the median groove from the anterior region 
backward. Tiie first region has a variable number of seg- 
ments, viz. five to eight (Langerhans, seven to nine). The 
posterior region has from thirty to fifty. Toward the tail it is 
flattened and tape red, and ends in the an us, which often presents 
a lateral ))rojection on each side. De St. Joseph describes 
the body as ijrownish, with large spots of M'liite. The first 
body-segment has two oval eye-spots {Lanyerhans). Fauvel * 
di'scribes anal eyes, which are absent in the preserved 
examples from Plymouth f. The first bristle-bundle consists 
of simple bristles, with moderately tapered tips and distinct 
lings. The others in this region have two groups — an upper 
with longer shafts, more tapered and slitrhtly curved tips 
Mith narrow wings, and a dense lower group of spatulate 
forms with a process at the tip. The bristles of the middle 
region form the usual bristle-pillar of rather shoit bristles 
with striated shafts, comparatively broad striated wings, and 
very finely tapered tips — tMo series, a longer and a shorter, 
being conspicuous. The shaft has a distinct curvature at 
the junction Mith the tip. The posterior bristles are fewer 
in number, and have wings distinctly striated and very 
attenuate tips. In glancing at small preserved specimens, 
it is found that most have the posterior bristles directed 
forward, and in several the anterior have the same direction. 
In the larger forms the anterior bristles are often directed 
upward, outward, and slightly backward. The anterior 
hooks, which occur on all the anterior segments except the 
first, are circular with a sharp main fang, and above it a series 
of minute teeth on the cro.vn {[jangerhans shows about 
twenty-four), and a moderately long base. StriiB pass from 
the neck to the base, after curving round the prow. These 

* Campag. Sc. p. 31.5. 

t Both are seen in small specimens kindly sent by Major Elwes from 
Babbacombe. 



Gutfy Marine Ldhoralorj/y S'f. Aiidn'io.t. 1.5 

hooks are accoin|)anic(l by the short bristh-s wiib tlie spjitu- 
late tips. The posterior hooks ditler only in tlieir smaller 
size and tiie brevity of the base. lu eoiu|)aring the hirger 
with the smaller forms from Plymoutli, the essential characters 
of tlie i)ristles and iiooks are as well shown by tlie smaller 
as the larger. 

The tube is eoiuposed of a tougli internal lining, coated 
with tine santl-gi'ains, the whole l)eing firm and resistent, 
especially in the Canadian cxami)les. 

A form (BC), procured in numbers at Berehaven in 1886 
by the Royal Irish Academy, apj)ears to be a variety of 
P. tore/li, though presenting certain features of its own. 
When the branehiai are absent the cephalic region presents 
no deep fissure as in ordinai'y Sabellids, but the slight dorsal 
furrow ends in a solid mass which, with an incurvation in 
the middle, passes from side to side and then bounds the 
region laterally to the ventral surface. This rim forms a 
l)rojccting base to the branchiie. The collar commences as 
a narrow process on each side of the dorsal fissure, slopes 
obliquely forward and outward, and inclines laterally and 
ventially into a deep though thin lamella, which attains its 
mtiximnm in the mid-ventral line, where it is separated from 
its fellows by a fissure. The branchiae preserve much of 
their reddish-brown coloration in spirit, and they are of 
considerable length. The {)igment is arranged on the pinnae 
so as to make a series of circular bands, as in S. j^cniciUus 
and other forms, thus conferring great beauty on the ex- 
panded organs. In some cases, when mounted, the reddish- 
l)ro«n pigment is in isolated masses at intervals along the 
filament, and patches occur on the terminal process. There 
are about eleven filaments on each side, sprniging from the 
central region of the cephalic plate — a basal fissure, most 
distinct ventrally, occurring dorsally and ventraliy. They 
are eonneeied only at the base and are free throughout the 
rest of their extent, and are long tapering organs with 
proportionally short pinnae, which, as they reach the tip, 
gradually diminish in length and end in a series of short 
papilhe at the base of the terminal strap-shaped tapering 
process. The chordoid skeleton is continued along the 
centre of the flattened ti|) aiul into each pinna. In young 
forms the jjinnie are short, but the flattened terminal strap 
is well developed. The body is comparatively small, elon- 
gated, and distinctly segmented from one end to the otiier — 
a feature characteristic of the species. Fi!ty-six segments, 
l)ut the tail in the majority of the examples was in jiroccss of 
reproduction, so that the actual number of segnuiits must 



14 Vvoi'. M'lntosli's Xotes/rom the 

exceed tlie figure mentioned. The body is widest in front 
and {gradually tapers behind the middle to the posterior end, 
where the rounch-d anus is terminah The dorsal sui i'ace is 
more or less rounded, the ventral flattened and marked by 
the scutes from end to end. A slight depression occurs in 
the mid-dorsal line auteridrly, and, continuing to the right 
behind the sixth bristle-tuft, it crosses the seventh segment 
()l)liquely to the middle line, whence it passes to the tip of 
the tail — cutting the ventral scutes into two in each seg- 
nicnt. Six bristled segments are present in the anterior 
region and five uncinigerons rows, but occasionally oidy 
five and four occur respectively. Other variations, ap- 
parently arising from lost parts in process of reproduction, 
show the ventral furrow running to the front or a diminished 
number of anterior ventral scutes. Moreover, the two 
anterior scutes may be split by a furrow — quite indepen- 
dently of the main ventral furrow. The first setigerous 
l)rocess is situated behind the collar, and is inconsj)icuous. 
It has a small tuft of simple bristles with acutely tapered 
tips and narrow wings, as iu the dorsal group of the anterior 
region. The bristles of the succeeding segments of the 
anterior region (five in number) have dorsally translucent 
bristles with straight shafts and finely tapered tips with 
narrow wings — the u[)per having longer and more delicate 
tips and the lower narrow spatnlate forms ; the outline of 
the wings is more or less a long ellipse, the tapering 
shaft being continued as a fine process distally. Moreover, 
those with broader tips form a shorter row than those with 
more elongated tips. The outline of the tip of the latter 
bristles thus essentially differs from that in Potamilla reni- 
fonnis and also from those of P. torelli. In the posterior 
region the bristles form a tulip-like fascicle, with a knee or 
curvature on each bristle toward the end of the shaft, the 
convexity with the wings being external : those with the 
longest and most delicate tips are dorsal, those with slightly 
broaderwiiigs are ventral, and the former are most conspicuous 
near the tip of the tail. In the anterior region five uncini- 
gerons rows lie to the ventral edge of the setigerous processes, 
their inner ends impinging on the scutes opposite them. '1 he 
first commences oppcjsite the second brisile-tuft, and all are 
longer than those of the posterior region. The hooks are 
iu a single row, with a main fang and a series of serrations 
above it, a neck of moderate length with striae where it 
enlarges into the boldly convex prow, and an oblique 
tapered base (corresponding to the shaft). Moreover, a 
series of short modified bristles occurs with them, the tips 



Gatty Marine Laliorafori/, Sf. Andrewa. 15 

bcinj; short, t)riit at an aiifjle, and \vifli broad win«;s — tlie 
whole resembling a beak. The cnrved shafts dilate from tlie 
base to the neck, where a slifiht constriction occnrs, then it 
bonds forward and tapers to the short tip. In son'c views 
slight grooves a])pear on tlie enlarged basal part of the tip, 
so that they at first sight rcseni])le the long hooks of 
TenbeUides and otiier forms. 'J'hc posterior hooks are 
smaller, their necks longer, and the bases more oblique. 
Some examples occur in a tube of tough secretion, with fine 
sand-grains attached, after the manner of the firm tubes of 
the Canadian examples of P. torelli. 

Amongst the masses of the foregoiiig Sabe/la, BC, from 
Berehaven, are a few characterized by the striking madder- 
brown pigment-sj)ots on the branchiae, and witliout the 
general arrangement of the pigment chai'acteristic of the 
former Sabellid. Yet in the disposition of the cephalic 
collar the two forms appear to be identical. It is true some 
of them show seven anterior segments with i)ri^tles, l)ut 
others have the normal numtjer — and some, which a))pareiitly 
have lost the cephalic plate and other parts^ have fewer. 
Injury or abnormality also would explain the occurrence of 
the median ventral furrow from the first scute backward. 
The anterior hooks and their accompanying bristles and the 
posterior hooks are identical. 

Potomilla incerta, which Dr. Allen procured by the dredge 
on Yealm ground, Plymouth, seems to be the young of 
Potamilla torelli, and in this Prof. Fauvel agrees. Indeed, 
it is difficult to find satisfactory distinctions between Pota- 
viilla renifurmis and P. torelli, for the absence of ocular 
points on the branchial filaments may not be of capital 
importance. 

A single example of Laonome kroyeri, ^lalmgren, the 
fifth form, was oljtaincd by the dredge on a muddy bottom 
in Inisliiyre Harbour by Mr. Southern, who kindly for- 
warded it for examination. The cephalic collar is somewhat 
low, being deepest ventrally where the edges overlap at the 
fissure. In the median line doisally the gap is hoth wide 
and depressed in front, and the edges oC the collar there are 
slightly reflected. The branehite are short in proportion to 
the length of the body and from fourteen to sixteen iu 
number. The filaments have a chordoid axis with narrow 
transverse septa, and terminate in a slender tapering process. 
The pinnie are short at the base, increase in length till near 
the tip, where they again diminish before reaelung the hasc 
of the terminal filament. No pigment-specks \>ere visible 



ir. Vvof. M'liitdsir.s Xofes from the 

in the spirit-j)ro|):ir;itioii. TLMitadcs coniparatively short, 
bluntly tapered distally. 

The bodii is comparatively long and sliMuler, and the 
example showed little diminution thronji^hout its length, 
liaving apparently been preserved in its tube and tlien slit 
out. The segments are fairly distinct, those of the anterior 
region ranging from 8-12 {Malmgren). The ventral scutes 
of the region are distinct and undivided, and there is a 
dorsal groove, behind which a line marks the mid-dorsal 
region for some distance. The scutes are continued back- 
wai'd on the ventral surface as a somewhat narrow pale band, 
the central groove cutting the portion in each segment into 
two. In the preparation the bristles are inconspicuous. 
The anterior bristles are of two kinds — a scries with slender 
elongate shafts and short tapering tips with narrow wings, 
and a larger number with stouter shafts and paddle-like tips 
with broad wings and a tapering process of the axis. The 
posterior bristles are of one kind only, viz., those with 
narrow but distinct wings and long tapering tijis. The 
anterior hooks are avicular, with a characteristic short and 
stout outline and a high crown, a main fang of moderate 
size, and six or seven distinct spikes in lateral view above it. 
The anterior prow is large and bulging, the gulf between it 
and the great fang is small. The posterior outline is straight, 
and a small remnant of the base posteriorly is present. The 
posterior hooks agree in the general outline, but the process 
of the base is absent posteriorly. It is this hook Avliich 
Malmgren shows in his figure, unless the Arctic species 
differs. The tube is composed of secretion and mud, very 
little of the latter constituent occurring on a third of the 
length at one end. 

Brancliiomma vesiculosum, Montagu, the sixth species, 
comes from various paits of the southern coasts. 

Kolhker, in 1858*, constituted the ^exius Branchiomma 
for those Sabeliids having eyes on their branchite, and he 
gave as a type Amphitrite bumbyx, Dalyell. Sars, a little 
later (1861) t, made the genus Dasychone, characterized by 
the dorsal pinnules on the branchise. Clarapede rightly 
restricts the term Branchiomtna to those havini? subterminal 
eyes, such as B. kiJ/likeri, tiie form whicli Kiilliker probably 
studied. Dorsally, the cephalic plate presents a deep fissure 
between the firm basal pillars of the branchiae. The some- 
what deep collar arises from the outer edge of e-^ch pillar, 

* Zeitsfhr. f. wis?. Zool. Bd. ix. p. o30. 

t Vidensk. Selsk. Furhandl. 18C.1, pp. 28 & 33. 



(laltij Murine Lahoratory^ Si. Andrews. 1 7 

and slopes with an unl)roken edge downward and forward to 
the mid-ventral line, where a fissure separates the two sides, 
each of w hich is |)rodu('ed into a prominent rounded edge 
Mhich slightly overlaps its neighbour. The adjoining first 
seute is indented in the middle line, thus giving a character 
to the region. Whilst, therefore, the collar is largely 
developed veutrally, a considerable part of the dorsum is 
devoid of it. De St. Joseph found two pigment-spots (eyes) 
over the cephalic ganglia. An otocyst occurs on each side 
at the base of the branchiie. The branehite are of moderate 
length (^V length of body), and their filaments are from 
eiichteen to twenty-four in nundjer. Each filament has the 
usual structure, and tapers distally, ending in a subulate 
T>- hi tish terminal process, into which the chordoid axis, which 
is remarkably attenuate towards the tip, does not go. The 
subulate terminal filament, where no eye is present, has 
a translucent thin margin, especially at the commence- 
ment of its inner edge. It is at this region (viz. the 
inner base) that the eye develops as a conspicuous dark 
brownish-violet organ, a stripe of the flattened translucent 
margin connecting its inner base with the line of the 
pinnae ; whereas the distal part of the process is slender. 
The pinnffi are of average length, and provided with a 
chordoid unjointed axis. \\ hen injured, these organs are 
readily reproduced from the filament, to which they give a 
feathery appearance when the animal projects itself from its 
tube. The branchire are gracefully spread like the flower 
of a Convolvulus (Claparede). De St. Jose[)h describes the 
exterior of the branchiae as white, or as brownish violet, or 
alternately of these colours. Sometimes they are entirely 
" couleur de rouillc ou gris de souris." In the examples from 
Plymouth the colour was pale olive throughout, oidy the 
exterior of the filament being marked by an interrupted 
band of white, which broke up distally into is;)lated touches. 
The remarkal)le delicacy of the pinna? is characteristic, each 
])ranchial process thus resembling a featiicr with its delicate 
biirbs. When viewed from without, the branchial fan had a 
slightly barred aspect from the arrangement of the white 
touches. The pinnae are pale olive throughout. The eyes 
vary much in size on the same specimen, and in one case 
only a single large one was presimt, the rest being small in 
varying degrees. All are double, with the terminal process 
jjussing off between them. 

The anterior region consists of nine segments (six to nine, 
De St. Joseph), eight of which bear pale golden bristle-tufts, 
which slope in the preparations upward and backward, 
.•ln;i. ct- Ma<j. X. llist. Scr. 8. Vol. xvii. 2 



18 - I'oL M'Intosli's Xoies from the 

The first tuft springs from a setigcrous process almost im- 
mersed in the tissues of thennitcd first and buccal segments, 
hut the posterior cirrus or process is distinct, though small. 
The bristles are small tajiering forms with very narrow 
Mings (some without evident wings), and in two series, viz., 
a larger series, more deeply tinted yellow by transmitted 
light and minutely dotted, and a more translucent smaller 
series. All have finely tapered and nearly straight tii)s. 
'J'he rest of the setigcrous processes of the region arccharac- 
Tciized bv an increasing ])roniinence, and the posterior 
jiapilla is considerably larger. Each arises from a broad 
i)ase, and is somewhat flattened, since its vertical exceeds its 
transverse diameter, and the distal end has three parts, 
viz., the posterior ])rocess or papilla (not to be confounded 
Avith either a dorsal or a ventral cirrus), which springs from 
the middle posteriorly, and two areas for the bristles. The 
])apilla is short and nearly cylindrical in the prepara- 
tions, and is directed backward. The upper bristles arise 
from a curved area al)ove a papilla, so that the long axis of 
tiie row is antero-posterior and the convexity of the tip 
with the wings is turned outward and their points directed 
backward. They have long shafts and finely-tapered slightly- 
curved tips with narrow wings. The inferior row of bristles, 
again, has its long axis veitical, and they have short^-r and 
stouter striated shafts, stouter tips, and broader wings. 
The tip in all is finely pointed. 

The bofly is somewhat elongate, a large example reaching 
100 to 110 mm., with a breadth of 3-5 mm., flattened, and 
tapered toward the tail, in front of which some examples 
have the widest part of the body. At the tip is the crenate 
anus. The dorsum is rather more distinctly flattened than 
the ventral surface, and has a groove in front leading to the 
branchial fissure ; whilst posteriorly it bends to the right 
between the eighth and ninth bristle-tufts, and slants to the 
posterior edge of the ninth bristled segment. The ventral 
surface has the somewhat j)romineut median region occupied 
bv the scutes, the first of which, on the united buccal and 
first segment, is the largest, and characterized by a dimple 
in front. It is followed l)y eight othei's, each of which may 
jiave an even margin or a median incurvation. The last of 
the anterior scutes has posteriorly a median projection, to 
wjiich the boundary-line from each side slopes. From this 
point the ventral median groove passes backward to the 
tail, cutting the succeeding scutes into two equal halves, 
which occupy a little more than a third the bieadth of t.'ie 
body of the preserved specimens, except toward the tail, 



Gutty Marine Lahoratori/j St. Aiidnws. 19 

wlicrc the scutes are somcwliat l)roa(ler and the incdiati 
jj^roove is wider. The anterior region lias nine segments 
with a wider antero-posrerior diameter than those wliicli 
I'ollow, whilst tliese, again, are wider than the cauihd 
segments. 

The colour of the hody is dull orange or of a salmon hue, 
universally and minutely dotted with white grains. The 
dorsal collar is pale, and is also minutely dotted with white 
grains ventrally; the flaps are also pale with a brownish 
edge — well marked in the anterior dimple of the first shield. 
The ventral sciites are paler, but also minutely dotted with 
Mliitc, and the ventral groove is reddish. The cilia of the 
dorsal end carry loose bodies actively forward. 

The bristles of the second region are arranged like the 
inferior group in front, viz. with the long diameter of the 
row vertical, and they spring froni the tip in a double row — 
that is, on each side of a ridge of tissue. The wings of 
these are intermediate in character, being narrower than the 
lower series and wider than the upper series of the first 
region. Their tipa, however, are long, esi)eeially the upper 
f(jrms, and finely attenuate. The chief changes in the 
l)ristles toward the tip of the tail are the shortening of the 
shafts and the great elongation of the tips, which stretch from 
the side of the flattened body as finely-ta[)ered hairs. A 
distinct curvature occurs at the commeucement of the 
wings. 

Neural canals occur from the second setigerous segment 
backward. The segmental organs are found in the first, 
second, and third setigerous segments, and they open bv a 
common canal. The anterior rows of hooks occupy the 
summit of the rounded ridge, which begins close to the 
setigerous process and passes ventrally neir the scute. Each 
hook is avicular in shape, with a marked forwai'd curvature 
of the posterior outline at tlie crown, a poweiful and sharp 
main fang with a series of very minute serrations above it, 
a neck of moderate length, and a long tapering base. J3oki 
striie pass from the crown to the base, into which they 
curve a little behind the prow. Each hook is accompanied bv 
a short broad bristle, with a spatulate tij) bent at an angle and 
ending in a point, or when seen obliquely the tip is hastate, 
or on edge a hook-like organ. In a specimen from South 
Devon in the ]3ritish Museum, both these and the hooks 
had their '"heads'" tinted brown. The posterior ho(;I;s are 
smaller, with a shorter neck and shorter base, and more 
distinct serrations above the main fang. The tube is 
leathery, coated externally with coarse sand niiii"l.(l with 



20 Tiof M'liitosh's Notes from the 

fragments of shells, and the clastic anterior end closes when 
the l)ranchiie are withdrawn. 

Tlie absence of Spirograph} s spaUanzanii, Viviani, from 
the IJritish area, is noteworthy. It may yet be found in the 
Channel Islands or on tlie southern shores of England. 
It occurs on the oi^posite shores of France. 

In Bispira volutocornis, Montagu, the seventh species, the 
general colour is of a yellowish brown, paler in front dorsally 
and on the ventral surface. The branehiie are pale butf 
\\ith a white (iuterrupted) border to the filaments, the tips 
being more or less white. Most of the filaments have a pair 
of eye-specks, but there is no regularity in their arrange- 
ment in the mass, and some have two pairs or an extra 
spot. Some of these specks are at the base of the white 
tip, others midway or above the basal insertion. Though 
not so brilliantly tinted as some species, tlie delicate shades 
of fawn and the pure white margins and tips, in addition to 
tile eye-specks, give the branchial fans great elegance. 
The tips of many of the filaments appear to have been 
injured, and are iu process of reproduction. In the living 
form the d(^rsal groove presents a white bar at the edge of 
tne collar, \\ hilst a brown fillet occurs at each side and passes 
under the large lateral brown fiaps bordered with white, 
and the dorsal edges of which are continuous with a slight 
ridge on each side of the anterior region. Ventrally the 
deep purplish-brown collar with its border of pure white is 
stretched contiuuonsly across till it passes in front of the 
lateral Hap. Dorsally and ventrally the anterior region is 
somewhat paler than the rest, the lateral region, however, 
being slightly darker — as, indeed, it is all the way backward 
till near the tip of the tail. Ventrally the scutes are buff 
(pale brownish) and maiked by the coprogogne, which turns 
to the right at the posterior border of the anterior region 
and pa>ses dor?ally. In an example the segment in front 
ventrally was entire, but the one anterior to it was split as if 
it had a cojirogogne of its own. Young forms are pale 
greenish, the brauehiie being |)ale, and only a little border of 
white and a few touches of brown are visible ventrally at 
the collar, which has a deep median fissure. Dorsally none 
of these hues are present, the rudimentary flaps being pale. 
The grc at development and pigmentatiou of these fiaps is 
an adult feature. 

When the branchia? are removed from the cephalic plate, 
the dorsal groove abuts on two semieiicles of firm tissue, 
which pass downward to the sides of the mouth. From the 



Oatty Marine Luhoratorij ^ St. Andrews. 21 

groove a firm process of siinihir tissue passes straight down- 
ward and bifurcates after a short course, its suiuniit giving 
origin to two short curved Haps like a bifid epistome over- 
hanging the nH)Uth, which appears as a triradiatc fissure 
with two pouting membranous lobes infcriurly. By the 
sides of tlie dorsal groove are two thick firm ridges — 
apparently fused with the basal semicircles supporting the 
branclii;e. From the outer base of each of these the collar 
arises by a thick eiieular flap, from which the large lateral 
division passes forward and downward to end in a smaller 
thick attachment at the side of the anterior process of the 
ornamental (scano|)cd) first scute. This lateral fhip is 
slightly tinted in the pn-paration, but in the living form is 
of the same deep violet-brown bordered with white. Over- 
lapping the ventral edge of this lamella is the ventral plate, 
which curves downward and extends on each side of the 
middle line into a triangular refieeted flap — the anterior 
surface of the whole being of a rich deep brownish purple, 
bordered with white. If the base of the s(^parated branchial 
system be examined, a facet marks the dorsal end of each of 
the semicircles of firm tissue of attachment, and the facet 
fits on the firm pillars on each side of the dorsal furrow. 
The firm basal mass of each branchial fan is bridged on the 
ventral side of the facets l)y a narrow but firm band. From 
the ventral aspect the basal mass on each side curves forward 
and inward to end in a thick inrolled edge in the centre of the 
spire. In the middle line and attached by its basal webs 
to the bridge of connecting-tissue, on the one hand, and the 
dorsal edge of the base of the fan, on the other, is the ten- 
tacle on each side. These webs are of importance in the 
directing-cnrrents, and the ventral is incurved. The ten- 
tacle is short, broad at tlie base, and tapered. The exterior 
of its base is tinted brown, and a ridge formed apparently by 
the prolongation backward of the thickened margin of the 
Hap guarding the dorsal edge of the channel from the centre 
of the spire keeps the base of the tentacle stiff. From the 
firm spiral base the branchial filaments pass forward to the 
number of forty-five to eighty on each side, the number 
apparently increasing with age. They are united at the 
base by a short web, and are comparatively long. Each 
filament has the camcrated axis which extends to the base of 
the terminal process, but does not seem to enter it, for only 
an opa(pie granular central region with a short web at each 
side is present. On the outer edge of many a pair of 
well-marked pigmcnt-spccks, and in some two or thiee, but 
their position is irregular ; where three occur, the lirst is a 



22 Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from (Jic 

short distance above the base and the others at irregular 
distances. A considerable portion of the tip is always 
devoid of theiu. Tlu'v are dense masses of hhickish pigment 
apparently enclosed in some cases in a capsule. The pinnae 
(barbules, De St. Joseph) are short, and form a dense 
double row along the inner edge of the filament, becoming 
shorter as they a]>proach the tip, Avhcre they end abruptly. 
Their cok)ur is brownish vioh t in young forms, uith twenty 
branehia* in each fan, and a pair of black ovoid eyes occurs 
on the dorsal filaments about a tliird from the end, whereas 
tlie specks are situated near the middle of the ventral 
filaments. 

The bodi/ is of moderate length for a SabeUa, varying 
from 2 to 6 inches (13 cm. long by 1 cm. broad, De St. 
Joseph), and the segments vary from eighty to ninety 
or more. It is rounded dorsally and flattened ventrally, 
the mid-ventral line being marked by the groove from the 
posterior edge of the anterior region to the tail. The body 
tapers from the posterior third (in spirit) to the tip of the 
tail, at which the anus is, whilst beneath the tip are two 
somewhat ovoid papillae with pigment-dots. The anterior 
region has nine bristled segments, but the number, as 
De St. Joseph shows *, varies much (e. y., from five to 
eleven), and the numbers on the respective sides may differ. 
The setigerous processes are large, and have the form of short 
blunt cones. In this region the bristles are directed upward 
and backward as consj)icaous tufts, whilst the rows of hooks 
stretch on rounded elevations between them and the ventral 
scutes. The first segment is fused with the buccal, and bears 
the fii'st bristle-tuft. The segments are deeply cut ventrally 
in this as in the succeeding region. The first ventral scute 
lias two lunate depressions, upon which the ventral lappets 
of the collar ap})arcntly impinge, the glandular tissue having 
been absorhed or arrested in develoi)nient on these areas. 
The next ten scutes in the exan)ple from Plymouth are 
undivided by the median line, thouj^h three show a Avhite 
stieak in the centre — two of these belonging to the posterior 
region. Tlie scutes are continued to the posterior end as 
elongated plates on each side of the median groove. The 
bristles of the anterior region are characterized by their 
golden hue and their distinct separation into two groups — a 
longer dorsal row, the long axis of which is nearly liorizontal 
or slightly oblique, and a mass of shorter bristles beneath 
them. The u])per bristles have very long, straight, striated 

* Aun. Sc. Nat. S*' ser. xvii. y. -JhS. 



Gatty Marine Laboratory ^ St. Andrews. 23 

shafts, wliich taper a little as they approach the tip, which 
is fiiit'iy tapered, distinctly curved, serrated, and furnished 
with narrow wings — these, indeed, in some being indistinct. 
These bristles, moreover, sliow a gradation posteriorly, where 
shorter forms with nearly straight ti|)s and somewhat wider 
wings occur. The second series forms a dense brush con- 
siderably shorter than the foregoing, and, as in other forms, 
the two groups are moved by separate muscles, so that 
their special functions may be performed. The shafts of 
the longer bristles of this group are similar to those of the 
tirst series, but shorter and slightly stouter, and the shorter 
tapered tips have a trace of a curve, and have wider wings, 
but soou a tendency to form a tip like a knife-blade, in 
which the wings are fused, is apparent, and by-and-by all 
the shorter bristles have the translucent flattened tip. 
This blade varies in length and breadth, as well as in 
curvature, but the majority of the bristles in these tufts are 
of this formation. The peculiar flattening of the tips, 
which are thinnest distally, gives great flexibility to the 
organs, so that their function of smoothing and brushing is 
facilitated. All have strong, striated, golden shafts, which 
gradually dilate from their translucent bases to the distal 
third, when gentle narrowing again occurs to the origin of 
the flattened tip. When softened and compressed in gly- 
cerine, the various stages in the transformation of a winged 
form, with an elongated tapering tip and with bold striie on 
the wings, to a form iu which the tip is broad, flattened, 
and translucent with but a trace of minute striation, can be 
followed. With the change of feet in the second division of 
the body, a reversion to the normal ty|)e of bristle takes 
place, the fascicles consisting of smaller shorter bristles of 
nearly equal size, with finely-striated straight shafts, similar 
in formation to the preceding, but which have narrow wings 
gradually disa^jpearing on the delicately-tapered tips, the 
minute serrations on the edges being continued far up- 
ward. These bristles are grouped in a tulip-like tuft, and 
each resembles the blade of a pointed scalpel, only a trace 
of a wing appearing toward the convex edge, which is 
serrated, the lines sloping outward and upward. De St. 
Joseph counted sixty long bristles and two hundred shorter 
in the sixth segment of an example 13 cm. long. In the 
posterior region the bristles form a cylindrical pencil, a 
slight swelling occurring distally where the wings project. 
Their tips are more finely tapered than in the first region, 
and there is a slight curvature at the connnenccment of 
the wings. The pencil springs from a distinct setigerous 



24 Prof. M'lntosh's Xufc-ii from Hip 

papilla. The bristles of the fiatteiud eaudal iep;ion, agjain, 
while retaining the form of a pencil, have the tips of the 
majority gjreatly elongated, so that this region of the body 
is specially liirsutc. No wings are visible in these much 
elongated forms, but in the shorter forms these are well 
marked and have serrated edges. The anterior hooks, 
which commence on the second bristled segment, are situ- 
ated on long low flaps, eight in number, which stretch from 
the setigerous process almost to the ventral scute iu each 
segment. They are in a single row, and are characterized 
bv their somewhat long necks, from Mhich the main fang 
arises at less than a right angle, and has eight or nine small 
teeth above it. The prow is rounded and prominent, but 
the base is short, for it abruptly tapers to a blunt point 
posteriorly. A series of bold strife occupy the central 
region from the crown to the base, into which they curve. 
De St. Joseph found no less than one hundred and eight to 
one hundred and forty hooks in a single row in the anterior 
region. Each hook is accompanied by a short bristle with a 
thick shaft, a slight narrowing of the neck, then an enlarge- 
ment of the base of the flattened tapered tip, which is bent 
backward at an angle, and according to position is either 
symmetrical or asyjumetrical. The posterior hooks do not 
differ except in the length of neck and smaller size, and in 
the presence of short striae on the neck at the base of the 
great fang. These may indicate a stage in the development 
of hook-like points on the region. l)e St. Joseph states that 
these have smaller and shorter bases, and he gives the 
nunil)cr8 in several examples. 

About two-thirds of the large tube is composed of a fairly 
firm, yet elastic secretion with little mud, and occasionally 
a shell is attached. The basal region, which appears to be 
fixed, is coated with greyish mud. 

A young example occurred in the fissure of the rock a 
few inches from the adult. When alive, it appeared to he 
about half an inch in length. The anterior region has seven 
setigerous and six uncinigei'ous processes^ whilst the pos- 
terior consisted of about thirty-nine segments, the tip of 
tiie tail apparently being incomplete. Nine scutes are in 
front of th(;se split hy the mid-ventral line, instead of eleven 
in the adult, showing that, whilst the two behind the an- 
terior region are constant, the rest increase with age. The 
ce[)halie lamellae and folds are similar. The branchial fila- 
ments are respectively eleven and twelve, and they have the 
beautiful white tints of the adult, and the same basal web. 
The " ocular " pigment-spots in the preparation, however. 



Gaily Marine Laboralor>/j Si. Amlrewa. 2.') 

are few <uul minute, since in all probal)ility they have been 
bloaclu'd l)y the spirit. The structure ot" the anterior and 
jjostcrior liristlt-s and liooks at this stage correspond with 
that of the adult. 

In another young example f(nuid under a stone at St. Peter 
Port, Guenijicy, and which was ahout three-quarters of an 
inch in length, the rellccted lamclke of the collar were of a 
rich reddish-hrown colour. The anterior region consists of 
ten bristled segments and nine long scutes, and the region 
which follows appears to have more than thirty segments. 
The body is comparatively short, grooved on the dorsum for 
a short distance behind ihehssureof the collar, and ronndcfl 
behind the anterior groove. The ventral surface is slightly 
flattened and markeil by the median furrow from the tenth 
scute backward. 

Amphicora fabricla, O. F. Miillcr, the eighth form, is 
abundant near low-water mark and amongst roots of sea- 
weeds. The cephalic region has a projecting, broadly conical, 
ventral median process, and dorsally the margin presents a 
median notch behind a small conical process connected with 
the mouth. There is thus an indication of a collar, and it 
and the next segment are narrower than those which succeed. 
Two eyes are situated a little behind the anterior border, 
and beneath are two pale red masses. In front of these, at 
the base of the tentacles, are two deep red spots — apparently 
in connection with the blood-vessels. The brauchiae are 
three in number on each side — that is, the dense series of 
pinnse arise from three main stems on each side, and all are 
quite pale. The pinnic are longest at the biise of the fila- 
ments and shorter toward the tip, so that the general effect 
of the arrangement when the fan is closed is to have a fairly 
even series at the tip. They are ciliated internally. Intern- 
ally at their base are two short and nearly cylindricnl 
tentacles, ciliated like the branchiae. A single vessel occurs 
in each pinna in the line of the cilia, and the surface has 
numerous palpoeils. Moreover, at the base of the branchiae, 
are two vascular enlargements, which have been termed 
" hearts." 

The body is rather more than an eighth of an inch 
(1-2 mm., De St. Joseph) in length, cylindrical throughout 
the greater part of its extent, then ta[)cred toward the tail. 
The segments are thirteen in all, seven of which pertain 
to the anterior and six to the posterior legion. It is 
more or less rounded in the preparation, but in life it is 
often flattened. The first or buccal jscjimcnt has two black 



26 Trof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

eyes [De St. Joseph). The general eolour is bi'ownisli or 
straw-eolour. I\)stcriorly it terminates in a jn'^idiuin, 
"which has two eye-sperks. The alimentary canal is straw- 
yellow, is wide anteriorly, bnlges licreand there in its eonrse, 
and then narrows posteriorly. On each side of it is a red 
l)K)od-vessel. The hody-eavity is filled with a vast nninl)er 
of granular cells about f,,\,^ of an inch in diameter. In 
front of the eyes at the base of the branchial lobes is a 
blood-sinus (branchial heart of Ehrenbcrg and Clapar^de), 
and Langerhans counted 25 pulsations per minute. The 
blood is stated to be red by Meczynikow and Claparede, 
Avhereas De St. Joseph says it is green. 

The first segment is devoid of bristles, but the second has 
a tuft on each side about the middle of the segment. The 
bristles are few, simple, translucent forms with straight 
shafts and finely tapei'ed tij)s with narrow wings, and in some 
view^s the tip is bent at a slight angle to the shaft. Eleven 
segments are provided with them, the first and last having 
none. As usual in the family, the posterior bristles have 
the largest and most finely tapered tips. The minute 
anterior hooks are a])out six in number in each segment, 
have a comparatively large head, a constriction at the neck, 
then a well-marked shoulder, after which the long curved 
shaft tapers posteriorly. The main fang is large, and the 
crown behind it is flat with about four teeth. The organ is 
a miniature representative of that of Chone. 

The last three bristled segments have, instead of the long 
liooks of those in front, peculiar forms, the })Osterior outline 
being incurved and the anterior slightly convex, whilst the 
crown is long and minutely toothed, no differentiation 
occurring between the lowest and the adjoining teeth. 
The base enlarges inferiorly, and is occasionally split, 
apparently from the pressure used in preparing. 

Oria armandi\% the ninth species, generally distributed in 
the south. Claparede (1864.) describes a ventral cephalic 
collar to this species, apparently as distinguished from 
Amphicora fabricia, but so far as observed in the spirit- 
preparations there is not much difference in this respect — 
both presenting a conical ventral prolongation and a narrow 
rim to the dorsal fissure. C!a[)arede states that below the 
collar is a row of vibratilc cilia. Immediately in front of 
the termination of the collar on the latero-dorsal region 
is an eye-speck on each side. The second segment 
bears an "auditory'' organ (statocyst) on each side, viz. a 
capsule with a statolith. The brauchiic are in two groups 



Gallu Marine Lahoralory, St. Andrew'*. 27 

of five (Clapari'de) and similar in general appearance. 
They are ciliated internally and have palpocils externally. 
Tlic first ventral branchia is reduced to a simple filament 
without pinnie. A single vessel occurs in each filament, 
and it ends blindly where the cilia cease. 

The bodi/ of the examples from Sark is not larger than 
tliat of Amphicora fabricia from St. Andrews — the advantage 
in size, indeed, being with the northern form, which is also 
more translucent. The eyes had disap|)eared in the pre- 
l)arutions (after preservation for 42 yearsj, and yet, as 
Claparede shows, those of A. fabricia are permanent iu 
sjjirit. The number of segments is at once diagnostic, for 
Oria an/iandi has fourteen bristled segments besides the 
first and last. Claparede, however, gives nineteen or twenty 
segments, though he found a ripe female with fewer thau 
twelve segments. The first segment is achetous. At the 
tenth segaient the bristles change to the ventral border and 
the shape differs. 

The digestive system has a cylindrical colourless oesophagus, 
and from the third segment the gastro-intcstiual canal 
proceeds backward as a brownish wide tube. A blood-vessil 
runs on each si<le of the canal with a transverse branch iu 
each segment — indeed, the gut is surrounded by a vascular 
rete {Claparede). In the seventh segment a pair of folded 
tubular organs (segmental ?) occur. 

Fourteen pairs of bristle-bundles characterize those from 
Sark. The anterior bristles have stouter shafts than those 
of Amphicora fabricia, and the tapering tip is shorter and 
has wider wings. Eight pairs belong to the anterior and 
six to the posterior region, the latter being distinguished by 
their slenderness and the tenuity of their hair-like tip, as 
well as by the absence of wings. Moreover, they are 
generally directed forward with a slight curvature, whilst 
the anterior bristles are directed backward. The anterior 
hooks have a similar shape to those of Amphicora fabricia — 
that is, have a curved shaft which tapers interiorly, a 
shoulder above which is a somewhat narrower neck 
surmounted by a strong sharp main fang, which comes ott" at 
less thau a right angle to the throat and with two or three 
strong teeth above it, the crown being, on the whole, more 
elevated than in A. fabricia. The neck of the hook is also 
sbghtly bent backward. The posterior hooks, whicli, as in 
Amphicora fabricia, occur in the last three bristled segments, 
diller, as Claparede observed, from those of the species jtist 
mentioned in their shorter form, for the basal region is 
truncated and the posterior outline short and concave, the 



•28 Prof. M'lntosh's Notes fvjm the 

conspicuous part of the hook being tlie long anterior face 
and crown, occupied by a small sharp main fang and 
numerous minute teeth above it. The anterior outline 
below the main fang bounds a small bay, the prow bending 
up to circnnisoribe it. The inferior outline is convex. 

The otocysts in this species belong to the second group of 
Fauvel *, viz. to the closed series in wliich the otoliths are 
formed by concentric layers of secretion in the organ. 

Amphiglena meiUferranea, the tenth species, is a southern 
type from Plymouth and Torquay. The autei-ior region bears 
ten branchiffi each, pinnate, with a double row of burbules, 
the whole forming, in the preserved examples, a tuft about 
a third the length of the body. Each filament, according 
to De St. Joseph, consists of a double row of "cellules 
cartilagineuses," whereas the barbules have only a single 
row. The number of ciliated barbules appears to be about 
thirty, and they are shorter at the base and the tip than in the 
middle. The tip of the filament ends in a long and slightly 
tapered process with a narrow web at the base, and it has 
])alpocils. Each branchial filament has a single vessel 
( Claparede). 

Hesides the two ciliated palps, De St. Joseph, after 
Claparede, shows a coiled process on each side, filled with 
brown pigment-granules, and which, after jNleyer, he con- 
siders to be a fold of the upper lip, forming a superior 
lateral chamber on each side. 

The body is about 8 mm. in length (but some may reach 
18 mm., Claparede), usually little tapered anteriorly, but 
distinctly so posteriorly, and ends in a bluntly conical or 
rounded pygidium, which bears four to six pairs of eyes. The 
segments vary from 29-33. A pair of sphei'ical statocysts, 
as mentioned by Claparede, exist in the second segment. 
They are ciliated internally and have statoliths. Claparede 
describes a dilatation of the oesophagus in the fourth segment. 
The circulatory system, according to the same author, 
consists of a contractile ventral vessel and two lateral trunks 
applied to the alimentary canal, but he could not detect the 
coecal branches ordinarily seen in Sabellids. 

The first achetous segment bears four eyes in two pairs ; 
the second segment has two statocysts having a number 
of statoliths, besides two or three minute winged bristles 
dorsally ; and the next seven segments have dorsal tufts of 
bristles, the upper having narrower wings, the lower 

* Comp. Rend. Acad. Sc. Paris, Dec. 29, 1902. 



Gatlu Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 29 

rescniljliiifi; sjiatula from tlic breadth of tlic wings, grada- 
tions occniriiig between the tlie two — showing a long hair- 
like eontiniiation of the shaft as well as the broad wings. 
The dorsal forms have a long shaft slightly curved backward 
toward the tip, which is finely tapered and furnished with 
wings of moderate breadth, which insensibly disappear below 
the hair-like tip. The inferior bristles of the same group — 
that is, those next the inferior hook-rows — have wings so 
sliort and broad as to make the tip sj)atulate and often 
■with a slender hair- like continuation in the middle, lioth 
types of bristles are frequent in the Sabellids. Similar 
bristles occur in the anterior "aljdomiual^^ region, but the 
last six at least are very long, attenuate, and project 
prominently outward, whilst scarcely a trace of a wing is 
Aisiijle, even in the nl0^t anterior long tuft. 

A series of minute bristles with the si)atu]ate tip bent at 
an angle accompany the anterior hooks, which commence 
on the second bristled segment. These occasionally project 
lieyond the line of the great fangs of the hooks in situ. 
'J'he hooks, of which there are about eleven in each row, 
tlicmselves have a remarkably long main fang with three or 
four spines in lateral view above it, making a high crown, 
the posterior outline is much curved and runs to the basal 
process, whilst the gulf between the gi'eat fang and the prow 
IS rather narrow. The posterior process is comparatively 
long. In the posterior hooks the spikes above the great 
fang are more numerous, as well as more evident. The great 
fang itself is powerful and slightly curved. The gulf 
anteriorly is as mcII marked as in the thoracic hooks, but 
the prow is proportionately broader and more blunt, and the 
posterior process considerably smaller and shorter. The 
number of the hooks anteriorly is similar to that found 
in the "thoracic" region, but posteriorly they diminish, so 
that in the antepenultinmte there may be only one. 

The change in the setigerous and uncinigerous processes 
occurs at the tenth segment, the posterior region having the 
hooks dorsal and the bristles ventral. 

The eleventh species, Dasychone argust, Sars, a form not 
to be distinguished from b'ubc//a lucallaua, D. Chiaje, is 
generallydistnbuted throughout Britain. When the branchiae 
have been shed by the annelid, the cephalic plate has the 
edge of the collar projecting beyond its surface, which shows 
at the dorsal inflection two small processes or folds, from 
which a pear-shaped area passes ventrally to end in the oral 
ridge. The entire surface is thus symmetrically mapped 



30 Prof. M'lnlosirs Xotes from the 

out, whilst the margin is formed Ijy the collar, wliicli presents 
a lateral notch, in the form either of a slit or a shallow 
excavation, which divides the reflected and somewhat 
trianjiular ventral lol)es from the rest of the rim, and they 
are separated from each other by a wider gap in the mid- 
ventral line. In large cxam|)les a dark speck occurs on each 
side of the surface external to tlie pear-shaped enlargement, 
and a dark speck on each side of the dorsal collar. A patch 
of dark brown pigment also is present in some on the ed^e 
of each reflected lobe. When the annelid withdraws itself 
into its tube the dorsal lamellae are folded inward and slightly 
overlap, and the inner process is pressed flat. 

The branchiie are from 12-25 on each side and arise from 
a firm tissue which is continuous in each semicircle, and 
apparently formed by the fusion of the bases of the branehife, 
the individual elements being marked by a reddish-brown 
pigment-speck — linear in outline and interfilamentous in 
j)ositioQ. From each semicircle the finely coloured organs 
extend freely distally. The chordoid axis in each is more 
finely divided than in Chone infundibuliformis. The pinnae, 
which are in a double row, become shorter at the tip 
and somewhat suddenly cease at the base of the short 
terminal process. Along the outer edge of each filament a 
series of clavate processes (about 18) are attached in pairs, 
and a pigment-spot occurs on each side just beyond the 
attachment of the processes, which in life are often curved 
downward. Sars calculated that there were from 1200 to 
14-00 eyes in this species, for each eye-speck is compound. 
As a transparent object the branchial filament shows the 
chordoid axis with its coating of hypoderm and cuticle, and 
the pinnae with jointed chordoid axes (De St. Joseph calls 
them cartilaginous). In some from Guernsey the branchiae 
were of a pale greenish hue, whilst the pinnae were pale or 
viiitish and the tentacles greenish, Zetlandic examples, 
again, had the branchiae tinted dull orange with a tinge of 
green, whilst on each filament the pinme and the dorsal pro- 
cesses were marked with white grains. Others from St. Peter 
Port, Guernsey, had dull purplish-red branchiae spotted with 
Mhite. Four of the dorsal cren;itcd ])rocesses also were 
white. In those from St, Andrews the branchiae are often 
brownish purple, and the two tentacular groups are streaked 
longitudinally with white and jjurplish bi'own. The beautiful 
shades of white and purplish brown and the elegant form of 
these complicated organs almost baffle description. The 
general effect of the branchial coloration is striking, for 
three reddish-brown belts cross the branchiie, the most 



G(dhj Marine Lahoratorij, St. Andrews. 'M 

intense being inferior and ^vliieli is toned down to the wliitc 
collar. Two white belts separate the three brown banrls and 
varions white touches enliven the beautiful fan. Dal\ ell's 
specimens were variegated with different shades of brown and 
yellow, and he mentions one with snow-white plumes located 
inside an old oyster-shell. 

The bod;/ is moderately elongated, but in contraction almost 
elliptical, and attains a length of | to .2 inches, and has fifty- 
eight well-marked segments, of which 5-7 are anterior. It 
is rounded on the dorsal surface and devoid of any anterior 
groove, slightly flattened ventrally, and with a median groove 
from the posterior border of the ninth bristled segment to 
the tail, Avhere the terminal anus has two slight Literal 
])apill<e. The ventral surface from the collur backward has 
in each segment a glandular scute. These occupy the 
middle of the anterior region. The long rows of hooks 
occur at the sides, and they continue of similar breadth to 
the posterior end. After the ninth they arc split in the 
mid-ventral line of the groove, and in some a faint line runs 
from the collar along the middle of the anterior segments. 
'I'iie body is of a madder-brown or dull red colour in some, 
with white specks both dorsally and ventrally (orpiment- 
orange, Dahjell). In others it is dull oiange w'ith oulv a 
few whitish grains on the collar, or of a light orange hue — 
rendered dark here and there by the ir.testine, whilst the 
lobes of the collar are speckled with minute dots of white, 
and two white papillre occur at the anus, or a white patch in 
front of it. Young examples between tide-marks in Guernsey 
and Herm are yellowish green, with the dark specks at each 
foot. A bold dark brown speck occurs at the ventral cd<'-e 
of each setigcrous process in the anterior region, the 
nncinigerous ridge commencing behind it. At the ninth 
bristled segment a smaller speck is situated rather behind 
the setigcrous process dorsally, and at the commencement 
of the nncinigerous row, and so to the posterior end of the 
annelid. In one from ]Malahide the collar had many minute 
brown specks. The alimentary canal connnences at the 
niouth as a wide, though translucent, membranous tube 
marked by transverse striie. About the middle of the body 
it becomes narrower and thicker with powerful and rather 
course transverse fibres and some delicate longitudinal 
muscles. The dissepiments support the canal in every seg- 
ment, and thus it assumes a moniliform aspect, or occasionally 
resembles a coiled spring. 

The first setigcrous processes are nearer each other than 
the succeeding, since the line of the biistlcs anteriorly 



32 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

trends dorsally. The cervical process is suiallcr tlian tlie 
second, and bears a series of bristles with more sienditr 
winged tips than the snccecding. A typical tuft in the 
anterior region presents dorsal bristles with more elongated 
striated shafts and short, tapering, winged tips. The shaft 
slightly ta[)ers toward the wings ajid again toward the root. 
Those at the edge of the series have somewhat broader wings, 
which are striated and serrated on the edges. A shorter 
series of bristles occurs at the base, the tips just projecting 
beyond the skin and having the same gradation as observed 
in the longer forms. The posterior bristles form a small 
tuft and are characterized by the great elongation of the tip, 
especially of the more slender forms, the wings in the pre- 
paration being scarcely visible. One or two bristles at the 
ventral edge have the wings considerably widened at the base, 
but the tips are attenuate. On examining the anterior tufts 
of bristles with a lens, the sharpest curve formed by the 
setigerous process is posterior and the concavities are dorsal. 
They are considerably stronger than the succeeding tufts. 
The ninth is less powerful and the dorsal bristles are 
proportionally longer. In transverse section they agree 
generally with the condition observed in Chone vifundibuli- 
forinis. 

The first bristle-tuft has no hooks on its ventral border, 
but the next seven have long ventral rows slightly diminishing 
in length from before backward, and the hooks occur in a 
single row. The ninth, which begins the posterior series, is 
dorsal, and is one-third less in brcadtli than the eighth. 
Throughout the entire series of rows the hooks maintain 
the same microscopic characters. The anterior hooks are 
avicular, have the posterior outline convex and the anterior 
concave, the great fang leaving the throat at a little less than 
a right angle, and a series of small teeth occur on the crown 
above it. The anterior outline, whilst concave at the neck, 
becomes boldly convex at the prow, which is smoothly 
rounded anteriorly and inferiorly — ending in a strap-like 
l)asal process which is usually bent a little downward 
i)osteriorly. The hooks diminish in size po:iteriorly, and the 
basal process is shorter. 

In connection with this s|)ecies, it is curious that Sir J. G. 
T)alyell(lS5o),in watching ihe development and reproduction 
of Tost parts, made the following remarkable statement: — 
" Here we seem to reach a postulate, demanding the in- 
definite — the universal — diffusion of germs ready for develop- 
ment wherever the obstacles to it cease, or of some creature- 
power efiectiug a secretion of such matter as may produce 



Gutty Marine Laboratori/, St. Aadrtws. o.\ 

uew organs in forms or substance." Something like Pan- 
genesis was tlius thought OL before Darwin. 

Euchoiie rubrocinctu, Sars, the twelfth form, comes fruni 
St. Magnus Bay, Shetland, in 100 fathoms, where it was 
dredged by Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys. The collar dorsally has a 
curvature as it approaches the median fissure, whilst ventrally 
only a spout-like median fold occurs at the rim. The 
branehiie are 15-16 on each side (twelve, Sars), connected 
by a web for half their length. The filaments have pinuie 
which reach the base of the slender filiform tip, which is 
often so closely coiled as at first sight to represent a knob. 
A narrow hypodermic wing is attached to the axis along a 
considerable area of the pinnate region and to the base of 
the terminal process. "Five pairs of branched tentacles" 
(tentacular cirri) " and several unbranehed, of which one long 
ventral pair is attached to the connecting membrane " of 
the branchise, "whilst the others are free" (Southern). 
These organs are iu close proximity to the mouth, have an 
afl'erent and efferent blood-vessel, and are probably of 
importance in alimentation. The curve of the vessel is just 
within the hypodermic tip, which is slightly bulbous. The 
body is about three-quarters of an inch in spirit, of thirty- 
two or more segments, of which nine to eleven are included 
in the anal funnel, which has a furrowed process in front 
and a crenulated margin. It is somewhat rounded, though 
the ventral surface is more or less flattened, a little tapered 
in front, and more distinctly diminished in the caudal region. 
The segments are two-ringed, and a dorsal furrow runs from 
end to end, for it does not cease when the ordinary groove 
bends to the right and passes to the ventral surface between 
the eighth and ninth segments, and is continued to the 
anal funnel. The anterior scutes are divided by the trans- 
verse furrow of the segment ; the posterior scutes are cut 
into four by the deep and broad ventral furrow. 

The anterior bristles are borne on a setigerous process, 
are pale, and brittle. The first tuft, which arises a little 
more dorsal than the others and at the base of the collar, 
consists of a longer and shorter series of finely-tapered 
bristles with very narrow wings, those on the shorter series 
being almost invisible. The average anterior tuft has three 
sets of bristles, the larger iiaviug straight shafts, gently 
tapered and slightly curved tips; the next series has shorter 
tips with a distinct inclination backward and broader wings, 
but still their condition is in contrast with the bruad spatu- 
late tips of the corresponding series in such as Euchonc 
Ann. d) }fa<j. N. Hist. Sor. ij. Vul. xvii. 3 



;U Prof. M'liitosli's Notes from the 

papiUosa. The third scries present narrower wings than the 
hist, and the tips project little hcyond the surface. So brittle 
arc the ti|)s that the tapered axis, or terminal re>;ion of the 
shaft, olten snaps at the base of the winjjj, leaving a trans- 
parent web forming the wings projecting freely beyond it 
and on one side of the shaft. This is not common. 

In his aeconnt of the species, Malmgren (18G5) did not 
refer to other than the anterior hooks, which are rather 
large, have moderately long and boldly curved shafts, also 
as brittle as the bristles. These dilate from the base np 
to the shoulder, then are slightly narrowed at the neck. 
The main fang comes off nearly at a right angle, and in 
lateral view has eight or nine teeth above it, but the crown 
is flat, and thus diflers from such as E. papillosa, in which 
tlie crown is more elevated. The hooks in the anterior 
part of the posterior region ai-e avicnlar, have a main 
fang which leaves the neck at less than a right angle, a rather 
liigh crown with five or six teeth in lateral view, a convex 
})osterior border, a prominent and massive prow, and a 
small basal process posteriorly. The terminal hooks, again, 
are considerably smaller, have a much higher crown and 
more numerous teetli in lateral view, and the posterior basal 
process is smaller. All the shafts of the bristles and long 
Looks are t>lightly brownish by transmitted light. 

Enchoiie )wrma)n*,&\). n., the thirteenth form, is unfortu- 
nately fragmentary, and nothing is known of the branehise. 
Tiie cephalic collar is fairly develoj)ed, with a deej) fissure 
dorsally, the margin sloping thence downward and forward 
to the ventral process, a slight projection on each side of the 
middle line with a fissure between occurring there. The 
bodi/ appears to be comparatively short, and the anal funnel 
is short antero-posteriorly and wide, the margin being thin 
and deep anteriorly with a shallow median notch, whilst the 
sides are boldly and somewhat regularly crenate for more 
than the anterior half. The anterior bristles are of two 
kinds, a longer series dorsally with finely tapered and narrow 
wings, and those ventrally situated with broader wings 
and shorter tips. Posteriorly the tips of the bristles are 
greatly elongated, and the wings very narrow. 

The anterior hooks have a long curved shaft tapering to 
the base, whilst the neck is narrowed above the shoulder 
and curved backward. The great fang comes off nearly at a 
ri'^ht anjjle, and al)ont four teeth are on the crown above it 

* Canon Xonnan ami Dr. Gwyn .Jein-eys did much valuable work 
with the dred''t) in tlie Zetluudic seas. 



Gatty Murine Laboratory/, St. Andrews. 35 

ill lateral view, whereas in Enchone ana/is tlie number of 
tcetli is nearly doubled, and a di(lerenti;itiou of this rejj^ion 
from that of the great fang is evident. The base is curiously 
diminished and narrowed posteriorly, but the prow is large 
and rounded. The posterior hooks are even more diagnostic 
than tlie anterior. The posterior outline is convex, with a 
slight iutlection below the crown, and a short posterior curve 
at the base, which is small. The great fang is long and 
sharp, and on the crown above it are six or seven distinct 
teeth. The anterior outline begins at a little less than a 
right angle, gently curves forward to the prow, which 
inferiorly blends with the short truncate base. The lower 
j)art of the neck and body have curved stri.e. lu structure, 
therefore, these hooks diH'er from those of E. analis, Kn'Jyer, 
and E. paiJillosa, Sars. Neither is figured by .Malmgren. 

The representatives of the genus Chone in northern waters 
seem to be in a somewhat confused condition, since the 
young of certain forms have been described as dillerent 
si)eeies. At least five species, however, arc clearly defined, 
viz. the characteristic Chone infundidulifor/nis, Kroycr, of the 
arctic seas, which appears to be rare in most collections, but 
•was procured by the 'Valorous' in 1875. This form has 
often bceu confounded with another species, viz. Chone 
duneri, Malmgren — indeed, in a named collection from 
Greenland, procured in the sixties of last century, it is 
labelled C. infuadibuliformis. Yet the form of the tips 
of the branchiiC in the latter, the structure of its hooks, 
especially the avicular posterior hooks, the bristles, and other 
features are diagnostic. 

The original description of C. infundibulifonnis by Kroyer "'^, 
although unfortunately he gives no figure, is clear in regard 
to the stiucture of the branchiae, the collar, the size, and 
other features. He adds that it is not rare in Greeulandic 
seas, and that it inhabits a cutieular tube devoid of mud ; 
yet modern naturalists seem to have seldom met with it. 
Its posterior hooks are so characteristic that no confusion 
^ith C. duneri need occur — even in young forms of each 
species. Of course, it may be a question what form Kroyer 
meant by his C. infundibulifonnis, since both it and C. duneri 
are found in the arctic seas, bat the typical C. infundibuli- 
forniis is chiefly arctic in distribution, whereas C. duneri has 
a much wider range. After careful consideration of Mabu- 
gren's views and various specimens, it has been deemed 
prudent to adhere to the diagnosis indicated above. It is, 
liowever, right to state that Prof. Fauvcl and others hold 

* Oversigt Kgl. danske Videnskub. SL-lskabs Forbaudl. 1 806- 57, p. 3.".. 



36 Prof. ;M'Intosli's Notes from the 

C. diineri to be Kriiyer's C. infiiiKl'ihul'iformis, and that the 
species hehl here to be C. infinutiljuli/or/iiis is only a variety 
of the former (C. duneri). Tliis does not modify either the 
opinions or the figures in this p;ipcr. 

Clione duneri h:is a very wide (Hstribution, ranging from 
the British seas to Norway, Jan jMcycn, Spitzbergen, 
Greenland, tlie Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Madeira. A 
species, uliich closely approaches C. duneri., extends along 
the eastern shores of Scotland, is thrown by storms on the 
sands at St. Andrews, is dredged in deep water off ^Montrose, 
and occurs in the stomachs of fishes, such as the cod and 
haddock. It has been termed C.fauve/i in the meantime, 
t^ince the processes at the tips of the branchije form a contrast 
with the long filiform processes in C. duneri, and its posterior 
hooks generally show a tooth more above the main fang. 
Further investigations may clear up certain doubtful points 
in connection with both forms. Wolleboek's "'^ view that 
C. duneri is a synonym of C. infundibuliformis cannot be 
c(jrr()l)()rated. In the fine volume on the Polychrets procured 
by the Prince of Monaco, Prof. Fauvel f describes and 
figures C. duneri as C. infundibuliformis, and it is possible 
that the rarity of the latter and the abundance of the former 
in northern waters has led to this misap|)rehension, which 
we in Britain equally shared. Prof. Fauvel's figures of the 
bristles and hooks in his account of the Polyclueta from Jan 
Meyen are excellent. In all probability the species from 
the area of tlie Clyde % ^s Cbonefauveli and not C. infundihuli- 
forniis, which has not hitherto been met with in British 
waters. The species described by ]Miss Katherine Bush § as 
Clume teres appears to be closel}^ allied to the last-mcutioned 
species, especially in the structui'e of its posterior hooks. 
Besides the foregoing forms, Chone reayi extends from 
Shetland to the Channel Islands, and Chone princei occurs 
iu the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. 

Chone fauveli ||, sp. n., the fourteenth species^ is widely 
distributed in Britain, 

The cephalic plate is surrounded by an ample and con- 
tinuous collar^ cleft, however_, at the dorsal fissure, and it 

* Akritt. Videnskap. Kristiauia, 1011, 2 Bind, No. 18. p. 24. 

t Canipagneo Srieut. fasc. xlvi. p. 319, pi. xxxi. figs. 10-18 (1914). 

X Proc. Koy. Irish Acad. vol. xxxi. no. 47, p. 141. 

§ Ilarriraan Alaska E.xpid. Tubicol. Annel., New York, 1905, p. 215, 
pi. XXX. ^'^. 1, and pi. xxxvii. tigs. lG-23. 

II Named after I'rof. I'auvel, of the University of Angers, France, 
•who has laboriously studied th.e I'olychieta both of JOurope and other 
regions. 



Gutty Marine Laboratory^ Sf. Amlrewa. I* 7 

cuslieutlis tli(^ base ol" the lirauchice. At the dorsal fissure 
the thiokeiieil edges, after the collar ceases, are carried 
downward, and end in a point ahove tlie inH(;ction of the 
firm rim to which the bianchioe are attached, and which 
lias the outline of a horse's hoof, the rounded ventral ;irch 
formiufj; tiic front and the indented dorsal region the frog. 
After the branchiie are shed, a small papilla is nsually found 
in the mid-dorsal, and a larger in the mid-ventral line of 
the thickened inner rim. The mouth lies above the ventral 
papilla. 

The body of this form is generally more rounded than 
in the Sabelliils proper, reaches the length of 5-0 inches, 
and has the thickness of a strong goose-quill. The 
segments are from tifty to ninety. The outline is 
somewhat spindle-shaped, for, though the cephalic lobe 
is truncate, the body tapers to it, as well as more distinctly 
toward the tail, at the point of which is the anus, which 
in the younger exam[)les sometimes shows two papillie — a 
smaller dorsal and a more prominent ventral papilla. The 
dee|) dorsal fissure is continued to the second segment, 
where it is dilated, and from this the mid-dorsal groove 
passes backward to the anterior border of the eighth seg- 
ment, where it inclines to the right, cutting off in its course 
ventralward a narrow portion of the uintli segment, and, 
reaching the mid-ventral line in this segment, thereafter 
proceeding to the tip of the tail, the last part of its course 
being generally more deeply grooved in the preparations. 
The body of the fresh specimen is pale pinkish, and in the 
newly-preserved form is of a pale skin-colour. 

The l)ranchia3 vary from twelve to thirty-six on each side, 
and are connected together almost to the tip by a membrane, 
the dorsal fissure, however, causing a ga[) in the funnel. In 
l)reserved examples the filaments are often slightly spiral 
and the tips are incurved. The filament is stilfened by a 
chordoid camerated axis as in Sabella, but it is not less in 
diameter. The tip of each process is characteristically 
formed with a broad wing at the base and tapering to a fine 
tip. A slender axis, apparently from the chordoid skeleton, 
passes along the centre of the bare Hattened tip almost to 
its extremity. The pi nine are long, even to the base of the 
fiattened terminal process, and have a central (chordoid) 
axis, the tip being smoothly rounded or occasionally sliglitly 
enlarged. The pinnae at the bases of the filaments (that is, 
near the mouth) are elongated, the last one or two being so 
long as to resemble tentacles. When a suitalile example is 
observed the slender tentacles arise at each side of the mouth, 



;58 Prof. M'lntosh's Xotesfrom the 

and arc quite free from tlic branchiae. Six or more occur on 
cacli side as delicate filaments little tapered toward the tip. 
In the centre are two or three folded lobes, ap))arently iu 
connection Avith the oral aperture, and near the dorsal fissure 
is an ol)liQUC fold of some Icngtii. the distal end of whicli is 
s})lit into filaments. AVhat ajjpeared to be the two tentacles 
proper are on the inner border of each ventral fold, and 
they terminate in a tapering filament. The mechanism of 
the entire elaborate a])paratus is complex. The length and 
degree to which the tip is webbed vary considerably, and 
in the arctic form it is more elongate. 

The cutis is smooth, has a finely iridescent or nacreous 
lustre, and, when removed, has a bluish aspect. In intimate 
structure it is crossed by fine lines, which give it a fibrous 
appearance, but at the segment-junctions wdiite bands occur, 
and these are tesselated. A series of powerful circular 
fibres occur beneath the skin and its basement-tissue, whilst 
the longitudinal bands conform to the type of the family. 

The colhir runs smoothly into the first segment, wliicli 
is of considerable antcro-posterior diameter and uniformly 
rounded. It has on each side, a little in front of the 
segment-junction, a small tuft of bristles and a pale spine. 
The bristles are simple winged forms with tapering tips, the 
edges of the wings being serrated. They slant dorsally 
forward. Some of these long anterior bristles present 
a pec\iliar twist below the wings, but whether this is arti- 
ficial or otherwise is unknown. The succeeding seven 
pairs, which issue just in front of the median ring, have 
modified tufts, consisting of a dorsal series of bristles with 
tapering tips, like those of the first series, with serrated 
edges and a ventral series of lu'istles of spatulate form, 
the slope of both being obliquely upward and forward. 
The spatulate bristle is smallest at the base, and gradually 
enlarges into a finely-serrated shaft, which remains cylin- 
drical until the wings appear, and then tapers to a blunt 
point. The wings rapidly widen on each side, and soon end 
in a blunt tip, are obliquely striated, and have serrated 
edges laterally, ^Moreover, the tip often presents a slight 
marginal fold. When the tip of the shaft is broken, the 
transparent web connecting the wings is evident and the 
margins of the wings are stiffened by incurvation and slight 
thickening. There is little difference between the first tuft 
and the last, except that the posterior are rather more 
obtuse at the tip. In transverse section the exterior of the 
bristle is hyaline, the centre granular fiom the fibres. On 
examining the bristlc-tufts of this region with a lens, a 



Gatty Marine Laloroiory, St. Andrews. ;»9 

double scries of black clots appears — caused by the ceiitral 
stalk of" each spatulate bristle. 

Tlic anterior tults of simple bristles (at and after the nintb) 
arc characteristic wlien contrasted with the northern Chone 
infmidibiiliforims from Greeulnnd ; for in lateral view the 
shafts are curved, constricted as they ap})roae]i the wings, situl 
the tip leaves the shaft at an anjjie, whilst it is finely 
tempered and bordered with the narrow wings. In antero- 
posterior view the constriction at the upjjcr end f)f the shsift is 
distinct, the base of the tip (continuation of the shaft) being 
eonsiderai)ly broader. On the other hand, the bristles of 
the Greenlandic species are nineb more slender, the ti])s 
longer and more attenuate, and the wings just visible. The 
constriction of tl.c sliaft ])clow and its dilation above the 
commencement of the tip scarcely attract notice. 

A change occurs at the ninth bristle-bundle, which is now 
ventral to the row of hooks, for all have tapering tips with 
the serrate wings, and slant upward and backward. The 
succeeding tufts are equally powerful, and have the same 
direction till the posterior liftb is reached, and there the 
bristles gradually assume an 0|)posite direction — that is, 
downward and forward. These posfcrior bristles are longer 
and smoother, presenting no serrations, and the terminal 
wings narrower, so that the shaft is more conspicuous. The 
free portion of the bristle increases disproportionately, the 
shaft being little more than a quarter of the length. Further, 
whilst the bristles of the anterior region are in front of the 
median ring of the segment and the hooks behind it, 
the posterior bristles are more nearly in a line, though still 
anterior to the row of hooks. Generally speaking, the 
anterior bristles liave most of their shaft below the skin and 
a shorter tip, whilst the posterior have a sliort shaft under 
cover and a long tip — conditions doubtless connected with 
their functions. 

The rows of books commence on tlie second bristled 
segment to the ventral side of the bristles, and the first 
seven — that is, those of the anterior region — are longer and 
more boldly marked than the succeeding, appearing like 
minutely dotted dark lines under a lens. The hooks are 
arranged alternately in a double row, but toward the ends 
of the row, es})ecially ventrally, appear to form a single 
series. Each presents a long, curved, striated shaft, deeply 
inserted into the muscular coats, and taj)ering from the 
well-marked shoulder to the base. The neck is translucent, 
linely striated, especially superiorly, narrowed aI;o\e the 
shoulder, and again slightly dilated as it ap[)roaehis the 



40 Prof. Mcintosh's Notes from the 

head, Avhioh has a powerful main fang extending from the 
throat at more than a rii^lit anjjjle, and with five or more 
smaller teeth on the erown in lateral view, and they extend 
to the downward curve of the crow n posteriorly. In con- 
trasting these with the hooks of C. infundihuliformis, the 
curvature is less, the ueek shorter, and the crown somewhat 
flatter. Moreover, whilst the body of the arctic specimen 
is larger, the hooks are proportionally smaller. The hooks 
in the seven rows maintain the same structure, the posterior, 
perhaps, being slightly stronger. In transverse section of 
the shaft of the hooks the centre is fibrous, and at the 
shoulder it is somewhat flattened, with an indentation of 
the fii)rous area, a condition which explains the peculiar 
blank always seen on one side of the shaft. At the ninth 
segment the hooks change to the dorsal side of the bristles, 
and they maintain that position to the posterior end 
of the body. These hooks are aviculariau, and. form a 
single row, diminishing in size from the dorsal to the 
ventral end adjoining the bristles. There are about thirty- 
six hooks in each row anteriorly. Moreover, the hooks at 
the upper end of the row have a larger base than tliose next 
the bristles, for in the last hooks the base is in a line with 
the neck and devoid of the anterior prow. In the upper 
hooks the main fang is large and sharp, the anterior outline 
below it deeply concave to the prow, after which it is nearly 
straight. Four distinct teeth occur above the main fang. 
The posterior outline is irregular, a slight lioUow occurring 
at the neck, then a convexity from which a straight line 
runs to the angle at the upper part of the base, another 
straight Hue joining that bounding the free end. The base 
aud neck are boldly striated, the former transversely, the 
latter longitudinally. At the lower end of the row the 
posterior outline of the hook is nearly straight, only a 
slight elevation occurring in the middle; whilst the anterior 
outline of the base is prolonged downward with a slight 
posterior inclination, so that tlie hook has a base elongated 
iu the line of the neck. In some large forms from 
St. Andrews these hooks were of a deep brown hue. 

In Chone infundibuUformis the hook in the middle of the 
body considerably diverges from that of C. fauveli, since 
the base is more massive ; the prow has a slight process 
projecting downward, and the gulf below the acute main 
fang, instead of having a nearly uniform outline on its 
inner edge, has a distinct indentation, marking off, as it 
were, the region of the prow. But the most divergent 
feature is the crown, which is Hatttened and pro\ ided at its 



Cattij Afan'ne Lahoratory, Sf. Andreicfi. it 

posterior edge only with five or six small teeth in lateral 
view (and which do not afl'ect the straight outline of tlie 
crown) in contrast with the four large teeth of the British 
form, which project well over the main fang, and the striaj 
from which occupy a considerahle portion of tlie neck; and 
the striie adjoining these (in front) are parallel, whereas 
in the arctic hook the long striae from the smaller hooks on 
the crown are indistinct, the stride in front heing alone 
conspicuous. The posterior outline in the two hooks like- 
wise differs, the arctic form being evenly convex till near 
the base, where it is truncated, the British having this 
portion of the posterior edge concave. 

The distinctions noted continue posteriorly. Tiius the 
bristles near the tip of the tail in the British form, while 
they have greatly elongated tips, retain the marked con- 
striction of the shaft below the tip and the dilatation beyond 
it. On the other hand, the extremely slender tips of C. in- 
fundil'ulijormis have only a trace of wings, and the slight 
constriction of the shaft below and dilatation above the 
commencement of the wings would not at first sight be 
noticed. The terminal hooks iii the British form have a 
more regular posterior outline, but otherwise keep to the 
type seen in front, the main fang and the teeth above it 
being especially distinct. On the other hand, those of 
C. infundibuliformis retain all the distinctive features 
already mentioned, the minute teeth at the back of the 
flattened crown being so indistinct as to suggest fusion. 

AVhen the digestive tract is exposed, it presents anteriorly 
prominent oral papillse and glandular organs on each side. 
The anterior region of the tract is brownish in colour, 
chitinous, and very friable, and after a short course it 
merges into a rounded and more distinctly moniliform 
portion, which, gradually diminishing in calibre, ends in a 
small anus. 'J'he contents of the gut showed many diatoms, 
frjigments of the spieula of sponges, fragments of minute 
Crustacea, amidst muddy sand. A large and firm glandular 
body is attached to the intestine, and above the intestine 
lies the dorsal blood-vessel, which has in the preparation a 
brownish barred aspect. 

The anterior half of the intestine is of a pale brownish 
hue and soniewhat firm, as if chitinous, and iu minute 
structure is finely striated transversely, and hence the 
readiness witli which the gut ruptures. Few muscular 
fibres occur in the anterior region of the gut, but at the 
point where- it becomes moniliform a layer of muscular 
fibres lies beneath the chitinous coat, which becomes thin 



42 Trof. i\I'Intosir.s Notes from th,' 

and translucent posteriorly, Avhilst the muscular lil)res 
increase in bulk and power. A complex retienlation of 
blood-vessels covers the wall of the canal anteriorly. 
Stronjr fibres fiom the body-wall cross the canal, but are 
not attached to it. The intestine is coated thron^hout with 
the brownish di<j;estive gland, Mhicb is deeply tinged with 
yellow pigment. It ceases within a qnaitcr of an inch of 
the vent. 

Chone duneri, IMalnigrcn, the fifteenth, a widely-distri- 
Inited species, extends from liiitish waters to Sj)itzbergen 
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. The ee])lialic collar 
forms a considerable web dorso-laterally, passing backward 
to the line of the second bristlc-tnft, and doubling forward 
along the edge of the dorsal fissure on each side so as to 
make conspicuous parallel edges to the fissnre, as far as the 
base of the pedicle for the branchiae. The pedicle, after 
removal of the branchiae;, does not })rojeet beyond the rim 
of the collar. The bianchise are distingtiished by their 
comparative length and the long slender terminal processes. 
The structure of the filaments is typical, and they slightly 
taper di>tally, ending in a remarkably long winged pr(;cess, 
which tapers to a delicate tip and has a slender continua- 
tion of tlie chordoid axi.s in the centre. The number of 
filaments ranges from six to twenty-two on each side 
according to si/e, the latter being the nmnber in a fine 
example from Jan ]Meyen, kindly sent by Prof. Fauvel, and 
they are united by membrane throughout the greater j)art 
of their length, the tip being iree. The pinnaR are of con- 
siderable length, each having the jointed ehoidoid axis. 
They continue long till near the basal web of the terminal 
process, when a few shorter oceiir. 

The body in all the examples observed is considerably 
.smaller than that of C. fuuveli, and is nearly of the same 
diameter throughout the anterior three-fourths, though a 
little tapered in front. It then diminislies gently to the 
tail, wliich is by no means acute. It is somewhat flattened 
and grooved anteriorly on the doi'sum, and grooved ventrally 
from the ninth scute backward. A ])apilla 7iuiiks the anus 
at the tip. I'he nuuiber of segments would appear to be 
about fifty, and they are distinctly marked, with the excep- 
tion of the minute caudal rings. The anterior bristles are 
in two groups — an upper, with longer shafts and tapering 
winged tips, and a lower, of spatulate form, with a short; 
tapering process at the tip. The tufts are fewer and smaller 
than in C. fauveli. Posteriorly in front of the tail the tips 



Qatly Afut'ine Laboratory , ^t. Andrews. A'.\ 

of the l)ri>tlcs are greatly elongated, and they slope forward 
rather than backward, projecting ou each side as a fine 
fringe. 

The anterior hooks are similar to those of Chone faiive/i, 
thoniih smaller, the posterior \vdYt of the crown is less 
rounded, and the three or four teeth above it very sharp. 
The posterior liooks, while generally resembling those of 
the common species, have somewhat higher crowns, five to 
six teeth beiug clearly visible above the great fang. The 
posterior part of tl»e crown is also less rounded, as is the 
posterior outline. The main fang is pioportionally shorter, 
since its point does not project beyond the liue of the prow. 
Another feature is that the crown with its small teeth is on 
a level with the outer surface of the main fang, whereas in 
C. fauveli the four large teeth al)ove the main fang fit into 
a convex outline. The figure of Langerhaus *, though poor, 
clearly indicates the species. 

Clione reayif, sp. n., the sixteenth form, comes from 
Shetland, off the coast of Ireland, and from the Channel 
iNlands. 

The cephalic plate has a thinner but fuller collar than in 
Chone fauveli, and its edges are turned in dorsally, sloped 
inward and backward to be fixed to the first segment on 
each side of the njiddle line and to the sides of the groove in 
front ; but its anterior margin is well behind the free edge 
of the collar above, and no contiuuation of this part occurs 
in front — a distinctive feature with such as Chone duneri 
and otliers. As in the former species, the fissure presents 
a pouch at the attachment of the collar posteriorly. The 
collar passes with a slightly erenate maigin nearly straight 
to the ventral surface, but from attachment the free rim is 
there narrow. The pedicle of the branchiae does not project 
beyond its edge. In this species the bases to which the 
bianchise are attached are different, for they form two semi- 
circular soft grooved lobes, which do not project beyond 
the margin of the collar in lateral view. To the inner 
(median) or straight edges the tentacles are attached, and 
the whole base is constricted posteriorly, so that it is 
mushroom-like. There is no bifid process of the lip- 
membrane as described by Southern in Chone filicaudaia. 

Each branchial filament has a large camerated chorduid 

* Zeitsch. f. w. Zool. Bd. xxxiv. p. 114, Tuf. vi. fig. 34. 

t Named after I^ord lleay, K.T., who has so long taken an interest in 
tlie marine work at St. Andrews, and who auspiciously opened the Gatty 
Marine Lnboratorv in 189(). 



•1 i Prof. il'Intosli'a Notes frovi the 

axis, which cxtomls into tlie elongated terniinal process as 
a tine thread. The long piunjc arise in a double row, and 
continue to the base of the terminal group, tiie sides of 
which have a series of short pinnae, giving a character to 
the organ, and which gradually diminish, leaving a smooth 
subulate lilament — much shorter than in C'/totie duneri and of 
a different character — at the end of the branchia. As a trans- 
j)arcnt object the lilament presents a scries of rounded areas 
inside the chordoid axis, which probably represent the bases 
of the pinuic. Few species show a more distinct structure of 
these organs. 

The body is shorter and smaller than in C. fauveli, the 
largest example being fully an inch in spirit and having 
about fifty-live segments, of which eight bristled are anterior. 
It is rounded throughout the greater part of its extent, 
especially dorsally, and only at the posterior third is the 
ventral surface flattened as it tapers to the tail, the tip of 
which projects as a special process with an oblique end, the 
slope of the anus being from above downward and forward. 
A little pigment occurs dorsally and ventral ly at the tij), 
which in a small example had a minute filiform process, so 
that C. fiticaudata is not the only form so j)rovided. From 
the dorsal fissure at tlie collar a groove runs backward in 
the middle line to the end of the seventh bristled segment, 
then slants to the right across the eighth dorsally and the 
ninth vcntrally to the middle line at its posterior border, 
and tlience backward to the tip of the tail. The segments 
show a few transverse markings, but only a few of the 
anterior ventrally are distinctly divided into two rings. 
The anterior region has eight bristle-tufts and seven uncini- 
gerjus rows. 

The first bristle-tuft consists of simple bristles, but the 
second and those following in the anterior region consist of 
two kinds — viz., a dorsal series of translucent bristles, with 
a pale golden sheen when viewed under a lens, and long 
tapering tips with very narrow wings, Avhich disappear 
before reaching the extremity, and of a spatulate ventral 
series with cylindrical shafts, the tips of which project little 
from the surface and end in a delicate filament. The wings 
are at first narrow, expand into a spathulate region, then 
gradually cease as a narrow rim on the base of the terminal 
filament. The prolongation at the tip distinguishes this 
bristle from the corresponding one found in C. fauveli. The 
succeeding region of the body has only the narrow winged 
tapering bristles, which, as in front, have a distinct curvature. 
Toward the posterior end the bristles elongate, and are 



Gattij Marine Laloratori/ , St. Andreioa. l;"* 

directed downward and backward, or just in front of the 
tail downward and forward. In these elongated bristles 
the wings are indistinguishaljle. A few shorter bristles, 
l)roi)ably in process of develoj)nient, occur in these tufts. 

The striated shafts of the long anterior hooks are even 
more tapered at the insertion tlian in C.fauveli, and they 
increase in diameter upward to the shoulder, whicli gently 
diminishes to tlie stout neck. The great fang leaves tlie 
throat nearly at a right angle, and on the crown above it in. 
lateral view are five or siv teeth. The neck and shoulder of 
tiiese hooks have a forward curve, so that the head is carried 
l)aekward. The posterior liooks have a convex anterior and 
a concave posterior outline, but the base is not bent back- 
ward as in the ordinary aviculariaTi forms. The main fang 
leaves the throat at somewhat less than a right angle, and 
is strong and sharp. Above it is a series of four or five or 
more small but distinct teeth. The slightly-curved neck 
dilates a little as it merges into the stunted shaft or base, 
which has a slight flexure backward, the character of the 
hook being thus diagnostic, and so different from those of 
species of Clione hitherto described. In a variety from 
Fiumark the bases of these hooks are tapered into shaft-like 
processes, and the whole series constitute in each foot an 
elegant fan. They form a single row. 

Chone filicaudata, Southern, from Clew Bay, Ireland, is 
the seventeenth species, and differs from Chone duneri, 
Malmgren, which it approaches in the presence of a bifid 
process of the lip-membrane, in tlie form of the posterior 
hooks, which have a higher crown and more numerous teeth 
above the great fang in lateral view. It also has a conical 
anal appendage. The terminal process of the branchial 
filament has a central axis and a web on each side. It is the 
rule, however, for the posterior hooks in most species of this 
genus to have higher crowns. The occurrence of a caudal 
filament on Chone duneri in certain cases, however, makes 
the distinction less evident, yet the posterior hooks diverge. 

Jasmineira elef/ans, De St. Joseph, a southern form, is the 
eighteenth species. The cephalic lobe, when the branchiae 
are removed, presents a mushroom-shaj)ed basal region — 
that is, it is constricted proximally and dilated distally, and 
has a median cleft. It is marked externally by longitudinal 
lines or grooves. From the ventral edge of each half three 
or four slender smooth tentacles (four to six. De St. Jo.^eph) 



•IG Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

project. A well-marked collar is present, Avitli a dorsal 
tissure as in Cfione and an entire ventral margin. De St. Jo- 
seph describes linear eyes on the fused buccal and first 
segment, but these were not observable in the spirit- 
speciuiens. 'Die number of the branchiie is from eight to 
twelve on each side, and they show two chordoid cells in 
transverse section. They have a double row of ciliateil 
barbules, aud terminate in a naked process with a thickened 
base. 

De St. Joseph observes that the foregoing fused segments 
have, besides the eyes, two branchial heads, two red thoracic 
organs debouching by a common canal at the base of the 
brauchire dorsally, and two otocysts with trembling otolitiis. 
Fauvcl"^, however, states that in the closed otocysts, to 
which group those of Jasinineira belong, the "trembling" 
is due to Brownian movement only, as there are no cilia. 

The body, Avhicli in spirit is about an inch in length, has 
the outline of Clione, and is little tapered till the posterior 
third. It ends in a slender tip, with a conical papilla above 
the anus. The anterior region consists of nine segments, 
the posterior of twenty-four or twenty-five segments, or even 
more (De St. Joseph gives a total of forty). The ventral 
groove cuts through the right edge of the eighth ventral 
shield in its progress to the dorsum. The ventral shields 
commence anteriorly by two small ones, and the next seven, 
which are entire, rather increase from before backward. 
The scutes of the posterior region are in pairs, being dis- 
tinctly separated by the broad ventral groove. Diminishing 
iu size, they become invisible on the minute terminal seg- 
ments. The first bristle-tuft is small and occurs near the 
posterior border of the united buccal and first segments. It 
consists of simple but by no means feeble bristles, the shaft 
a little diminished at the neck, so that the slightly curved 
tip with its narrow wings and acute point is clearly differen- 
tiated. Nine bristle-tufts occur anteriorly. The bristles of 
the anterior region generally consist of two kinds, viz., 
Avingcd capillary bristles with the slightly curved and acutely 
tapered tips, and spatulatc forms the wings of which rapidly 
dilate, terminate abruptly, aud have a short median process, 
often bent. The bristles of the posterior region, which are 
below the hooks, are of one kind only (viz., the simple, 
winged, tapering form), but the tips have, even in the first 
])art of the region, a tendency to elongation, and toward the 
end of the tail the tips of the bristles are extremely elon- 
gated, so as to resemble fine hairs, though the narrow wings 

* Op. cit. 



Catty Marine Lahoratory, St. Andrenjs. 17 

can generally be noticed at tiic end of the shaft. The 
distinctions in this respect had not been observed by 
De St. Joseph. 

The anterior crotchets have long curved shafts, commencing 
as narrow bases, but gradually dihiting to the shoulder, 
■which continues the curve and is narrower than the adjoining 
part of the shaft. The neck is not constricted and the main 
fang leaves it nearly at a right angle, whilst on the crown 
are numerous small teeth. The whole crotchet has the 
curvature of a bow. Dc St. Joseph speaks of nine crotchets 
only, bnt occasionally aljout twenty arc present ; and since 
their narrow bases occupy a com[)arative]y small area, the 
group has the form of a fan, the broad tips requiring more 
space for the action of their armature. The hooks of the 
posterior region differ from those of Chone and Euchone, and 
more resemble the type of the Sabcllidaj. They are charac- 
teristically S-shaped, the base bt-'ing smoothly curved ante- 
riorly, convex interiorly, and turned upward posteriorly. 
A slight constriction occurs at the neck, from which the 
main fang comes off at less than a right angle, and is long 
and sharp, whilst on the crown above are numerous minute 
teetli. The posterior outline bends forward at the crown, 
then backward, and has a bold iorward curve in the main 
part of the Ijody. 

The ditierenees between this species and /. caudata, 
Langerhans, which ]\lr. Southern procured in Clew 13ay, 
seem to be slight — mainly the elongated caudal process, as in 
the form procured at iNIadcira by Langerhans. 

Jasmineira caudata, Langerhans, 1880, is the nineteenth 
representative, and it appears to differ from J. eleyans only 
in the presence of a tiliform anal appendage. Mr. Southern 
states that the structures of the bristles and hooks agree, but 
that the number of " abdominal " segments is twenty 
(seventeen, Lunyerhans), whilst J. eleyaas had from twenty- 
eight to thirty-two. The collar of J. caudata appears to be 
somewhat higher than, and not so oblique as, that of 
J. eleyans. Mature specimens occurred in May. Dredged 
in 17 fathoms in Clew Bay. 

The twentieth species is Haplobranclius restuarius, A. G. 
Bourne, a minute aberrant Sabellid from the estuaries of 
southern rivers and also from the mouth of the Liffey, Dublin 
{Sout/tei'n). 

The twenty-first form is Mi/xicoia iiifiiudihuluiii, .Montagu, 



■18 Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

in which the cephalic region differs from that of a Sabellid in 
the absence of a collar, for the first segment is smoothly 
rounded on each side to the base of thebrauchial fans, whilst 
vcntrally a triangular process passes forward in the middle 
line below the division betAveeu the branchial fans, and 
dorsaliy a slight projection also points between the fans 
from the anterior end of the groove. INIontagu describes 
the moutii as purple, whilst the lips are bordered with 
chestnut. Dalyell found no tentacles, and ]Malmgren"'s 
tentacles refer to the frilled processes on each side of the 
month. 

The branchial fans appear to cling more tenaciously to 
their bases than in ordinary Sabellids, and comparatively 
few of the preparations are devoid of them. The filaments 
range from twenty-one in each fan (Shetland) to thirty-seven 
(South Devon), and they are connected by a web (which 
Claparede states is ciliated externally) almost to the tip, as 
in Clione. In structure each filament agrees in the main 
vith that in Sabella, the camerated chordoid axis passing 
along its entire length, and a slender continuation of it 
reaching to the tip of the terminal process, which has a 
tapering web on each side^ and is often deeply tinted purple. 
The pinnaj are comparatively long, and likewise have a chor- 
doid axis (not distinctly camerated), and they taper a little 
from base to a|)ex. Toward the tip of the filament the rows 
of piuntC terminate in a double series of papillse, ■which, like 
the pinnre, are alternate. The branchial plumes or fans are 
of a rich dark chocolate-brown in life, the brown being 
chiefly confined to the filament externally, and the pinnie, 
■which are capable of independent motion, are of a rich 
purplish red. The bases externally, however, are of the 
colour of the body, viz., a dull orange hue. The two bran- 
chial fans are often separated to their bases during the 
movements of the animal. Montagu describes them as 
singularly beautiful and of a purple colour, darkest at the 
tips of the rays, and the pinnte of a chestnut colour, shaded 
to purple near the centre. In the Zctlandic specimens, 2 or 
2\ inches long, the body had the diameter of an ordinary 
quill, the branchial fan measured about | inch autero-poste- 
riorly, but when the fans were flatly extended laterally their 
diameter was about an inch. 

The body in the preparations is somewhat fusiform, for, 
besides the distinct tapering posteriorly, it is narrowed in 
front, and in life it sometimes assumes the same outline. It 
is rounded throughout except anteriorly, where, on the 
dorsal surface, a groove passes backward in the middle line 



Gatti) Marine Laboratory y St. Andrews. -iO 

to the eighth segment, which it cuts ohhqiuly as it goes to 
the right, and ends vcntrally about the middle of tlie ninth. 
In some, traces of the median groove are found beliind the 
slope to the right in the eighth segment. It is of a dull 
orange hue throughout, or in some pale, though in the 
Zetlaudic specimens a distinct white ring went entirely 
round the body in front of tiie third segment-junction. 
Montagu mentions that the body is "of an orange colour 
annulated with whitish.'' The number of segments varies, 
for Montagu gives the large southern form of 8 or 10 inches 
in length no less than one hundred and fifty to one hundred 
and sixty segments, whereas the smaller Zetlaudic e.\anij)les 
(of 2 or 2h inches) had but forty-Hve to fifty-two. Tlie 
segments are distinct, but little differentiated doi'sally and 
veutrally, and therein differing from the ordinary Sabellids, 
but they often show one or more rings — especially one veu- 
trally near the posterior border, and in some examples a 
slight peak occur:; at the posterior border of each near the 
posterior third. The segments become narrow at the tapering 
posterior cud, and terminate in a median anus at the some- 
what blunt tip. 

The vascular system contains greenish blood, and is similar 
in arrangement to that of the Sabellids {Clapcu'ede). This 
author holds that a contractile sinus envelops the intestine, 
and he is probably right. Contrary to the view of Ue Quatre- 
fages, Claparede states that the nerve-cords, doulde in front, 
are not separated behind, but form a single cord with a large 
neural canal (his " fibre tubulaire"), and in certain sections 
that canal has a larger area than the nerve-tissue, wdiich 
would seem to show that the term " neural canal" (187U) is 
not out of place. 

The anterior region has eight bundles of bristles, which 
are of uniform structure, viz., they have long, straight, 
slender, cylindrical shafts, and finely tapered though rather 
short tips slightly bent backward, and with narrow wings. 
In rear of the fascicles of bristles Claparede (1870) mentions 
the occurrence of minute ocular spots, formed of a crystalline 
body surrounded by pigment. This has not been observed 
in the preparations. Posteriorly the translucent bristles 
are both more minute and more slender, and the shafts are 
tapered toward the tip, which lu\s a curvature as in front 
and a trace of a wing on each side. The forward projection 
of the prow approaches that of the Polycinids, but the great 
size of the secondary tooth differs. 

The anterior region veutrally has groups of about eight 
long crotchets, which in general outline somewhat resemble 
Ann. cO Mag. N. Hist. Ser. S. Vol. xvii. -i 



50 Prof. M'lntosU's Notes from the 

those of 01ii;;ochaets. The shaft is low^, gently curved, 
tapered iiiferiorly, dilating- at its distal third into an indis- 
tinct shouUler, from which it is gently tapered to the throat 
below the main fan^;. Tlie neck is stont and nearly straight, 
and the main fang, which arises at a wide angle to the neck, 
is blunt, whilst on the crown, which slopes downward in 
lateral view, are a few small teeth. Under pressure the hook 
often lies so as to give an antero-posterior outline, which is 
hastate, a constriction occurring behind the great fang, 
from which a gradual enlargement occurs to the shoulder, 
beneath which it again tapers to the base. The usually 
acute Claparede had overlooked these organs. The terminal 
hook of the row shows a more simple form, without spikes in 
the crown. The posterior hooks are large and avicular, 
are identical with the type as figured by jNIalmgren, have a 
base much produced anteriorly, the anterior outline of the 
neck curving from the main fang in a convex manner down- 
ward to a blunt prow, the inferior outline being slightly 
concave, as also is the posterior outline. The main fang 
is long and sharp, and above it is a comparatively large 
secondarj'^ tooth. 

This is, in all probability, the Myxicola steenstrupi of 
Kroyer *, though the description is so lax that it is difficult 
to be certain. He did not observe the hooks. 

A Myxicola procured betwceu tide-marks, Herm, in 1868, 
offers certain peculiarities distinguishing it from M. infun- 
dibulum and M. viridis, as w^ell as M. dinardensis of 
De St. Joseph, though the absence of anterior hooks leaves a 
margin of doubt in relation to the last-mentioned. It is 
a small form, measuring about f inch in total length, and 
having the typical condition of the cephalic region and collar. 
The branchiae are of moderate length, and have broader wings 
and less tapered tips on the distal jn'ocesses of the filaments 
than in M. wfandibulum. 

The anterior region seems to be short, as in M. dinardensis, 
which has only three segments, and in the specimen from 
Herm the long crotchets appeared to have only a single tooth 
above the main fang, as in M. viridis. The posterior hooks 
came far forward, and in structure they difi'ered from those 
of their allies, for the main fang is proportionally larger and 
the tooth above it is only about half its length, and thus 
contrasts with the condition in other forms. The basal 
region has a nearly straight inferior border, to which the 
prow curves downward. 

» Oversigt Kgl. danske Videnssk. Selsk. Forhaudl. 1856, p. 35. 



Gatty Murine Laboratory ^ St. Andrews. hi 

Whether this is an example with the anterior region in 
course of reproduction or a variety is uncertain, but its 
features are worthy of note. 

Myxicola viridiSj Mihie-Edwarcls, the twenty-second 
species, occurred in the mud of a mass of Filoijrana pro- 
cured off the Bell Rock, St. Andrews Bay. Tlie cephalic 
region seems to agree with that of M. itifundibulum both 
in the absence of a collar and in other respects. 

The braucliice form a rich green spiral mass in repose, a 
position often assumed in its sheath under examination ; but 
when it protrudes, the anterior end of the branchise spread 
out as a double fan of nine or ten filaments, which have a 
chordoid axis and a terminal process, which differs from the 
tapering elongated one of M. infundibuliunm maintaining its 
strap-like breadth till near the tip, where a short tapered 
region occurs. The body is capable of considerable elonga- 
tion, and the total number of segments is about forty- seven, 
eight anterior and thirty-nine posterior. A well-maiked 
papilla at the anus terminates the body posteriorly. The 
colour is a rich green, the central interspace being darker. 
The first pair of bristle-tufts has a different direction from 
those which follow, being directed obliquely forward and 
outward. The anterior bristles are the most conspicuous — 
indeed, in a specimen so minute tiie posterior at first escape 
notice. The typical anterior bristle has a slender translucent 
shaft and finely tapered tip and narrow wings. The poste- 
rior bristles are more minute and the wings less distinct. 
Many present a curvature at the commencement of the tip. 

The anterior hooks are in groups of five or six, and are 
long /-shaped structm-es which resemble somewhat those of 
Oligochsets. The wide region or shoulder is in front of the 
middle, the shaft tapering posteriorly to the base and ante- 
riorly to the long neck, which is almost straight. The main 
fang leaves the neck nearly at a right angle, and is short and 
sharp, and on the crown above is a single prominent tooth. 
The whole organ thus characteristically difters from that of 
M. infundibulum. The posterior hooks are miuute, having a 
long sharp main fang, and another above it almost as long, 
a nearly straight posterior outline, and a short base directed 
forward. The annelid secretes a transparent gelatinous tube 
in captivity. 

At least two species of Myxicola thus inhabit British 
waters ; but, in regard to the green example, it may be a 
question whether it is not a marked variety, with more 
transparent branchia3, of the tvpc with the minute bifid 

-t* 



52 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

anterior hooks. Fresh investigations are necessary. Only a 
single specimen has hitherto been obtained. 

A Myxicola from Plymouth, while agreeing generally with 
M. inj'undibuluni, differs in the structure of the anterior 
hooks, for they are rather slender, with a slight enlargement 
at the shouklcr, and the distal end is curved like a shepherd's 
crook with a sharp point (main fang). It is a question how 
far this is due to the age and size of the specimen, but it was 
a feature in every hook observed. It is curious that no 
example of this genus was procured by the ' Challenger/ its 
representatives, perhaps, being chiefly littoral or confined to 
comparatively shallow water. 

Dr. Allen includes Myxicola eBsthetica, Claparede, in the 
fauna of Plymouth, but the distinctions indicated by the 
Swiss author are uncertain, and he overlooked the long 
crotchets in the anterior region of Myxicola infundibulum. 



2. On the Sabellidai dredged by H.M.S. ''Porcupine' in 1869 
and 1870, and by H.M.S. ' Knight Errant' in 1882. 

In the ' Porcupine ' Expedition of 1869 Sabella penicillus 
came from various parts of the west coast of Ireland, and 
Potamilla reniformis in 90-100 fathoms on " Porcupine 
Bank '^ off Ireland. In the Expeditions of 1870 Sabella peni- 
cillus was dredged in 30-1-0 fathoms off Dingle Bay, and 
again at Station 50, lat. 36° 14' N., long. 17° 30' E., in 
7-51 fathoms, on sand and muddy sand. Sabella hystricis, 
sp. n., was procured at No. 27 in 322 fathoms, in tine grey 
mud, bottom-temperature 51°; Chone duneri at No. 29, in 
227 fathoms, bottom-temperature 55°. Branchiomma kolli- 
keri? was brought up on the sounding-lead in 64 fathoms in 
Setubal Bay. A fragment of a Sabella occurred 9 miles off 
Cape Finisterre in 81 fathoms, on a hard bottom with sandy 
mudj bottom-temperature 53° ; and another from Kas el 
Amoud in 45 fathoms. In the ^Knight Errant^ Sabella 
southerni, sp. n., was met with at Station 8, in 540 fathoms ; 
Sabella murrayi, sp. n., in 555 fathoms at Station 11 ; and 
Chone duneri in 53 fathoms at Station 3. 

Sabella hystricis, sp. n. 

Dredged in the 'Porcupine^ Expedition of 1870 at 
Station 27 in 322 fathoms, in fiue grey mud. The single 
example appears to have been dried, but, so far as can be 
observed, the branchiae and the general surface are pale. 
The collar shows a wide dorsal gap in the middle line^ and 



(jatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andreics. 'j.T 

the wide lateral flap is separated from the ventral flaps b)' a 
notch, and the frilled flaps themselves almost touch in the 
middle line. The number of the branchisein each fan is not 
less than twenty, the filaments aie of moderate length and 
ap|)ear to have a terminal process of considerable length, 
but the specimen is not in a condition to be certain on this 
point. The specimen is incomplete, only the injured ante- 
rior region adhering to its tube remaining ; but the rounded 
dorsal surface shows no trace of a groove, whilst the slightly 
flattened ventral surface has a pale median streak with a 
dotted line on each side, as if a nerve-cord were indicated. 

The segments of the anterior region are narrow (antero- 
posteriorly) and the ventral scutes are indistinct. Above 
the closely arranged bristle-tufts of the region is a small 
dark speck. The anterior bristles are in three groups, the 
longer upper series (PI. IV. fig. 1) having straight shafts 
and slightly curved, finely tapered tips, without distinct traces 
of wings. The next series is only a little shorter, but the 
tips are diminished and the wings broader (PI. IV. fig. 2). 
The third series projects little beyond the surface of the 
setigerous lobe, and their tips have fully broader wings than 
the second series. The little pigment-speck near the com- 
mencement of the row of hooks is somewhat conical in 
outline, since it is pointed internally and a[)pears to be 
composed of granules of dark pigment. The anterior hooks 
are avicularand characterized by the distinctness of the teeth 
above the main fang (PI. IV. fig. 3), about six being visible 
in lateral view. The main fang leaves the neck at con- 
siderably less than a right angle, the posterior outline curves 
forward at the crown, so that the region is convex, the prow 
projects almost as far as the tip of the main fang, and the 
posterior process is short and slightly tapered distally, and 
in contrast with such hooks as those of PotamUla renijonnis 
it would appear to be rudimentary. Only faint striation 
occurs at the curvature between neck and base. No 
accessory short bristles accompany the hooks. The tube is 
composed of tough secretion coated at one end with fine 
mud. 

Sabella southerni*, sp. n., was dredged by the ^Knight 
Errant' at Station No. 8, 17th August, 1882, at 540 fathoms, 
along with a sponge. The fragmentary specimens appear to 

* Named after Mr. R. Southern, B.Sc, of the Irish. Fisheries Depart- 
ment, who has done so much good work on the Annelids and other 
marine forms on the western and other coasts of Ireland. 



54 Prof. M'Inlosli's Notes from the 

belong to a small species about an inch or a little more in 
lcuf;th. Thus the cci)halic plate and collar were so injured 
that all that can he said is that the ventral edge of the 
collar was rather full and the two sides separated only by 
a narrow fissure ; but no reflection seemed to occur. The 
lateral regions appeared to be entire up to the dorsal edge. 
Dorsally in every instance the parts adhered to the tube, 
and the collar seemed to be rudimentary. Behind the 
ventral collar were two inner curved ridges surmounted by 
the bases ol the branchiae. The branchiae in the preparation 
were pale and about ten in number in each fan, the pinnaj 
being of moderate length and continuing nearly to the tip, 
which in some was blunt, in others with a short subulate 
])rocess ; but the preparation was imsatisfactory, the tips 
l)eing incurved and adherent to the tube. The anterior 
bristles are pale golden and in two groups — a dorsal longer 
series, few in number, with straight shafts and finely tapered 
winged tips (PI. II. fig. 1), and a more numerous series, with 
oar-like tips from the breadth of the wings (PI. II. fig. 3), 
some having and others not having a slender median prolon- 
gation of the axis at the tip. The tips of the small posterior 
bristles are much elongated, especially dorsally, and have a 
distinct curve. Narrow wings occur in the longer and 
broader in the shorter forms (PI. II. fig. 2). The anterior 
hooks (PI. I. fig. 10) have a rather high crown, which is 
often indicated by a transverse line, a long neck, and a 
wide gulf anteriorly, whilst the posterior outline is nearly 
straight except the forward curve at the crown. The base 
forms a wide angle with the posterior outline, and the prow 
is only moderately prominent. The base is comparatively 
short. Numerous small teeth occur above the main fang. 
These hooks are accompanied by a scries of short bristles, 
the tips of which in certain views looked like an elephant's 
foot from the thickness of the shaft, though in most views 
the tip ended in a point (PI. I. fig. 11). The posterior hooks 
are smaller, but retain the characteristic features of the 
anterior. 

The tube is composed of fine grains of sand mixed with a 
number of minute Foraminifera. 

Sahella murrayi, sp. n.^ 

Hub. Dredged at Station 11 by the ' Knight Errant ' on 
23rd August, 1882, at a depth of 555 fathoms. 

* Named iu honour of the late Sir John Murra}', whose career, from 
the time of Lis being sent in 1871, by Sir Wj ville Thomson, to Murthly 



Qatty Marine Lahoraiory, St. Andreios. r>5 

The cejjhalic resjion dorsally lias a wide collar wliich 
passed inward and forward in the median fnrrow to which it 
was attached. Thus the collar participated in the groove 
and thinned off at its anterior end. Moreover, the irillcd 
edge i)assed haekward to the anterior border of the second 
bristled segment^ and, forming a V, coursed forward again 
to join the lateral rim of the collar. The edges of the V 
were free, and thus gieatly contributed to the extension of 
the collar. Laterally the collar was apparently unbroken, 
and continued to the large ventral recurved lappets which 
were fixed at their inner edge to the cephalic plate, the free 
lamella on each side covering much of the first scute. From 
the inner edge of each lapj)et a conspicuous membrane 
stretched forward to be attached to the edge of the branchial 
fan, thus extending about a fourth of tlie total length of 
the branchiae. The basal region of this peculiar web was 
expanded into a wide disk or lamella, the edges of which 
were more or less curved (PI. I. figs. 1 & 2), so that from 
the ventral surface a large semicircular plate flanked the 
vertical ridge at each side. The function of this remark- 
able apparatus was probably connected with alimentation 
in its abyssal habitat, an unusually powerful and extensive 
current being thus directed forward between the lamellae 
to the region of the mouth. The whole arrangement of 
the collar is, so far as known, unique, and carries further 
the condition indicated by those of Chone duneri and to a 
less degree by those of C. itifundibuUfurmis. In front of 
the groove with the fixed anterior folds of the collar, the 
branchise dorsally presented a solid base, whereas veutrally 
a wide groove ran forward between the fans, and over the 
mouth lay a mass of debris rich in Foraminifera, fragments 
of Eeliinoderms, and other organic structures. The anterior 
edge of the ventral membranous ridge was fixed to the base 
of the lower edge of the branchial fan of its side, and to 
this were attached five or six short and slender branchial 
filaments, the rest being much larger, the total number 
being about fifteen in each fan. The branchial filaments 
were softened and injured, but they seemed to have the 
normal structure, only a single filament having a tip more 

(to be initiated into the preservation of marine animals) to his successful 
conclusion of the ' Challenj^er' publication?, has been -watched -with 
interest. Sir Wyville then thought he would attend to the preservation 
of the contents of the dredges and trawls as well as to the sliius of birds. 
lie afterwards had much worli with the tow-nets, and was anxious to 
describe the Radiolarians, but these went to Prof. Haeckel. To Sir John 
was assigned the bottom-deposits. 



'»6 Prof. M'Tutosli's Notes from (Jie 

or less complete. In this the stout filament tapered distally, 
the iiinna^ diniiiiishiiifj to sni:\ll pajiillio. then a free ])rocess 
I'roni the tip of which a very long thread-like appendage 
projected. If such is the normal condition in this curious 
species, it is little wonder no others were perfect. The body 
is about 1^ inches lonjr, the branchial region being fully 
i; inch more, and the segments are about fifty-eight. It is 
fiatteued both dorsally and ventrally with the exception of 
the anterior region of the scutes, a median groove running 
the entire length dorsally and from behind the anterior 
region ventrally. The tail especially is flattened and oar- 
or spatula-shaped, the diminution at the tip being slight. 
The anal slit is ventral, and on each side is a rounded 
])apilla (or cirrus) on a short stalk. The flattening through- 
out the greater part of the body is characteristic ; and the 
constriction in front of the s])atulate tail is well-marked. 
The anterior bristles follow the normal condition in the 
genus, viz., a longer and a shorter series. The longer bristles 
(PI. 1. fig. 3) have cylindrical golden shafts with a marked 
slant backward after the commencement of the narrow 
wings and a finely tapered tip. The shorter forms (PI. I. 
fig. 4) have a broad paddle-shaped tip with a distal median 
])rocess — the continuation of the ta])ering shaft. Whilst 
the latter presents no strise, the broad wings which form 
the paddle are striated longitudinally. Posteriorly the tips 
of the longer bristles become more and more elongated and 
the wings narrower, until toward the end of the tail they 
are invisible on the hair-like extremities of the attenuated 
bristles. The shorter forms, again, undergo a similar 
change, the tips elongating and the wings becoming nar- 
rower, though they always retain a much broader and 
shorter tip than the foregoing. Indeed, in the caudal 
region the bristles increase much in strength while dimin- 
ishing in number, and a tendency to assume the knife-blade 
outline is noticeable, a constriction of the shaft occurring 
below the tip. These stout caudal bristles evidently have 
special functions. 

The anterior hooks (PI. I. fig. 6) are remarkable for their 
high crowns and for the great proportional length of the 
base, which in this species appears to be of a touglier 
nature — in fact, they simulate the condition in such forms 
as Pista, Terehellides^ and Chone. The main fang makes a 
small angle with the neck, and its base is differentiated 
almost to the posterior oiitlinc of the hook, whilst above it 
the elevated and bluntly conical crown shows in lateral view 
five distinct teeth and several indistinct upper ones. The 



I 



Gatly Marine Lahoratory, Sf. Awhews. 57 

nearly straifjlit posterior outline presents a hump above tlie 
base ; the |)ro\v is rounded in front, and the elongated 
base is gradually tapered backward and eurved, so tliat, 
mingled with the largely developed bristles whieh accompany 
thcni, the structure oF the hook-row is notewortliy, and it 
is often difficult to distinguish the shaft of the bristle from 
the long basal pedicle of the hook. The eusj)idate bristles 
(PI. I. figs. 7 & 8) which accompany the hooks have long 
curved shafts, narrowed at the basal extremity, and also 
constricted below the spear-shaped tip, which is bent at an 
angle to the shaft and tapered to a fine point — longer in some, 
shorter in others. So far as observed, no other species lias 
similar bristles, the majority showing the short paddle-like 
forms. The posterior hooks (PI. I. fig. 9) are sharjjly 
defined from the anterior by the truncate ha'^e and the 
anterior projection or prow. They have the high crown 
with the boldly marked teeth, and the absence of a prow 
makes the neck long. The bases vary in length, that repre- 
sented being an average example. 

Bronchiomma kuUikeri^ Claparede*, var. of B. vesiculosiim?. 

Procured during the ' Porcupine ' Expedition of 1870, in 
64 fathoms, in Setubal Bay. It was brought up on the 
cup-lead. In general outline this somewhat resembles 
C/ione, though readily distinguished by the large eyes at the 
tips of the branchial filaments and the number of the anterior 
scutes. Dorsally the collar presents a deep median furrow, 
with an eminence or boss on each side covered by a rounded 
flap. A little behind this is the origin of the collar proper, 
which springs from the dorsum of the second segment, 
passes downward and forward, and ends in a rounded edge 
on the ventral surface, but as the example had been injured 
it was difficult to compare it with B. vesicuJosum. 

Half of the branchial funnel seemed to be present, viz. 
about thirty-one filaments, the first dorsal of eacb side beino- 
much larger than the others. The filaments generally are 
stiffer than those of Sabella, and in the preparation are 
slightly coiled and the tips incurved. Each consists of a 
stem flattened laterally aiul externally, the former having 
the larger diameter and diminishing toward the tip, which 
ends in a pair of compound eyes and a median process or 
tentacle (PI, IV. fig. 7), a slender tapering process. The 
pinnje are of great length and slenderuess, forming a 
delicate fringe to the inner edge of each filament, and they 

* Anni^l. Chetop. Nap. p. 423, pi. xxii. fiir. 4. 



:)8 Trof. M'Intosli's Notes frotn (he 

are especially long a short distance from the tip ; then (Umiu- 
ishing ill length, they end rather abruptly a short distance 
within the ocular region, which is somewhat clavate with 
the tapering tentacle projecting distally. The filament has 
a similar chordoid skeleton to that of Sahelln and a jointed 
axis continued into each pinna. The whole apparatus is 
stifFer than in the ordinary Sahella, and the pinnae finer and 
more thread-like. Some of the filaments have no eyes, the 
diminished tip ending in a long slender tentacle with a 
chordoid axis in the centre. Moreover, the pinnae in these 
do not terminate abruptly, but gradually becoming shorter 
end in a series of short papillae (rudimentary pinnae), from 
which the long tentacular process projects. A series of 
short tentacular filaments project from each side of the oral 
fissure. No large tentacle occnrred in this injured example. 
As Claparede observes, the eyes are confined to the dorsal 
half of the fan. 

The body is of considerable length — probably, when com- 
plete, having a length of 4-5 inches. It is flattened ante- 
riorl}' on the dorsum, as well as grooved for some distance 
from the collar backward. The ventral surface is rounded 
anteriorly, the first region having eleven scutes which have 
their long diameter transverse, whereas the median furrow 
splits the succeeding scutes, the long diameter of which is 
longitudinal. The specimen is imperfect posteriorly. 

Tlie anterior region has eleven setigerous processes, the 
first being small, but all the bristles have the same struc- 
ture, viz. straigiit striated shafts with tapered bases, and 
tapering tips with moderate rings, obliquely striated and 
with serrated edges. Tiie same structure characterizes the 
posterior bristles, except that the tips are more elongated. 
The most posterior, however, are absent. All the bristles 
are deeply immersed in the tissues. Ten rows of hooks in 
single series occur on each side in the anterior region, and 
these are longer than those in the next division. The 
anterior hooks (Pi. III. fig. 10) are avicular, being distin- 
guished by their moderate necks and greatly elongated 
tapering bases. The main fang has a series of very fine 
teeth above it, and these are so fine that in preparations 
which have been long mounted they are difficult to see. 
The crown has a forward curvature, but thereafter the 
posterior outline is straight till it reaches the base. As 
the great fang leaves the neck at less than a right angle, 
and as the prow is prominent, the anterior outline is deeply 
concave. The somewhat tapered prolongation of the base 
is marked, and the neck and base are striated. These hooks 



Gatty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews 59 

are accompanied by short flattened bristles witli spatulatc 
or beaked ti[)s and pennant-like flaps. The posterior hooks 
do not diflcr from tiie foregoing, except in size and in the 
shorter bases (PI. III. fig. 11). The tube of the example 
is fully 10 inches in length and thicker than a goose-quill. 
It is composed internally of tough secretion — tinted at one 
end of an ochreous hue, and coated externally with minute 
pebbles or coarse sand-particles, fitted neatly together, and 
with an occasional fragment of shell. 

Claparede separated B. koUikcri from B. vesiculostim by the 
presence of the two eyes on the tips of the branchial filaments, 
but the British species has the same arrangement, and, 
unfortunately, he docs not figure the hooks of each, so that 
certain features still require elucidation. So far as can be 
observed, the bristles and hooks in each case are jjractically 
identical, and so \\'\i\\ the smaller flag-bristles which accom- 
pany the anterior hooks. The terminal process of the 
branchial filament is longer in the large ' Porcupine' foira, 
but such may be the effect of age. On the whole, it would 
appear to be a variety of B. vesiculosum. 

3. On the Terebellidse and SabellidiE dredged in the Gidf of 
St. Lawrence, Canada, by Dr. TVhiteaves in 1871-73. 

Amongst the Terebellidse procured were Amphitrite grcen- 
landica, off Port Hood, Cape Breton, the widely distributed 
Amphitrite cirrata, O. F. Miiller, off Cape Rosier Lighthouse; 
Sabella, AB, from the same locality. Pisfa cristata was 
not uncommon at Station A 1, 1872; between Cape Hosier 
and Cape Gaspe, in 75-80 fathoms, on stony ground, No. 2, 
1872 ; and in 210 fathoms, S.W. point of Anticosti. In 
the first-mentioned the tube was composed of hard secretion, 
minute stones, and mud. The ubiquitous Thelejms cin- 
cinnatns, 0. Fabr., abounded in various localities, such as 
near Orphan Bank, off Anticosti, and off Cape Rosier Light- 
house. Many of the tubes were smaller than the British 
representatives, and attached on one side, but made of 
similar materials. The curious Lanassa nordenskioldi, ]\Igrn , 
was dredged off Nova Scotia at Station No. 0, 1872, and 
Nos. 35 and 36, 1873, whilst the equally interesting Artacama 
proboscidea, Mgrn., occurred in Gaspe Bay in 30 fathoms. 
Fragments, apparently of Erentho smitti, Mgrn., again, 
were found in 170 fathoms off Caribou Island, and between 
Cai)e Rosier and Cape Gaspe. No form was more 
abundant than Terebellides strami, Sars, which seemed to 
range over the whole area, from 100 to 220 fathoms. The 



60 Prof. M'lntosli's Notes from the 

widely distributed Sabella penicillus, L., was procured at 
Station No. 10, 1872, and Nos. 35 and 36, 1873, besides 
being dredged in 2.'20 fatlionis between Anticosti and tlie 
sbore, Potam'illa reniformis, O. F. M., occurred between 
Pictou Island and Cape Bear, Nos. 46-48, 1873, in firm 
sandy tubes. Potamilla tore/ii, Malragren, was common at 
Stations Nos. 46-48, 1873, and between Pictou Island and 
Cape Bear, No. 56, 1873. Chone duneri, Malmgren, along 
with a fragmentary Euchone, occurred at Station No. 2, 1872, 
and Chone princei, s]).n., at various Stations in the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence; whilst further north, in Godhavu Harbour, 
Disco, a form approaching Chone fauveli, occurs. 

Euchone (?) laivj-encii, sp. n. 

Dredged in the Gulf of St. Lawrence at Station 2, 1872. 

Only a fragment of the anterior end without the branchiae 
is present along with Chone pr'mcei. The collar, which is 
rather full, runs from the ventral surface, where it is entire, 
with a very slight slope backward to tlie dorsal surface, 
where its edge turns in to be attached to the middle line as 
far forward as the base of the pillar for the branchise, which 
does not project so far as the rim of the collar. Eight seg- 
ments are bristled anteriorly, and the dorsal furrow passes 
downward between the eighth and ninth segments, cutting 
the ninth obliquely to the meflian line, along which it is 
continued. The species seems to be a large one, the body 
being about 3 mm. in diameter anteriorly. The bristles 
were absent. The lower anterior hooks (PI. II. fig. 11) had 
stout curved shafts, in which a long enlargement below the 
indistinct shoulder and a short neck occurred, the bold striae 
of the shaft passing upward almost to the main fang, which 
forms a little more than a right angle with the shaft, and 
there were several (three or four) small teeth above it. 
The posterior hooks differ from those of Chone, and more 
nearly approach those of Euchone, having a nearly straight 
and long posterior outline (PI. II. fig. 12), an almost straight 
anterior outline, and a truncated base, the neck being finely 
striated. 

Chone princei*, sp. n. 

Dredged at Stations 2, 6, 9, 11, 1872, and Stations 35 
and 36, 1873, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, by Dr. Whiteaves. 

When the branchiae are removed, the cephalic region 
(PI. III. figs. 3 & 4) differs from Chone reayi in having 

* Named after my early student, fellow-worker, and friend, Prof, E, 
E, Prince, now Dominion Cojnmissioner of Fisheries for Canada. 



(iatti/ ^farine LahorcUory, St. Andrexos. Gl 

the branchial basal region or pedicle more prominent and 
the tentacles on each side of the fissnre well developed. 
Moreover, the collar is narrower, and it slopes from below 
upward and backward to the dorsal surface, where it ends 
in a broad, free, V-shaped i)ocket on each side — separated 
by a central fissure. Instead of the higix fold on each 
side of the dorsal fissure the narrow collar makes a W of a 
characteristic form, since the inner margins run forward 
to the median groove of the pedicle, and the whole 
facies of the anterior end ditt'ers. A glandular or 
tubular organ is vissible in each space of the W, for the 
cephalic plate is largely exposed in a dorsal view; ventrally 
the mouth appears as a longitudinal slit with thickened 
edges below the basal pillars of the branchiae, and in some 
the thin buccal membrane is distended with mud. I\Iore- 
over, the ventral margin of the collar is symmetrically 
sinuous, being prominent at the sides, and then passing with 
a curve to the central dimple. A distinctive feature is the 
prominence of the bases of the brauchise, and their separation 
anteriorly, 

The body, which is about 2 inches long and \ inch in 
diameter, is somewhat flattened anteriorly, more rounded 
posteriorly, and the segments appear to range from sixty to 
seventy. From the mid-dorsal fissure a groove passes 
backward to the posterior border of the eighth bristled 
segment, runs in the furrow between the eighth and ninth, 
then ventrally crosses the ninth obliquely to the middle 
line, and then passes to the posterior end. The segments 
are distinctly marked, those of the anterior region presenting 
a two-ringed condition ventrally. It tapers gently poste- 
riorly, and then rather abruptly ends in a point with the 
anus at the tip, the segments being numerous and crowded 
in this region. 

The branchiie are of considerable length, are devoid of 
a web, and have a regularly camerated axis continued as a 
slender central process in the very long, tapering, terminal 
process, which has a few short pinnae or papillae at its base, 
the longer pinnse gradually diminishing and ceasing at the 
base of the process. The number of the branehiffi would 
appear to be about a dozen on each side, and, besides the 
filiform cirri, two short, flattened, tapering tentacles occur 
dorsally. 

The anterior segments have a median prominence in the 
form of a flattened cone laterally, and tiius the bristles are 
unusually conspicuous, especially as a distinct setigerous 
process is present. The first tuft is composed only of 



62 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

bristles with tapering tips and well-marked wings which are 
obliquely striated and probably minutely serrated at the 
edges, though this was not clearly seen in the spirit-prepa- 
rations. The tips are slightly curved backward, and the 
shafts faintly striated. The tips of a shorter series, pro- 
bably for replacement, project from the edge of the setigerous 
process. The succeeding bristles of the anterior region are 
arranged in two series — an upper with long straight shafts 
and shorter more finely tapered tips (1^1. IV. fig. ll), with 
proportionally broader wings than in the first series, the 
backward curvature occurring beyond the commencement 
of the wiugs, and a lower with spatulate tips terminated 
by a median filament (PI. III. fig. 8). In the developing 
bristle various degrees of enlargement of the spatulate tips 
are observed, and the wings are more or less longitudinally 
striated. These bristles form a group moved by distinct 
muscles, as might be anticipated from their functions. 
The posterior bristles are longer and more slender, the 
shafts, however, being comparatively short, whilst the tips 
are of great length and finely tapered, with but slight curva- 
ture. The wings are so narrow as to be almost indistin- 
guishable, though in the developing bristles with a portion 
of the tip protruding they are more easily recognized. 
These posterior tufts do not show a shorter series. 

The anterior hooks (PL III. figs. 5, 6) have long curved 
shafts, which dilate from the base (proximal end) to the 
shoulder, where a slight constriction marks the commence- 
ment of the short neck, which again expands a little distally 
as it runs into the main fang in front and the rounded 
crown posteriorly. When inverted these organs simulate 
the human foot and leg. The main fang leaves the neck at 
rather more than a right angle, but the crown is quite flat 
except at the rounded posterior " keel." Numerous small 
teeth occur on the crown behind the main fang. The 
posterior hooks (PI. III. fig. 7) lean to the type of Clione 
reayi, though quite different, for the shaft ends abruptly 
after only a slight curvature, so that no proper prow is 
formed and the neck is little, differentiated. The main 
fang leaves the neck at an angle of 45°, the posterior 
outline curves forward to the somewhat high crown which 
has numerous minute teeth above the great fang. 

Reproduction. A male had nearly ripe sperms in August. 
Tube. The tube is a smoothly rounded firm structure of mud, 
Avhich coats the internal chitinous lining. It is friable. 

A Choae resembling C. fauveli comes from Godhavn 
Harbour, Disco, where it was dredged by H.M.S. 'Valorous,' 



Gatty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andreios. ^ C3 

iu 5-20 fathoms iu 1875. The collar is deep all round like 
that of C reayi, but the siuglc example docs not show the 
pedicle for the brauchiie (which are absent) on a level with 
the margin as in that species. Eight bristled segments 
occur anteriorly, the dorsal tufts having moderately elon- 
gated taperiug tips with distinct, though rather narrow, 
wings and with a slight curve. The lower bristles are 
spatulate, with stout shafts which remain nearly cylindrical 
to the wings, then slightly diminish to a blunt tip, and the 
web is somewhat short with a smoothly rounded end. The 
bristles of the second region have shafts which are con- 
stricted distally, the tip thereafter making an angle with 
the shaft, the ringed tip then tapering to a fine point. 
The bristles are of moderate length and rather stout, one in 
each tuft especially surpassing the others in size. They be- 
come longer and more slender toward the tail. The anterior 
hooks have stout curved shafts, which increase from the 
root or base to the shoulder and are striated and yellowish 
by transmitted light. The neck is translucent, stout, and 
the main fang, which leaves the neck at an obtuse angle, is 
short and strong, and has about four distinct teeth above it, 
the crown posteriorly projecting a little. The posterior 
hooks (PI. III. fig. 9j approach those of Chone fauveli, but 
show only three teeth above the main fang instead of four in 
the British form, the base is less massive and the striation 
differs, yet there is a close resemblance, which is interesting 
in forms so divergent in habitat. As mentioned, this is the 
type of hook Prof. Fauvel associated with Chone infundibuli- 
formis, Kroyer, but it is essentially different, as are likewise 
the bristles. 

4. On the Sabellidse dredged by Canon A. M. Norman 
off Norway and Fimnark. 

Besides Sabella nordcnskioldi and Chone normani described 
subsequently, Sabella penicillus, L., was obtained at several 
stations along with Potamilla reniformis, Kr., Amphicora 
fabricii, 0. F. M., and Chone duneri, Mgrn. 

Sabella nordenskiiJkli *, sp. n. 

A Sabellid which at first sight resembled Sabella 
crassicornis from its finely coloured branchiae and the 
disposition of the collar, and nearly 2 inches long, was 
dredged by Canon Norman off Finmark. The collar 

* Named after Dr. Erik Nordenskiold, of the University of Ilelsing- 
fors, a former worker in the Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 



GJ: Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

(PI. III. figs. 12 & 13) arises as a somewhat thick process on 
each side of the dorsal fissure — leaving, however, a consider- 
able portion of the centre bone (where the two ridges pass 
forward, one on each side of the deep central fissure). It 
then passes laterally and is separated by a notch from the 
ventral border, which has two median flaps. This collar has 
certain resemblances to that o( Branchioimna. In the centre 
in front of these is the symmetrical process formed by the 
li|:S. Tlie branchise are comparatively short, are richly 
banded with purple and white, and number about fourteen 
or fifteen on each side, terminating in a short slightly- 
tapered process, flattened, and grooved internally. The 
pinnae are rather thick and short, diminish toward the tip 
of the filament, and end somewhat abruptly at the base of 
the terminal process. Each bears three or four pairs of 
eyes externally, the distal pair apparently being most dif- 
ferentiated. Each eye is elevated above the filament and 
is composed of a series of somewhat regularly arranged 
pigment-cells with a clear corneal surface, the whole being 
only less dift'erentiated than the larger eyes of Bran- 
chiomma. The tentacles are somewhat short, flattened 
at the base, and tapered distally. They are not quite one- 
third the length of the brauchiaj. The anterior region 
consists of nine segments, the dorsum being very slightly 
hollowed at the fissure, whilst the rest is more or less 
rounded. The ventral surface is flattened, nine entire 
scutes being in front, and thereafter each is bisected by 
the median furrow which passes to the tail. The body 
appears to be rather short and stout, tapering gently to the 
posterior end. Nine pairs of bristles are found anteriorly, 
the upper bristles (PL IV. fig. 4) having longer striated 
shafts and tapering tips with narrow wings and serrated 
edges. The tips of the inferior bristles (PI. IV. fig. 5) just 
project beyond the skin, and these are shorter and have 
wider wings, the shafts also having striae which are con- 
tinued into the tips, and the shafts are slightly narrowed 
below the wings. The posterior bristles are shorter and 
fewer in number in each tuft, but the length and slenderness 
of the tips increase toward the tail. The constriction of 
the neck below the wings and the projection of the base 
of the winged region give a character to each tuft pos- 
teriorly, so that it is tulip-like, and the tips are comparatively 
short. The anterior hooks (PI. IV. fig. 6) have a somewhat 
short and sharp main fang, which leaves the neck at less 
than a right angle. The crown above it is high with 
numerous minute teeth. The dorsal outline is convex and 



Gatty Marine Laboratorij, St. Andrews. 05 

bends forward at the crown and l)ackward over the some- 
what short base. A little behind the long row of teeth on 
the crown is a shorter row at the end of the striae which 
pass up the neck. The anterior outline is smoothly curved 
below the great fang, then gently extends forward to the prow 
and below the short basal process, which is striated. The 
chief features are the depth of the crown, the short and 
sharp main fang, the minuteness of the serrations above it, 
the narrowness of the neck, and the comparatively short 
base. The posterior hooks differ from the anterior chiefly 
in size, but the lateral row of teeth on the crown is more 
distinct than iu front. The tube is chiefly composed of a 
horny secretion which clings tenaciously to the body of the 
annelid in the preparation. Few grains of sand or other 
extraneous structures arc present. 

In the brilliant coloration of the branchiae this form 
approaches Sabel/a crassicornis. Sars, procured during the 
'Valorous^ Expedition in 1875, and its collar is also similar, 
but the presence of well-formed paired eyes differs from the 
bold pigment-touches of the arctic species. Moreover, 
the branchial filaments of S. nordenskioldi are short and 
stout, and the pinnse rather short, whereas the filaments 
of S. crassicornis are longer and more slender, and so with 
the pinnffi. The terminal processes are also longer and 
more slender. The rich coloration of the branchise in both 
species is noteworthy — Sars * describing those of S. crassi- 
cornis as banded with white and red, or often wholly red, 
and having four or five intensely red oval spots equally 
distant. 

Chone normani\, sp. n., was dredged by Canon Norman 
off" Finmark, and is distinguished by the great length of the 
branchise, which are not much shorter than the body, the 
terminal processes especially being greatly developed^ so that 
each resembles a linear lanceolate leaf (PI. III. fig. 14) 
with a slender midrib. The filaments bear very slender 
pinnse which are of considerable length, and the edge of 
each is also webbed for a considerable distance, the mem- 
brane connecting the filaments with each other occurring 
only below it. The body is about an inch in length, very 
little tapered in front, but diminishing gradually to the 
tail, rounded generally, though slightly flattened ventrally 

« Nyt. Mag. 6 Bd. p. 202 (1851). 

t Named after Canon Norman, who, for many years, has so richly 
added to the fauna of the Briti.sh and neighbouring seas, and to whose 
courtesy with specimens I have long been indebted. 

Ann. dc Man. X. Ilisf. Ser. S. Vol. xvii. 5 



66 Prof. M'liitosh's Notes from the 

after the median groove appears. The collar has a deep 
dorsal fissure, and is formed much after the shape of that 
of Chone reayi, viz., slopes a little forward from the dorsal 
groove, and preserves au even outline throughout the rest 
of its extent. It differs, however, in so far as the collar 
forms a free edge dorsally on each side as far back as the 
posterior border of tlie first segment. From tlie point of 
attachment a promiueut ridge goes forwai'd on each side to 
the pedicle of the branchiae, which does not project so far 
forward as the collar. The edge of the collar throughout is 
entire. The segments of the body are two-ringed, and there 
are about sixty of them. 

The anterior region consists apparently of eight bristled 
segments, but the bristles are inconspicuous, and the dorsal 
furrow passes ventrally between the eighth and ninth 
segments. Behind the collar is a single ring, then the 
following segments are two-ringed. The anterior bristles 
consist of an upper series (PI. II. fig, 13) with winged tips 
finely tapered and a ventral series of spatulate forms 
(PI. II. fig. 1^), the shafts of which are stouter and only 
slightly tapered distally, the tip often having a filiform 
process. 

The anterior hooks are comparatively short, have a some- 
what long main fang (PL II. fig. 15), and six or seven 
teeth on the crown behind it. The neck is short and 
distinctly striated longitudinally, and the curve of the shaft 
is marked as it tapers to the basal region. The posterior 
hooks (PL III. fig. 15) have a main fang with a nearly 
straight upper outline, and the six or seven teeth on the 
crown behind it are slightly prominent. The posterior 
curve is not quite straight superiorly, then bends nearly at a 
right angle to the base. The anterior curve has a slight 
prow and the outline of the base is sinuous. The tube is 
formed chiefly of a firm, though brittle, secretion, with a 
Foraminifer studded here and there on the surface. It 
resembled that of Potamilla reniformis, but was less tough. 

It was at first thought probable that this was a northern 
variety of Chone duneri or an allied form, but a consideration 
of all the features negatived such a view. Though it is 
known that the posterior (avicular) hooks of such forms 
vary somewhat in the numl^er of visible teeth on the crown 
above the main fang, yet the outline in each species has 
certain limits in this respect. The peculiar structure of 
the branchiae and the terminal processes in the present form 
are also factors of importance. A fragmentary form pro- 
cured by the 'Valorous' in 1875 in the Arctic sepas, has a 



Gatty Marine Lahoralory, St. Andrews. 67 

postei'ior liook almost identical with the foregoing, so that 
its distribution may he extensive, though the absence of 
branchicc and other parts in the Arctic fragment leave a 
margin of doubt. 

EXPLAXATIOX OF THE PLATES * 

Platk I. 

Fig. 1. Dorsal aspect of the region of the collar and the branchial base 

in Sdbella murra;/i, sp. n., from H.M.S. 'Knight Errant.' 

Enlarged under a lens. 
Fiff. 2. Lateral view of the same region. 
Fir/. 3. Slightly winged dorsal bristle of the longer type. x Zeiss 

oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fiff. 4. Spatulate bristle with filament at the tip. Ditto. 
Fiff. 6. Posterior bristle. 
Fiff. 6. Ilemarkable anterior hook with a differentiation of the posterior 

border behind the prow and a greatly elongated shaft. 

X oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fiffs. 7, 8. Minute biistles accompanying the long anterior hooks. 

X 4.0O diam. 
Fiff. 9. Posterior hook of the same. X oc. 2, obj. F. 
Fiff. 10. Anterior hook of Sahella southo.rni, sp. n., with long basal 

process, x oc. 4, obj. D, with 2-iu. draw-tube. 
Fig. 11. Posterior hook of the foregoing with abbreviated base. X oc. 4, 

obj. D, with 1-in. draw-tube. 

Plate II. 
Fiff. 1. Anterior winged bristle of Sahella southerni, ' Knight Errant.' 

X oc. 4, obj. D, with 1-in. draw-tube. 
Fig. 2. Posterior bristle with longer tip. Ditto. 
Fiff. 3, Spatulate bristle of the same. x oc. 4,, obj. D, with 1-in, 

draw-tube. 
Fiff. 4. Anterior winged bristle of Chone duneri, Malmgren. X oc. 4, 

obj. D, with l|-iu. draw-tvibe. 
Fig. 5. Spatulate bristle of the foregoing. X oc. 4, obj. F. 
Fig. 6. Anterior hook, x oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fig. 7. Posterior hook, x oc. 4, obj. F. 
Fig. 8. Posterior hook of Chone fauveli, St. Andrews (? marked variety 

of C. duneri). 
Fig. 9. Posterior hook of typical Clione itifundibulifonnis, Kr., from 

Greenland. X oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fig. 10. Posterior hook of Clione reayi, sp. n. X oc. 4, obj. F. 
Fig. 11. Anterior hook o{ Fuc/wne lawrencii, sp. n. ? x 500 diam. 
Fig. 12. Posterior hook, x oOO diam. 
Fig. 13. Longer winged bristle of Sctiella nordenskioldi, sp. n. X 450 

diam. 
Fig. 14. Spatulate bristle. X 450 diam. 
Fig. 15. Anterior hook of the same. X 450 diam. 

Plate TIL 

Figs. 1, 2. Minnte cuspidate bristles accompanying the anterior hooks of 
Sahella southerni. X oc. 4, obj. D, with draw-tube. 

* I am indebted to the Carnegie Trust for the majority of these 
figures. 

5* 



08 Messrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 

Fiff. 3. Dorsal view of the collar-ref^ion of Chone pnncei, sp. n. Gulf 

of St. Lawrence, Canada, Enlarged under a lens. 
Fiff. 4. Ventral aspect of the foregoing. Similarly magnified. 
Fiffs. 5, (i. Anterior hooks, x oc. 4, obj. D, with full draw-tube. 
Fig. 7. Posterior hook. X 800 diam. 

Fiff. 8. Spatulate bristle of the anterior region. X oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fiff. 9. Posterior hook of a Choiie (p. 63) from the Arctic Expedition of 

1875-76. X about 800 diam. 
Fig. 10. Anterior hook of B ranch iotntna kollikeri, Claparede, or var. B. 

vesiculosu)}2, 'Porcupine' Expedition, 1870. X oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fig. 11. Posterior hook of the same. Ditto. 
Fig. 12. Dorsal view of the collar-region of Sabella nordenskioldi, sp. n. 

Enlarged under a lens. 
Fig. 13. Ventral view of the same. Similarly niag-nified. 
Fig. 14. Linear lanceolate process at the tip of a bi*anchial filament. 

X 60 diam. 
Fig, 15. Posterior hook of the foregoing, x 700 diam. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Longer dorsal bristle of Sahella hystricis, sp. n., from the 

'Porcupine' Expedition of 1870. x oc, 4, obj. D, with 1-in. 

draw-tube. 
Fig. 2. Shorter form with more distinct wings. Ditto. 
Fig. 3. Anterior hook, x oc. 4, obj. D, with 2-iu. draw-tube. 
Fig. 4. Longer dorsal bristle of Sabella nordenskioldi, sp. n., from 

Finmark. X oc. 4, obj. D, with 1-in. draw-tube. 
Fig. 5. Shorter bristle with broad wings. Ditto. 
Fig. 6. Anterior hook. Ditto. 
Fig. 7. Branchial eyes of Branchiomma kollikeri, Claparede, or var. of 

B. vesicidosum. X oc. 2, obj. A. 
Fig. 8. Long dorsal bristle (anterior) of Chone reayi, sp. n. x oc. 2, 

obj. D, with draw-tube. 
Fiq. 9. Intermediate bristle with wide wings. X oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fig. 10. Paddle-Uke form with filament at the tip. X oc. 4, obj. D, 

with draw-tube. 
Fig. 11. Anterior hook, x 450 diam. 
Fig. 12. Dorsal view of the collar and pedicle of the branchiae. Enlarged 

under a lens. 
Fig. 13. Ventral view of the foregoing. 
Fig. 14. Winged bristle of Chone princei. x oc. 4, obj. D. 



II. — New Lepidoptera from Dutch New Guinea. By J. J. 
Joicey, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S., and G. Talbot, F.E.S. 

[Plates V.-VUL] 

The forty-four species lierein described were obtained by 
Messrs. A., C, and F. Pratt in November 1914 during tiieir 
expedition to the district of Geelvink Bay, North Dutcli New- 
Guinea. 

The species from the Coast District, Geelvink Bay, were 



Lepidoptera from Dutch New Guinea, 69 

coHected in Wandammen Bay, and a short distance inland 
from liere are the Wandammen Mountains, where the majority 
were tai<cn. 

Our thanks are due to Lord Rothschild, Dr. K. Jordan, 
and to Mr. G. T. Bethune- Baker tor lielp given and the 
opportunity afforded of comparing specimens. 

In the following descriptions some sj)ecies referred to as 
described by Joicey & Noakes and Joicey & Talbot will 
shortly be published in the Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 

R H P A L C E R A. 

Fapilionidse. 

1. Papilio (^Troides) chimcera draccena, subsp. n. 
(PL V. fig. 1.) 

? . Fore icing with cell-patch large, subapical spots large 
and closer together than in typical form, submarginal spots 
small. Hind wing with a large spot in end of cell ; distal 
edge of band not so strongly scalloped, so that the black 
margin is broader on the whole. Below, the base of costa i& 
yellow. 

Abdomen with shorter hair and reduced black on the seg- 
ments, these being much more yellow basally than in the 
typical form. 

Three examples, Wandammen Mtns., 3000-40U0 feet, 
Nov. A specimen, supposed to be the ^ , was nearly taken 
by a native collector, who stated that the hind wing was 
witiiout black spots. 

This race appears intermediate between the typical form 
and a ? from Central Dutch New Guinea, described as 
charijhdis by R. Van Eecke in ' Rhopalocera of the Third 
Dutch Expedition to New Guinea,' p. 56, pi. ii. fig. 1, 
March 1915. 

Pieridse. 

2. Delias marice, sp. n. 
(PI. VI. fig. J, c?, 2, ?.) 

This distinct species is apparently most nearly allied to 
clathrata, R. & J. 

cJ . Upperside. — Fore wing with broad apical and outer 
black margin ; costa black to base, extending into the cell 
and connected with a black discocellular spot ; basal two-thirds 
of wing thinly scaled with white over black and forming a 
transitional stage to the completely black wing of elonjatus, 



70 Messrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 

Kenr. ; two white apical dots. Ilind wtng white, with a 
narrow black border I'rom vein 7 to inner angle, widest above 
vein 3. 

Underside. — Fore wing black, with a broad white median 
band, extending along inner margin from base to near tornus, 
slightly invading cell between veins 2 and 4, its outer edge, 
placed at right angles to costa, slightly dentate, curved from 
veins 4-6, the inner edge between these veins not touching 
cell, and thus forming a narrow anterior part ; three orange- 
yellow apical spots, below which are three vertical marginal 
streaks in 2-4. Hind wing with black ground-colour ; base 
behind pra3costal, base of cell, and inner margin nearly to 
vein 2 powdered with dark orange ; a curved pale yellow 
spot below origin of vein 2; a somewhat oval- shaped pale 
yellow discal patch, its lower edge evenly convex, its upper 
irregular, lying mostly within the cell and extending a little 
beyond the discocellulars, whicli are white ; a broad creamy 
submarginal band from costa above vein 7 to Ih, widest in 
2 and 3, where the inner edge projects more inwardly, outer 
edge dentate between the veins and leaving a narrow black 
margin. 

? . Upijerside. — Fore wing with extended black, leaving 
a grey-white median patch as below, but only extending 
above vein 3 as a small yellowish spot at base of 3, and as a 
narrow curved yellowish streak from 4 to 6 ; a narrow 
yellowish suffusion bordering lower edge of cell between 2 
and 4 ; three yellowish apical dots, one in 6 the larger. 
Ilind wing with a broader marginal border than in cJ. 

Underside of fore wing as in ,$ . Hind wing with discal 
patch somewhat reduced and spot below vein 2 minute. 

Length of fore wing, J" 2S, ? 30 mm. 

2 (J (?, 2 ? ? , GObO feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

3. Delias tessei, sp. n. 
(Pi.VI. fig. 3, c?,4, ?.) 

Nearest to hapaltna, Jord., more especially in the cJ . 
Whilst the ? of kapalina resembles the S, the ? of the 
present species is much more divergent. 

(J. Upperside of fore wing with outer black area a little 
more extended than in hapalind, its iimer edge not indented 
in cellule 4. 

Underside. — Fore wing with more extended apical black 
and reduced costal streak ; yellow apical spots larger. Ilind 
wi7ig without yellow on tlie disc or with only a slight trace ; 
basal streak yellow at base and white outwardly ; subbasal 



Lepidoptera from Dutch New (iuinea. 71 

black bar narrower ; inner black margin extended to vein 2 
and t'orniint^ a short marginal border to middle of cellule 3; 
black discal line widened posteriorly from cellule 4, being 
widest where it joins the inner marginal black ; the red 
distal border is not curved below vein 2, but invades the 
black io lb ; inner margin washed with yellow near the base 
only. 

? . Upperside. — Fore wing with much more extended 
black. Hind wing with a broad black outer margin. 

Underaide. — Fore icing with black outer area as above ; 
basal three-quarters of cell washed with pale yellow. IJind 
wing with whole inner and outer margin black, leaving red 
line better defined than in c? ^'^^ narrowly bordered with 
white distally. 

Length of fore wing, c? 30, ? 27 mm. 

A series of both sexes, GOOO feet, Wandammen Mtns., 
Nov. 

4. Delias caroli wandammenensce, subsp. n. 
(PI. V. tig. 2.) 

c? . Upperside of fore wing with black area extended to 
origin of vein 2 and to inner margin before tornus. Hind 
wing with broader margin, especially at apex. 

Underside of fore wing with mostly only three apical dots. 
Hind wing with the red submarginal line more broken at the 
veins, forming separate bars in some specimens. 

? with black area on both wings more extended ; white 
area tinged with pale yellow distally; apical spots as in 
caroli. Underside as in typical form, apical spots smaller. 

A series of (^ <? find 3 ? ? , 6000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., 
Nov. 

5. Delias thompsom, sp. n. 
(PI. V. fig. 3, c?, 4, ?.) 

The pattern of the hind wing of this species is unlike any 
known form of the genus. 

(J. Upperside. — Fore icing with basal half white to end of 
cell and to before the tornus, outer edge indented below 
vein 8 ; outer half black and costa black to base. Hind wing 
white, with a narrow black margin, which widens at vein 6. 

Underside. — Fore wing black ; inner margin, from base to 
before tornus, white to submedian fold. Apex with two 
brick-red spots, and three dots of same colour in 3-5. Hind 
icing black ; a yellow spot at base of costa ; an elongate 
brick-red subcostal spot in 6, and below it in middle of cell 



72 Messrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 

a small round spot of similar colour ; a brick-red costal spofc 
before the apex and joined to the first of a submarginal row ot 
vhite spots, the tirst two being farther apart from the others, 
which are more or less connected to form a line to the anal 
angle ; traces of white scaling in cellule 7 along vein 6. 

? . Uppera'ide with more extended black on both wings, 
the hind-wing margin being widest between vein 4 and costa; 
basal white of fore wing and inner margin of hind wing with 
a slight yellowish tinge. Apex of fore wing with two brick- 
red spots. 

UnderAde of fore wing with reduced white at inner 
margin and larger apical spots continued as faint streak to 
the tornus. Hind wing as in (J, but with submarginal spots 
tinged here and there with red. 

Length of fore wing, cJ ? , 25 mm. 

A small series of both sexes, GOOO feet, Wandammen Mtns., 
Nov. 

6. Elodina definita, sp. n. 

Differs from all other New Guinea species of this genus in 
the reduced costal and basal black on fore wing above, this 
only slightly invading cell at extreme base. The black 
marginal border is regularly incurved and only slightly 
waved ; it terminates below vein 2 and is rounded at this 
vein 

Underside of fore wing at base lemon-yellow in cell, costa 
narrowly margined, a well-marked subapical black band 
terminating below vein 2. Hind wing lemon-yellow at base 
in cellule 8. Ground-colour chalky white on both sides. 

Length of fore wing 22 mm. 

1 S , Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

1. Danaida meJusine commixta, subsp. n. 

This form, of which we only possess a damaged ? speci- 
men, partakes of the characters of grosesmithi^ Joicey & 
Noakes, whilst connecting this with the race ootakwensis, 
Joicey & Noakes. 

$ . Fore vnng with apical spots and median patches larger 
than in grostsmithi, but smaller than in oelakicensis. The 
upper median patch is as long as in the more typical melusine 
forms, but does not touch the cell ; submarginal spots large, 
as in grosesmitJd. 

Hind wing with three apical spots smaller than in grosC' 



Lepidoptera jrom Dutch New Guinea. 73 

smithi ; cliscal patch well defined, no spot at base of 6. 
Underside with large snbmaiginal spots, only four of which 
can be seen owing to the damage sustained by the specimen ; 
a spot at base of 8. 

Ground-colour of underside as in typical forms, not pale 
as in qrosesviithi. 

1 ? , 3000-1000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

8. Ideopsis vitrea serena, subsp. n. 

? . Nearest arfahensis, Fruli., but distinguished by more 
sharply defined markings. 

Fore loing with the vitreous postmedian area sharply 
defined distally and quite clear in areas 2 and 3. Hind wing 
with a larger black apical patch ; greenish-yellow ground- 
colour quite clear and without any dark lines in the cell. 

4 ? ? , 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

Nyniphalidse. 

9. Cynthia arsino'e 7-ebeli, Frub., aberration. 
(PI. VIL figs. 1, 2.) 

This is a melanic aberration affecting three wings on both 
sides, whilst the left hind wing remains normal. The black 
markings are condensed to form patches. On the fore wing 
is a heavy black submarginal line, a large postdiscal costal 
patch, and a patch in the cell. The right hind wing has a 
wide marginal black border. Below, the basal half of fore 
wings is dark purplish brown mixed with black and the distal 
part of hind wing is darker than the normal. 

1 c? 5 Coast District, Geelvink Bay, Nov. 

Amathusiidae, 

10. Morphotcenaris schoenhergi icandammenensis, subsp. n. 
(PL VI. fig. 5.) 

Nearest to kenricki, B.-Baker, from the Arfak. 

(^ ? . Fore wing with cell black as in allied form, this 
colour also darkening the band to more than halfway between 
cell and margin, whilst the distal broM'n part is much darker 
tlian it is in ktnricki ; in one iS the brown at the tornus is 
much more obscured with black. Apical ocelli absent or 
only two small ones present. Hind iving below with a variable 
number of ocelli ; the three middle ones may be either absent 
or partly so. 

fcjomc specimens of kenricki are transitional to the above 



74: Messrs. J. J. Joiccy and G. Talbot on new 

form, having increased black on fore wing and reduced 
ocelli. 

2 S 6,^ ? ? , 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

Satyridse. 

11. Erycinidia maztdei, sp. n. 
(PI. VII. fig. 3.) 

This species is distinct from any other in the genus, but 
above it resembles white forms of Platypthlma. 

cJ. Upperside. — Fore wing with a median patch of dull 
silvery white, extending into the cell below vein 2 and 
forming a spot between 2 and 3, filling angle of vein 3; rest 
of Cell and costa below vein 3 to base greyish brown ; apical 
half black ; a small, sc[uare, white costal spot, nearer cell 
than to apex. 

Hind wing dull silvery white, dark greyish at base and 
inner margin, as also the tail and margin in cellule 2 ; rest 
of marginal border black, widest at apex, and between vein 4 
and end of tail is traversed by two thin white lines ; some 
greyish scaling at end and base of tail; a small black sub- 
marginal ocellus in 2, ringed with white and with a white 
pupil. 

Underside with dark grey ground-colour sparsely scaled 
with bluish grey. Fore wing with white median triangular 
patch not entering cell ; a bar across cell to costa between 
veins 2 and 3, white near the cell, anteriorly paler than 
ground-colour; white costal spot as above; a bluish-grey 
submarginal triangular patch extending from costa to a point 
on vein 2, and including the costal spot at its proximal edge ; 
in centre of patch a row of four small ocelli in 3-6 ; a sub- 
marginal dark line. Hind icing with a dark irregular sub- 
basal line from costa to middle of 1 c, crossing cell before 
vein 7 and at origin of 2 ; a straight postmedian line from 
costa to middle of vein 3, then bent shortly inwards and 
straight to above marginal ocellus, then bent inwards to 
vein 2 ; distally of this line a row of four small ocelli in 3-6, 
and a larger ocellus near margin in 2 ; apical area grey- 
brown, with a submarginal narrow batid of bluish grey 
defined by dark grey edges and extending to vein 3 ; tail 
black. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen smoky black, greyish below. 
Antennffi dark yellow-brown, lower part of club black on 
inside. 

? . Upperside similar. Fore wing with white bar across 
cell, which is only faintly indicated in c^ ; costal spot larger. 



Lepidoptera from Dutch New Guinea. 75 

Underside mucli paler than in <$ and with a brownish 
ground-colour. 

Length of fore wing, ^ 21, ? 22 mm. 

A series of both sexes, 6000 feet, Wandamnien Mtus., Nov. 

12. Platypthima enptycluoides, sp. n. 
(PI. VIII. tig. 1.) 

Allied to klossi, Roths.* 

(^ . Upperside dark smoky brown, darker at the margins, 
without markings. 

Underside paler than above, i^ore icing with apex and 
outer margin to vein 3 reddish brown, bordered proximally 
by a black band which widens posteriorly to vein 2 and 
touches margin between this vein and 3; proximally of this 
a pale indistinct postmediau band ; inner marginal area 
smoky grey. Hind wing with a postmedian band formed of 
seven ocelli in 1 c-7, the one in 5 shitted inwards, tiie one in 
6 outwards, and the seventh farther in than the others ; each 
ocellus has a white pupil and black iris ringed with yellow- 
brown and outwardly with black ; the sixth and seventh are 
only represented by a larger white pupil ; tiie seventh is 
bordered posteriorly by steel-blue, and the others are similarly 
bordered proximally and distally, forming a steel-blue band 
which encloses the ocelli ; the inner border of the band is 
thicker tiian the outer. A discal band paler than the ground- 
colour entering the cell at its end and posteriorly joined to 
the similarly coloured inner margin; outer margin reddish 
brown, with a thin black terminal line. 

Length of fore wing 21 mm. 

A series, GOOO feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

13. Platyp)tluma pandora^ sp. n. 
(PI. VI. fig. 6.) 

Allied to pedcdoidina, Joicey & Noakes, from the Arfak. 

(J. Upperside smoky brown. Fore wing with a pale 
median band close to cell and reaching inner margin, nar- 
rowed anteriorly to vein Q, outer edge almost parallel with 
margin. Hind wing with pale band showing through from 
below and outwardly suffused ; two anal ocelli in 2 and 3, 
black ringed with pale brown, the one in 2 the larger ; a 
submarginai violet line, distinct from anal angle to vein 4, 
and then evanescent. 

* Platijpthima klossi, Rotlis. Lep. of H. 0. U. & Wollast. Exped. p. 14 
(lOl.-i). 



76 lilessrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 

Underside. — Fore wing with paler ground-colour. A pale 
yellowisli median band as above, but move clearly defined 
and extending nearly to base at inner margin ; two ocelli 
contiguous in 4 and 5 and surrounded by a lead-coloured 
line ; costa and apex above ocelli and distally of the band 
roddish brown ; a strongly waved lead-coloured submarginal 
line from before the apex to middle of cellule 2 ; a red-brown 
marginal line. IJind wing pattern similar to pedaloidina. 
A somewhat irregular discal cream-coloured band from costa 
to first submedian, crossing cell near end ; basal half of wing- 
deep chocolate-brown sparsely scaled with grey, but more so 
at inner margin as far as anal angle; outer lialf of wing 
dark reddish brown, this area entering the cell ; four outer 
ocelli, black with pale brown rings and a white pupil, the 
lower three surrounded by a violet-grey line, the apical one 
similarly enclosed ; a submarginal violet-grey line and a pale 
brown marginal one ; a black submarginal patch between 
veins 4 and 6 and a black patch at inner angle. Fringes 
black chequered with greyish yellow between the veins. 

? . Wings more rounded, colour paler, and the two ocelli 
on hind wing much more distinct. 

Lengtii of fore wing, $ ? , 22-24 mm. 

A series of both sexes, 6000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

14. Mycalesis fidvianetta semicastanea, subsp. n. 
(PL V. fig. 5.) 

Differs {rom fulvianetta, Roths.*, in more extended costal 
and apical black, which nearly touches vein 4 and includes 
anterior half of cell ; a black submarginal border reaching 
tornus and invaded slightly on veins 2 and 3 by the ground- 
colour. Hind wing with two dark submarginal lines, inner 
one thicker. 

Underside pinkish brown, costal margin of fore wing 
darker, discal area on both wings betw^een outer rufous line 
and ocelli much paler. On fore wing the two middle ocelli 
smaller tlian the others, and in the type obsolescent. On 
hind wing are two additional ocelli, one minute near first 
submedian and one in cellule 6. 

Easily distinguished from the allied mahadeva, Bdv., 
which occurred in the same collection, by the postmedian 
stripe on fore wing below being straight^ and not inwardly 
curved. 

2 <? c? J 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

• M. fulcianetta, Roths. Lep. of B. 0. U. & Wollast. Exped. in 
Dutch New Guinea, p. 16(1915). 



Lepidoptera from Dutch New Ouinea. 77 

15. 3fi/calesis harhara pallida, siibsp. n. 

c? . Upperside similar to barbara, Gr.-Sm., but the bands 
paler brown. Fore winj^ with inner edge of band curved 
inwards below submedian, ocellus in 2 not toucliin;:^ the band 
and with a pale brownish ring. Hind wing with broader 
band than in barbara, the ocelli ringed with tulvous yellow, 
the one in 3 being anteriorly obscured by ground-colour. 

Underside with wliite postmedian bands on both wings 
broader, marginal area whiter. 

? . The bands are white and much broader. Hind wing 
with a fulvous-yellow anal suffusion. Underside with basal 
area of both wings dark grey-brown and marginal area 
darker than in (J . 

Length of fore wing, (J 26, $ 29 mm. 

7 c? <?, 1 ? > 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

NUMEOBIIN^. 

16. Prcetaxila postalha wandammanensiSf subsp. n. 
(PI. V. fig. 6.) 

? . Fore wing more rounded ; apical spots a little larger ; 
spot in cellule 3 not connected with bar in 4 and 5 ; spot ia 
2 distinctly larger. Hind wing with white band scarcely 
projecting in cellule 3; in 5 a white subapical spot. 

Underside of fore wing with cell-bar broader and better 
defined than in typical form ; band wider posteriorly ; on 
the hind wing the anal spot and one next it shorter. 

2 ? ? , 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

17. Dlcallaneura virgo, sp. n. 
(PI. Vlll. fig. 2.) 

? . Resembles leucomelas, Roths., above, and exiguus, 
Joicey & Noakes, below. 

Upperside. — Fore loing with smoky-brown basal area ex- 
tending to vein 2, discal white patch from upper angle of 
cell to lower submedian, leaving basal two-thirds of inner 
margin smoky brown, remainder merged in the black outer 
area. Tornus widely black, thus making the discal patch 
much smaller than in other species. Hind loiug as in leuco- 
melas, but paler and with reduced costal white. 

Underside. — Fore wing with discal patch nearer the sub- 
marginal line than in exiguus, and not traversed by any line. 
Hind iving with reduced costal white and subapical brown 
bars in cellules 4 and 5 enlarged. 



78 Messrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 

Lengtli of fore wing 20 mm. 

7 ? ? , 3000-4000 feet ; 1 ? , Coast District, Geelvlnk 
Bay, Nov. 

18. DlcaUaneiira alhosignata, sp. n. 
(PI. VIII. fig. 3.) 

? . Resembles virgo, but is distinctly different below. 
Upperside of fore wing similar to virgo, discal patch more 
extended towards outer angle, its lower edge rounded a little 
below vein 2 and just touching Ih. Hind wing with three 
submarginal black spots and one on the tail. 

Underside of fore wing similar to virgo ; extended basal 
median area, two curved grey marks in tlie cell, the outer 
one bordering the brown spot ; a subterminal line more 
faintl}" marked than in virgo, and proximally of it a series of 
six white spots, the first three in 8-6 larger than the lower 
three in 5-3, the spot in 5 placed more proximal than the 
rest, two white apical spots. Hind wing with two grey stripes 
in the cell, a grey stripe outside it between 4 and 7 and con- 
tinued along costa to base ; a grey postccllular band from 
inner margin to vein 4, narrowly separated from a grey sub- 
marginal band about half its Avidth and reaching vein 4 ; 
a stripe beyond cell from costa to 4, anteriorly white and 
merging into grey below vein 6 ; three white apical spots in 
4-G ; three black submarginal spots in 3-5, the upper one 
with a white dot in centre, lower ones edged distally wnfh 
white on inside ; a second submarginal grey band halt width 
of first and close to it, continued beyond 5 as a thin line ; 
a black square tail-spot edged with white distally ; two black 
submarginal bars in 1 h and 1 c similar to the one in 3. 

Length of fore wing 23 mm. 

1 ? only, 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

19. Dicallaneura amahilis mimica, subsp. n. 
(PI. VIII. fig. 4.) 

Kesembles the ? of decorata, Hew., above, but is allied to 
angusti/ascia, Joicey & Noakes. Paler yellow-brown, more 
extended on fore wing ; slightly darker at base. 

Upperside. — Fore wing with yellow-brown extended to 
end of lower submedian, very slightly indented in 1 b and 
1 c, and not at all in cellule 3. Hind wing with costa and 
apical part paler than rest of wing. 

Underside paler than in angusti/ascia ? . Fore wing with 
transverse band joined to submarginal streak, and lines 
traversing it much thinner. Inner margin yellowish except 



Lepidoptera from Dutch Xew Guinea. 79 

at extreme base. Hind-wing markings as in angustijascia. 
Two white dots in cellules 4 and 5 near margin ; front 
discal bars in cellules 2 and 3 triangularly shaped, being 
prolonged basad. 

1 ? , Coast District, Geelvink Bay, Nov. 1914. 

Lycaenidae. 

20. Ci/nniris pnUus, sp. n. 
(PI. VII. fig. 4.) 

Allied to nceshin, B. -Baker. 

^ . Upperside. — Fore wing dark blue, with a broad black 
outer margin which i:* scarcely narrower at the tornus. Hind 
wing brownish black, paler costally, and thinly scaled with 
blue on the disc. 

Underfside smoky grey, with spots of same colour outlined 
with white. Fore loing paler in median area ; a spot across 
end of cell ; a narrow postmedian band formed of seven 
spots joined together, the first on the costa indistinct, second 
to fifth in a line to vein 3, sixth in 2 parallel to margin, 
seventh below sixth, a spot placed proximally of the second ; 
a marginal row of four indistinct round spots. Hind icing 
with a subbasal line of three spots ; a spot across end of cell ; 
two rounded spots, one below the other, beyond middle of 
costa, larger than any of the others ; a spot on inner margin ; 
a postmedian series of five spots in 1 c-5, those in 2 and 3 
more proximal than the others ; a marginal row of indistinct 
small rounded spots. Fringes white, dark at veins and on 
fore wing anteriorly. 

Length of fore wing 13 mm. 

5 c? c? , 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

21. Nacaduha proxima,^oi\\s. 

Nacaduba proximo, Rotbschild, Lep. of B. 0, U. & Wollast. Exped. in 
Dutch New Guinea, p. 29. no. 134 (1915), d". 

? . The costal and terminal areas on both wings are much 
broader ; in other respects it resembles the S • 
Length of fore wing 13 mm. 
S ? , Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

22. Lampides icandammenensls , sp. n. 
(PI. VIII. fig. 6.) 

Allied to pactoliiSy Feld., from Amboina. 
c? . Upperside glistening pale sky-blue, hind wing wliitish 
at costa. 



80 Messrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 

Underside witli dark grey ground-colour. Fore wing with 
inner edc^e of median band nearly straif^lit, outer edge curved 
outwardly to vein 2, then forming a straight bar below tliis 
vein. A postdiscal band of four spots, the first near costa 
indistinct, tlie second in cellule 6 shifted inwards, the tliird 
placed more distal, the fourth below it and in line with its 
inner edge, a bar crossing cellule 3. Submarginal band 
regular and of even breadth, tlie inner edge thicker than the 
outer, an antemarginal white line. Hind icing with a 
narrow, subbasal, nearly straight band, -which is parallel to 
central part of median band ; costal spot of median band 
larger and not connected with band. Postdiscal band of four 
spots, the two lower placed distally of first two, a short bar 
near base of cellule 2. Submarginal line of short curved 
bars ; a marginal row of four rounded spots. Anal spot in 
2 edged inwardly with orange-yellow, and two small spots of 
this colour at anal angle. 

Length of fore wing 21 mm. 

4 (^ (^ , Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, November. 

23. Lampides nttens, sp. n. 
(PI. VIII. fig. 5.) 

Closely allied to malaguna, Ribbe, from the Bismarck 
Islands. 

(^ . Upperside brilliant sky-blue. Underside similar to 
amphissa, Feld. Ground-colour dark grey. Hind wing 
with the two anal spots edged proximally with orange- 
yellow. 

Length of fore wing 20 mm. 

1 <S , Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

24. CaUictita cyara albiplaqa, subsp. n. 
(PI. VII. fig. 5.") 

(J. Distinguished from cyara, B. -Baker *, in the smaller 
patch on hind wing above and the differently shaped basal 
brown below. 

Upperside of hind wing with more extended blackish and 
smaller creamy discal patch which extends anteriorly to 
vein 6 and posteriorly to 2, its inner edge not reacliing tlie 
bases of 2 and 7, and outer edge nearest the margin in 4 and 5. 

Underside of fore wing with increased black-brown colour, 
the narrow stripes being creamy white. Hind wing with 
creamy ground-colour which invades the basal brown from 

♦ CallictUa cyara, B.-Baker, P. Z. S. 1908, p. 119, pi. viii. fig. 1. 



Lep'idi>ptera from Dutch Seio (juini'a. 81 

tlio co.sta ; basal stripo aiifrleJ outwards at vein 5, wliicli it 
nearly touclies at cell-end ; siibniarf^inal row of brown spots ; 
an anal niarj^inal spot in 1 c, not developed in cyara. 

Lonji^tli of toro witi<; 14 mm. 

7 <S 6 obtained, 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

25. Parelodiua mima, sp. n. 
(PI. VII. fi<r. 6.) 

Allied to aroa, B. -Baker, but differs in the differently 
Bliaped apical area, the reduced basal black, and heavier 
costal black on fore wing. The bluish sheen at base of wings 
is also absent. One specimen is chalky white. 

cJ . Uppersi'de of fore win;^ with apical black to below 
origin of vein 6, two-thirds aloncj vein 4, nearly halfway 
along vein 3, and along a third of 2 ; costal black extending 
along the length of upper part of cell. Hind wing with a 
little black at base. 

? . Fore wing with slightly reduced apical and basal 
black. Hind wing with reduced basal black. 

Length of fore wing, cJ ? , 15 mm. 

C c? <?, 1 ? , 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

26. Cundalides prxdna^ Druce, ? . 

Candalides prtiina, II. 11. Druce. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Iliat. ser. 7, vol. xiii. 
p. 140, d (1904) (Upper Aroa River). 

? . Wings more rounded, ground-colour a little paler. 
Fore wing with a narrow whitish median stripe, tinged with 
i)ale blue and extendinj' from base aloiifj lower ed<reof cell to 
halfway between cell and margin, being much broader beyond 
the cell. 

Underside without any dark apical or costal suffusion on 
fore wing. 

Len^jtii of fore wing 17 mm. 

One s|»ecimen, also 4 c? J, 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen 
Mtns., Nov. 

27. Candalides ignobilis, sp. n. 

Similar to in}io(atus, Misk., and inar<)inata, Gr.-Sm., but 
darker blue and wings more rounded than the former, and 
with narrower margins than the latter. 

Fore wing with costa narrowly black, outer margin below 
vein 4 broader than in innotatus. 

Length of fore wing 14 mm. 

1 <?, Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 
Ann. cfc Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 6 



82 



Messrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 



28. Thysonotts mamherano, sp. n. 

Nearest helga, Gr.-Sni., from Jobi. 

cJ . Upperside with narrower margins on botli wings. 
Fore wing with an indistinct white hand from inner margin 
to vein 4. Hind wing with white band narrower, leaving 
more basal blue than in helga. 

Underside of fore wing with broader costal blue beyond 
cell, and between veins 2 and 3 the blue line almost touches 
the white band. Eind wing with white band as above. 

Length of fore wing 20 mm. 

1 J , River Mamberano, N. Dutch New Guinea, Dec. 1913. 

29. Thysonotts melane, sp. n. 
(PI. YTI. fig. 7.) 

^ , Upperside black, hind wing paler at costal margin. 

Under.^ide with black ground-colour. Fore wing with 
■white median band from inner margin to vein 5, narrowing 
anteriorl}' and incurved on outer edge ; basal two-thirds of 
costa blue. Hind vnng with wliite discal band narrowing 
shar|)ly to inner margin, a basal blue line, a marginal row of 
black spots edged with blue and separated by the veins. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen black, paler below ; antennse 
black. 

Length of fore wing 15 mm. 

A small series, 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

30. Waigeum baJceri, sp. n. 
(PI. VIL fig. 8.) 

Not nearly allied to any known form. 

? . Upperside. — Fore wing black, with a broad, somewhat 
ovate, white median patch, extending from base and entering 
cell along its lower edge, covering basal half of vein 2, more 
still of vein 3, and nearly reaching 4, where it is about 3 mm. 
from margin ; a short basal stripe of metallic greenish blue 
in the cell and a short basal stripe of very pale metallic blue 
on inner margin reaching to edge of median patch. Hind 
wing black ; costa white to vein 7 ; a little greenish-blue 
scaling at the base. Fringes white between the veins. 

Underside with black ground-colour. Fore wing with a 
broad white median patch tinged slightly with yellow, 
broader than above, reaching the submarginal spots between 
veins 2 and 4, and extended as a line to apex and round to 
the subapical bar; costa metallic greenish blue traversed by 



Lepidoplera from Dulch New Guinea. 83 

tlie dark veins ; a sliort greenisli-hlue aubapical bar; a siib- 
maro;inal row of greenisli-bliie lutuile-), tiieir concavities filled 
in with bbick. Hiud wiwj vvitb a basal cream-coloured 
stripe incbiding the costa to apex and crossing cell at its 
middle, this stripe invaded by a black basal bar not reaching 
costa ; a large and almost D-shaped greenish-blue area occu- 
pying distal half of wing, its outer edge cream-coloured, with 
metallic scaling on inside; a submurginal greenish-blue line 
from base to apex. 

Head, anteunpo, thorax, and abdomen black ; thorax with 
some metallic greenish scaling abjve. 

Length of fore wing 19 mm. 

3 ? "? , 3000-iOOO feet, Wandammen :Mtns., Nov. 

31. Deudorix I'ltloralis, sp. n. 

Near wood/ordi, Druce, from Solomons. At once distin- 
guished by the reduced brown on fore wing, which reaches 
very little above vein 2 and hardly touches the submedian. 
Hind wing with brown reduced to an oblique bar from lower 
end of cell to near margin between veins 2 and 3; spot on 
anal lobe yellowish. 

Underside darker and more brownish than in looodfordi. 
Fore wing with postdiscal band straighter. Hind wing with 
spots well defined by grey; anal spot ringed with yellowish, 
anal green scalinj; much reduced. 

? . More resembles the ? of epijarbas, Moore. Similar 
above, but on the underside the bands are narrower and 
better defined. Anal spot in 2 ringed with pale yellow, and 
between this and inner margin is a metallic yellowish-green 
line. 

Length o£ fore wing, 3* 22, ? 21 mm. 

Types from Kapaur, ex Coll. Grrose-Smith ; also 1 i^ , 
Coast District, Geelvink Bay ; 3 cJ <? , German New Guinea. 

The co-types have more extended brown on the hind wing, 

Heterocera. 

ArctiadaB. 

32. Asura wandammenensce , sp. n. 

Allied to pliryctopa, Meyr. 

S • Upperside oi fore wing with dark grey ground-colour, 
veins darker. A rounded yellow basal spot edged with red 
and with a red spot at its outer edge ; three subbasal red 
spots — one at costa, one below vein 2, and one at inner margin 
— another distuUy of the latter, a dot above it near second 



84 



Messrs J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on new 



suVibasal spot ; at end of cell a laifje spot, red anteriorly and 
yollow posteriorly, where it is outwardly rounded, and ex- 
tending beyond cell, its inner edge slightly convex from 
costa to vein 3, its outer edge incurved to vein 6 ; a narrow 
postdiscal band of small red spots divided by the veins, 
curved inward at costa, then outwardly between veins 7 and 3, 
thence inwardly to inner margin below the cell-spot ; a red 
terminal border marked with yellow, widest at apex and in 
cellules 4 and 5 ; costa narrowly red from apical spot to 
postdiscal band. Hind wing pale yellowish tinged with red, 
more especially on costa and upper distal portion. 

Underside of fore wing red tinged with ochreous, of hind 
wing as above, costa red. 

Head and thorax dark grey marked with red, frons and 
base of head red, thorax with a red mesial line, abdomen pale 
yellowish tinged with red. Legs and underside of thorax 
and abdomen red. 

Length of fore wing 17 mm. 

'2 S 6 , Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

33. Diacrisia nigi'icorna, sp. n. 

This strongly resembles hiagi f. angiana, Joicey & Talbot, 
and also elongata. Roths. It is most nearly allied to the latter 
in shape of wing, but elongata has not the black thoracic 
patch. No other forms of this group have black antennae. 

cJ . Ground-colour pale ochreous, fore wing with a greyish 
tinge. Upperside of jore wing with a small black subbasal 
spot above submedian ; a dot below cell at vein 2 ; at end of 
cell two black wedge-shaped spots nearly touching one 
another; two black dots on discocellulars; two postdiscal 
bands of spots, the first of eight spots from cellule 5 to inner 
margin, spots 2-4 only separated by the veins, 5 and 6 sepa- 
rated by vein 2, 7 and 8 by the submedian, spots 1 and 6 
smaller than the others ; second band of eleven spots from 
cellule 7 to inner margin in four groups ; asubtcrminal band 
of six spots on veins 3-8. Hind wing with a large quadrate 
spot closing the cell ; submarginal spots in 16, 1 c, 2, 4, and 5. 

Underside ochreous yellow, markings as above. 

Palpi, frons, and antennae black ; vertex, tegulse, and 
patagia brownish ochreous ; central part of thorax black ; 
abdomen pale orange above with a black dorsal line below 
brownish ochreous with a black lateral stripe ; pectus and 
legs black, fore coxje fringed with orange hair, hind tibise 
fringed with orange and grey hair on inside. 

Length of fore wing 23 mm, 

1 rS , Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 



Lepidoptera from Dutch ]^eio Guinea, 85 

Noctuidae. 

EsASTBIAN^. 

34. Smi'croloha costijascta, sp. n. 

Near quadrapex, Hampson. 

Upperside with reddish-brown ground-colour, basal half 
paler, washed with purplish. Fore wing with a thick dark 
brown postdiscal stripe, straight and obliquely placed from 
apex to inner margin ; tliis is accompanied by an irregularly 
dentate outer Hue joining it below the apex, the space 
between the two being tinged with purple; two brown costal 
lines, the inner beyond middle of costa, forming a greyish 
band which curves upw^ards to join the postdiscal line just 
below apex ; a faint irregular subbasal line, a black dot in 
cell, a faint subterminal dentate line. Hind wing with costa 
broadly pale ochreous, inner margin narrowly so. A short 
brown median stripe, followed by a faint postdiscal dentate 
line, which is emphasized by dots on the veins ; a faint 
dentate subterminal line. 

Underside reddish brown speckled with black, postdiscal 
lines marked. Fure wing with costa and inner margin pale 
ochreous; hind wing with basal area pale ochreous. 

Head and tegulge pale ochreous ; thorax and base of abdo- 
men pale reddish brown ; rest of abdomen above black 
mixed with ochreous, below ochreous, and black at sides ; 
pectus grey-white, legs ochreous speckled with black, tarsi 
black fringed with white at apices of segments. 

Length of fore wing 12 mm. 

1 S, Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

Hypsidae. 

35. Deilemera dinawa, B.-Baker, ab. nigripuncta, ab. n. 

The hind wing bears on the reduced white area a triangle- 
shaped spot of ground-colour at base of cellule 2. The baud 
of fore wing is reduced and somewhat broken, leaving a 
rounded spot at end of cell. 

Three other s[>eciniensof the species from the same locality 
vary in width of band on fore wing. In one of these the 
band is very broad and has a projection from the discocellular 
into the cell nearly to vein 2. 

1 ? , Angi Lakes, Arfak Mtns., 6000 feet, Jan.-Feb. 



86 Messi.-J. J. J. Joiccy and G. Talbot on new 

Eupterotidae. 
36. Eupterote punctata^ sp. u. 

Allied to sly.v^ B. -Raker, from British New Guinea. 

S • Upperside with fawn-brown ground-colour. Fore 
icing much irrorated with black. A black basal line ; a 
black median band followed by four black discal lines which 
are waved and become thinner posteriorly; basal line straight 
and outwardly oblique, other lines inwardly oblique and 
anteriorly curved inwards to costa; a waved^ well-deHncd, 
pale outer discul line, followed by a strongly dentate black 
subterminal line, the space between being much irrorated 
Avith black scaling. At end of cell a round ochreous spot. 
Hind wing with two dark basal lines, two slightly waved 
discal lines, the outer the broader, followed by a black dentate 
subterniinal line, the space between being thinly irrorated 
with black scaling. 

Underside paler than above. On /ore wing the outer discal 
line is most strongly indicated. The hind icing is darker 
and five waved lines are clearly marked, followed by the 
straighter and darker outer line. 

Head and thorax deep velvety brown. At base of antennae 
on each side of frous is an ochreous tuft. Antenna?, leas. 
tiiorax below, and abdomen fawn-brown. 

Length of fore wing 48 mm. 

^ 6 S , AVandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

Geometridae. 

37. Milionia wandammenemnce, sp. n. 
(PI. Vlll. tig. 7.) 

Allied to aroensts, Ilotlis. 

(J ? • Upperside with only a faint bluish gloss over the 
wings. Fore wing with a wider red band than in aroensis, 
being widened jiroximally ; basal blue reduced, deep in 
colour, and faintly metallic. Ilind wing with blue reduced to 
area of cell and below it, a metallic streak along lower edge 
of cell and along submedian. 

Undtrtiide of fore wing with reduced metallic blue at base. 
Hind wing as in aroensis, bearing also the subapical patch of 
short black hair as in that species, this being absent in the ? . 

Head and thorax deep blue, frons, sides of head, and 
tegulaj metallic greenish blue ; abdomen black with a deep 
greenish-Uue gloss. 

Length of fore wing, J 24, ? 22 mm. 

A single pair, COOO feet, "Waudauimen Mtns., Nov. 



Lfipidoptera from Dutch Neio Guinea. 87 

38. Milionia iciUeyensis, sp. n. 
(PI. Vlll. fig. 8.) 

Allied to diva, Koths. 

S ' Upperside. — Fore wing \\\{\\ an abbreviated transverse 
red band which does not quite reach U|)per ed<;e ot" cell and 
crosses it pruxinially of veins 2 and 3, part witiiin the cell 
narrowest, outer edge evenly curved, inner edge curved out- 
^vards in lower median space. Hind wing with a streak of 
dark metallic blue along lower edge of cell and one along 
submedian, as in diva. Both wings with a deep blue gloss. 

Underside of fore wing with the red band reduced to a 
routided spot reaching vein 2, and a minute spot in cell above 
origin of 2 ; a metallic greenish-blue patch from subcostal 
to just below vein 2, tilling outer end of cell, the base of 3, 
and inner half of 2 ; metallic greenish-blue streaks at base, 
one on costa, two within cell. Hind wing with metallic 
greenish-blue basal costal streak, and one along lower edge 
of cell. Hind wing and apical area of fore wing suffused 
with tieep blue. 

Length of fore wing 20 mm. 

One example, 6(>U0 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

39. Euhordeta mars, sp. n. 
(PI. Vlll. fig. 9, c?.) 

Allied to aceriia, Jord., and to ruhroplayata, B. -Baker. 

(J ? . Upperside. — I'ore wing with a red transverse band 
which is narrower than in either of the allied forms, being 
reduced proximally. Hind wing with a small yellow or 
reddish costal stripe placed near the apex and varying in 
size. Both wings black with a deep blue gloss, which is 
more intense over basal area of hind winu'. 

Underside of fore wing as in rubroplagata, but with a 
narrow stripe. Hind wing as in accrita, but with a narrower 
yellow band, which is typically not entire, but broken on 
the costa, its anterior end more widely separated from tiie 
basal streak than in rubroplagata. Both wings with a deep 
blue gloss which is more mtense over basal area of hind wing. 

Two ? ? have the band on the hind wing entire as in 
aceriia, and in one (^ and three $ ? the band is much less 
widely interrupted than is typically the case. 

Length of lore wing, (^ $ , 17-21 mm. 

9 J c? , 8 ? ? , 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 



88 Messrs. J. J. Joicey and G. Talbot on neto 

40. EuhorJetn flainmens dhcus, subsp. ii. 
(Fl. Vlll. fig. 10.) 

$ . Upperslde. — Fore wing as in flainmens, B. -Baker. 
Uind wing with a narrower black margin, the red band nearest 
the margin from vein 4 to anal angle ; basal black extended, 
invading ct'll to a greater extent than in f/a?n>netts. 

Cndeviiide ot foie wing as in the typical form. Hind wing 
•with a large black discal patch almost joined to a basal spot ; 
in one specimen it is merged into the basal black so as to fill 
nearly all the cell. 

Some specimens of Jiammens from the Arfak Mtns. possess 
a small discal spot. 

4 ? ? , 3000-4000 feet, Wandammen Mtns., Nov. 

SatnrniadsB. 
41. Coscinocera hercules heraclides, subsp. n. 

^ . Upperside with basal band of fore wing more oblique 
in its lower j)art and crossing vein 2 midway between the 
cell and postdiscal band ; its upper lunate portion is only 
3'5 mm. from the black outer border of the eye-spot. The 
eye-spot on fore wing is about twice the size of the one on 
the hind wing ; on the underside they are only faintly edged 
with yellow-brown. 

A specimen from the Angi Lakes is transitional to euri/s- 
thens, Roths., in having the basal line on the fore wing 
shifted nearer the cell and its upper part farther from the 
eye-spot. The eye-spots below are thinly edged with yellow- 
brown proximally. 

1 ^ (type), Wandammen Mtns., 6000 feet, Nov.; 1 S, 
Angi Lakes, Arlak, 6000 feet, Jan.-Feb. ; 1 c? in Tring 
Museum from Arfak. 

Uraniidae. 

42. Urapteroides semiobsoleta reducta^ subsp. n. 

$ ? . The fore wing has a narrower margin, but it is 
broader along basal part of costa than in the typical form 
from British New Guinea. 

5 cJ (J, 2 ? ? , AVandammcn Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

Cossidae. 
43. Zeuzera caudata, sp. n. 

Allied \o postexcisa. Hampson. 

J . Fore wing with all spots obsolescent except costal and 



i 



Lepidoptera from Dutch New Guinea. 89 

marginal ones. S[)ot3 in cell roundetl, those outside it more 
ovate, and all more ov less joined transversely. Mar(rinal 
spots prominent and a larger one at apex. 

Hind wing with spots obsolescent; one in lower part of 
cell and some minute ones in cellules 1 c-3 ; anal lobe edged 
•with black and a small spot at end of veins 2 and 3. 

Length of fore wing 25 ram. 

1 S , Wandamnien Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 

44. Zeuzera reticulata, sp. n. 

Allied to coffece, Nietn. 

(J . The obsolescent spots on fore wing are all larger and 
more or less joined transversely. Hind wing with many 
small obsolescent sj)ots, all separate, and small defined 
marginal spots at ends of veins 1 h—1. 

Length of fore wing 21 mm. 

1 S , Wandammen Mtns., 3000-4000 feet, Nov. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PIRATES. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Fapifio ( Troides) chimcevd draccena, J • 

Fig. 2. iJelius caroli wandammenensce, J . 

Fig, 3. tliompsoni, (S . 

Fig. 4. , ? . 

Fig. 5. MycalesisftdcKOiettasenucastaned, c? . 

Fi(/. 6. I'rceta.iila postalba tcandunaneiiensis, $ . 

Plate VI. 

Fiq. 1. Delias marice, cJ. 

Fig. 2. , $. 

Fif/. 3. tessei, J . 

Fig. 4. , $ . 

Fiy. 5. MorphotcBnans schoenhergt icandammenensis, cJ. 

Fig. (5. Platyiithima pandora, J . 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Cynthia arsinoe rebeJi, Friib., aberration. 

Fig. 2. . Underside. 

Fig. 3. Erycinidia maudei, cf. 

Fig. 4. Cyaniris piillus, cJ • 

Fig. 5. Callictita cyara alhiplaga, J . 

Fig. 6. Parelodina mima, j . 

Fig. 7. Thysoiiotis viehine, cJ . 

Fig, 8. Waigewn iKcheri, $. 



90 Mr. B. F. Cmnmincs on 



Plate VIII. 

Fiff. 1. Platypthima eupiychiokhs, J. 

/•V//. 2, Dicallaiieura viryo, $ . 

/•i^. 3. aWosiynata, $ . 

JVy. 4. ajiiabilis mimica, J. 

/"V^. 6. Lampides iiitens, (S • 

Fig. 6. wmidammenvnsis, J. 

Jw^j^. 7. Milionia uandamtnenensee, J, 

J»^. 8. icithyeiisis, cJ . 

/ iV/. 9. Fubordetu mars, cJ . 

jfi^, 10. Jlammens discus, $ . 



111. — New Species of Lice. By Bruce F. CUMMINGS, 
British Museum (Natural History). 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

A N P L U K A. 

Among tlie dry material, mounted on cardboard in the 
collection of the Biitish Museum, two specimens were dis- 
covered labelled sim}»ly '"''l-'edetes capensis." These, on being 
washed in caustic potash and mounted on a slide in Canada 
balsam, proved to be two females of an interesting and 
hitherto undescribed form. 

EULINOGNATHUS, gen. nov. 

Head longer than broad, antennae arising just in front of 
haltway, broader behind the antennaj than in front. No 
projecting postero-lateral angles. Behind, the head is sunk 
deep into tlie thorax. Around the mouth in front a circlet of 
triangular denticles. Abdomen without tergites or sternites. 
Five pairs of pleurites, the anterior pair well developed. 
First pair of legs small. Hairs on the abdomen modified, 
being long, flattened, parallel-sided, truncate at the tip. 

On Pedetes capensis, now known as Fedetes coffer, Pall, 
(family Pedetidie). 

Eulinognathus denticulatus, sp. n. 

External Form. Female. — Head : the outline is well shown 
in the figure (text-fig. 1). The characteristic features of the 
liead are the circlet of denticles around the mouth, the 
absence of postero-lateral angles and also of any "neck" or 
narrowing of the head just before entering the thorax, so that 



new S/iecies of Lice. 



01 



Fig. 1. 




Gon 



. — b 



Eulinognathus denticulatus, sp. n., $. G'o?i = Gonopod. 

a. Preantennnl part of the head, gi-eatly enlarged. 00 = Oral opeuiug; 

OC'=Oral cone ; P7?=PeiisLon)ial band. 
h. Hair ((.'nlargedj. 



92 Mr. B. F. Cummings on 

the swollen base of the head is lieltl in a " stiff collar " 
ibrmed by the thorax, and a|)i)arently, theretore, incapable of 
nnich lateral motion. The median aroas of both dorsal and 
ventral surfaces are composed of rather tliin, smooth chitin, 
but both behind and in trout of theantennai the head ou each 
side is strengthened by chitinous areas of greater thickness, 
liehind the antenna this thickened area on the dorsal surface 
begins as a more or less circular, raised or embossed patch 
bearing a long bristle and a minute hair. This patch extends 
down on each side to the ventral surface, where it occupies 
the margin and runs forward past the antenna to join the 
peristomial band. This band is a strong circular support, 
from which arise the triangular denticles (fig. la, PB). 
Each denticle appears to be a triangular plate; its apex 
])oints backwards and its base is set transversely to the peri- 
stomial band. In the centre of two of the denticles there is 
a hole as in a set-square. Within the peristomial band lies 
the small oral cone (fig. 1 a, OC), at the apex of which is i\\Q 
short colunmar oral opening (tig. la, 00). Behind the 
antennaj dorsally is a shallow, indistinct, transverse groove^ 
Antenna 5-segmented, slightly club-shaped as the fourth 
segment is broader than the second, third, or fifth, and its 
postaxial margin is longer and somewhat convex. There is 
a circular sensorium between segments -1 and 5 on the ventral 
surface and another on segment 5 on the postaxial line. 

Thorax much broader than the head, and broader behind 
than in front. Claws on the front tarsi, which in both speci- 
mens carry two hairs, are either absent or minute. On the 
other legs the claws are large, in shape like the beak of an 
accipitrine bird. 

Abdomen much broader than tlie thorax, ovate, large. 
Neither sternites nor tergites present. On each of the first five 
segments a pair of pleurites. A fairly broad chitinous band 
runs transversely over the dorsum of the terminal segment. 
A chitinous framework supports the flat rounded gonopods. 
This consists of a cross-bar running from the base of one 
gonopod to the other, and running back from each extremity 
of this cross-bar in the direction of the head a short band 
slight!}' bending inwards. The gonopod is a flattened lobe, 
convex at the extremity, a little concave along the inner 
margin. 

Chcktotaxy. Female. — Head : on the upper surface is an 
elongate bristle, reaching nearly down to the abdomen, along 
with a minute hair close to it situated on the small embossed 
area behind each antenna. Two minute hairs, widely sepa- 



new Species of Jjice. 93 

rated, on iloisal surface towards the occiput. A minute liair 
on the hiteral margin of the head a little way behind tlie 
antenna. A larger hair on the dorsal surface in front of the 
embossed area near the base of the antenna. Two minute 
hairs on the postantennal groove. At the base of the oral 
cone above, four small hairs widely spaced. A longer one on 
each side at the base of the columnar oral opening. On the 
ventral surface, at about the level of the middle of the first 
segment of the antenna, two fairly small hairs, one on each 
side of the* middle line. Five or six minute hairs with large 
alveoli on ventral surface of the oral cone. 

Thorax: the usual spiracular bristle. A small one on each 
" shoulder" of the pronotum. 

Abdomen : the abdomen is thickly covered both dorsal ly 
and ventrally by rows of elongate hairs of peculiar shape 
(see fig. 1 h) . P]ach hair is very long, with a rather small 
circular "neck" broadening at once into a Hat scabbard- 
like structure, the lateral margins being parallel to each 
other and the end truncate. Most of these clmnsy-lookins: 

1 • 1 A ^ 

integumentary appendages are twisted. A tew are pointed 
at the tips. 

There is a transverse row of these hairs, very closely placed 
on the tergum of each segment, exceptitig the last, where, on 
the anterior margin of the transverse band, there are two of 
the long modified hairs, and on the posterior margin two 
widely separated normal hairs, with a couple of elongate 
hairs at each lower lateral angle. Ventrally, there is a trans- 
verse row of closely-placed, modified hairs on each segment 
(up to segment 7), although at the base of the abdomen over 
the first three segments (and the qualification applies to the 
dorsal surface also) the cha3totaxy in the only two prepara- 
tions at my disposal remains somewhat uncertain. 

On each gonopod, a single long biistle inside the margin 
postero-laterally. Two or three short hairs on the margin at 
the inner angle. Inside the inner margin just behind the 
cross-bar three small hairs on each side. In front of the 
cross-bar six minute hairs in a row. Running from just 
behind the gonopod in an oblique row outwards, eight or nine 
long s{)ines placed closely to each other so that tlieir alveoli 
are contiguous. At the end of this row, but [)lacfd a little 
further in, a powerful spine on each side of the genital 
opening. Between these two spines or " thorns " are two 
small patches of chitin of irregular outline, each with three or 
lour short hairs. 

On each pleurite two elongate bristles, situated along the 



94 Mr. B. F. Ciiinaiings on 

lower margin. On the soft chitin, just in front of tlie first 
pleurite, a group of eight or nine of the modified liairs. Two 
bristles also on each pleuruni behind the seventh segment. 

Measnrementu 0/ Eulinognathus denticuhitus 
( millimetre-scale) . 





Lenrrtli. 


Breadth. 


Head 

Thorax 


•29 (at margin) 
•3 
. 1-2 

. 1-79 


•23 
•51 


Abdomen 


1-05 


Total 




Length of antenna . 


•25 





M A L L P H A G A. 

Family Trichodectidae. 

Described below is a curious new form belonging to tliis 
family, which is of especial interest on account of the phjlo- 
genetic position of its host, an Edentate. 

The material from which the new form is described, con- 
sisting of a (^, three ? ?, and a larva, was very kindly 
presented to the British Museum by Mr. A. J. Engel Terzi, 
and, in spite of their poor condition of preservation (the 
specimens had been attacked by a species of mite), the main 
features in the morphology of the skeleton have been made 
out, although much of the cha^totaxy still remains uncertain 
or obscure. 

They were collected on the two-toed sloth {Choloepus 
cfidactt/lus, Linn.) in Biitish Guiana. So far as I know, the 
only otiier species of Mnllophaga recorded from an Edentate 
is Gyropus hispidus, Nitzsch, from Bradypua tridnctylus. 
Among the Anopliira, the remarkable Hybophthirus noto- 
2)haUus (Neumann), Enderlein, a parasite of the (Jape 
anteater {Orycteropus afer, Pall.), is the only species with an 
Edentate host. 

Tr'ichodectes gastrodes *, sp. n. 

The new species is readily distinguished by its large 
dimensions (see p. 100), the form of the head (see figs. 2&3, 
p. 96), and by the chaiacter of the abdomen, which, being in 
both male and female without tergites or sternites, is loose and 

* " The Potbellied Louse " is suggested as a popular name. 



new Species of Lice. 95 

sac-likf, witliont any external sii^ns o£ seo;men(ation excei^t 
in tlie cJ . In this sex there is a i)air of ratlier lari^e pleurite.s 
on the two basal segments ; on each of the others, up to 
the seventh, a pair of small, narrow, chitinous slips situated 
transversely in the pleural region on each side. In the ? 
these slips are absent, but there are two pairs of lari^e 
plenrites at the base ajid one j)air at the end, on the penulti- 
mate segment ot" the abdomen. 

Kxternal Form. Alale. — Head : fig. 2 is an accurate 
representation of the outline of the head, and makes un- 
necessary the usual circumlocutionar}' phrases. The notable 
features are the rather deep semicircular frontal sinus (which 
has a deep marginal band of dark brown chitin divided into 
two parts by a median longitudinal line), the large size of 
the basal segment of the antenna, and a gular plate (see 
fig. 3, GP) broader than long, lying between the two longi- 
tudinal bands that run forward on the ventral surface of the 
skull*. 

There are two small circular sensoria close to2:ether on the 
ventral surface of the third segment of the antenna. 

Thorax: the parts w^ere too crushed to allow of description. 
Apparently it resembles that of the ? closely. 

Abdomen : the first two pairs of pleurites are large plates 
with a firm outer but an irregular iimer margin, the second 
pair a little smaller than the first, both of a deep brown 
colour. On the succeeding segments the pleurites are small, 
thin, transverse slips. At the posterior end of the last 
segment are two lobes forming the hind margin of the 
segment and apparently the posterior lip of the genital 
opening. 'I'hese two lobe-like pieces are rounded and white, 
covered with short bristles ; they run in towards one 
another, but do not meet. Two brown bands of chitin 
run forward on the ventral surface as far as halfway to the 
base of the abdomen, one on each side of the copulatory 
apparatus, which is seen through the transparent integument. 

The above description is necessarily incomplete, and may 
have to be emended in some respects when new and better- 
preserved material is forthcoming. 

Exiernal Form. Female (fig. 8). — The usual sexual 
diflVrences in the antennas (see figure). 

Thorax : j)ronotum is quite short ; lateral margins slightly 
divergent the one from the other. Meso + metanotum equally 

* A gular plate of this character is present in many Mallophag-a, 
e. g., Nirmus varius, Nitzsch, yir7nu.i vu/t/ntus, Kell., Lipeurus (/uadn- 
pustulatus, Pia;r. The peculiar structures in this part of the head iu 
Ancistiona and Pseudomenopon tridens are, perhaps, modified gular plates. 



96 



Mr. B. F. Cummings on 
Fig. 2. 




Fi-'-. 3. 




■'-tA.St 



— - G, 



FJfT. 2. — Trichodedes r/nstrodes, sp. n. Head, (^ , dorsal view. 
Fig. 3.— Ditto, $ . 6^P=Gular plate ; ilf.6'^ = Mesostermim ; 
6'on = Gonopod. 



)iew Sp:cits of Lice. 97 

short, a little broader, with lateral margins convex. Poste- 
rior margin straight, A considerable area adjoining the 
posterior margin medially is pale or white, tlie chitin being 
tliiii, and the thicker, deep brown cliitin ceasing in an 
irregular edge. 

A strongly developed mesosternum is present, and shown in 
the figure. Within the prothorax on each side a thin rod runs 
from the dorsal side to the ventral, takinsr its oriorin from the 
posterior margin of pronotuin, and then running downwar^ls 
and outwards to be inserted into the anterior lateral angle ven- 
trally. On the ventral surface of the meso + metat!iorax on 
each side are the usual two acetabular bars — strong, rather 
short, running inwards and downwards on the under surface 
of the meso + metanotal wing, and helping to suspend the 
coxae, into which they are inserted. 

Abdomen : as in the J , there are at the base two large 
pleurites on each side. In the ? these are succeeded on the 
next segment by a minute atrophied pleurite on each side, 
the chitin of which appears to be partially disintegrated. On 
the otiier segments, except the penultimate, the pleurites are 
completely absent. Tiie penultimate pair are large plates, 
with irregular inside margin, lying in the dorsal surface. 
The basal plates lie laterally. Tergites and sternites are 
absent except for a tergiteon the last segment, almost divided 
in two by a median longitudinal line of weak chitinization. 
On the sternum of the same segment, partly covered by the 
large gonopods, is a brown mark of peculiar shape (see fig. 3). 

'J'he gonopods are strongly chitinized flaps of considerable 
size, articulated ventro-laterally so as to cover much of the 
lower surface of the last segment. In dorsal view, the free 
edge of the gonopod is seen on each side, at its base articu- 
lating by a rather wide and circular hinge with the pleurite 
of the penultimate segment. 

In both J and ? the abdomen is large, loose, and 
" baggy." 

Chretotaxy. Mah. — Head : around and just behind the 
rim of the frontal sinus on the dorsal surface four widely- 
spaced hairs. A little way in the rear of the first and fourth, 
another hair. In front of the antenna, a small hair. Around 
the temple margin, four or five small hairs. Inside the 
margin, one behind the other, five hairs of somewhat larger 
size, the first separated by a wide space from the ones behind. 
Three or four hairs on the promontory on each side of the 
sinus. Other hairs on dorsal surface arranged as shown in 
the figure. Ventral surface apparently bare. On upper 
surface of first segment of the antenna, a row of six large 

Ann. d& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol xvii. 7 



98 ]Mr. B. F. Cunimings on 

hairs woll spnce<l one beside tlie nflior nml exteiidina; from 
tlie proximal to tlie distal extremity. Proaxialiy a sinjrle 
hair. On se^jmeiit 2, three hairs on the upper surface and 
one lon<j one on postaxial inartrin. On segment 3, at the 
postaxial anjjle of the distal end, four or five stout hook- 
shaped denticles ; on the preaxial side a patch of short 
spines. Preaxially three hairs, postaxially two, on dorsal 
surface two. 

Thorax and abdomen : cha^totaxy too uncertain to justity 
description. 

Chcetotaxy. Female. — Antennse more heavily set with 
hairs. 

Thorax : a short hair on each lateral maroin of the pro- 
thorax and two on each lateral margin of the nieso-meta- 
thorax. 

Abdomen : on the dorsal surface, probably a row of small 
hairs across each seo^ment. 

A moderateh' long bristle on each pleurite of penultimate 
segment. Several fairly long hairs along lower margin ot 
tergite, two of these close together at the postero-lateral 
corner of the tergite. On the terminal sternum two patches 
of minute hairs, closely set one on each side of the middle 
line. Along the lower margin of thegonopod, seven or eight 
longish hairs. 

Month-parts. — The left mandible is a powerful, gnarled- 
looking weapon, complex in form and moulding*. For the 
purpose of description it may be divided into halves — a 
proximal and distal — by a transverse band of dark brown 
chitin on the ventral surface. 'J'he proximal half is a kind 
of pedestal on which the rest of the mandible is set. The 
distal half, narrower than the base, ends in three distinct 
apices irregularly placed. There are the usual two articular 
surfaces, one a rounded condyle beneath the basal process, 
and the other a rather large concavity into which fits a 
big tendon. The basal process is rather long and bent, 
as usual, so as to point horizontally. Distally the opposable 
surface of the mandible possesses the usual transverse ridges, 
disposed in two series separated from one another by a smooth, 
concave area. 

'J'he right mandible possesses a wide straight base-line, and 
from the outside two-thirds of this the main body of tlie 
mandible arises, leaning outwards at first and then bending 
inwards sharply, making an angle on the outer margin, 

* The mouth-parts, especially the inandihles and the oesophageal 
Rclerite (or lyriform organ), afford useful pysteniatic characters in the 
Mallopbaga. 



new Species of Lice. 



09 



where the teiulon of the hirgc extensor iiinscle la inserted. 
The inner third of the base of the mamlihle is a short 
rectano^nh^r projection. There is a sin.2;lc sharp apex and a 
series of oblique ridges on the opposable surface. A small 
plate witli a round even margin overlaps tlie outer edge 
just behind the a|)ex, giving the appearance of a casque or 
liood over the outer margin. 

Labium. — The anterior margin is straight, without lobes or 
prominences. At each lateral angle, set in a dark browtj 
socket of thick chitin, is the so-called i)araglossa — a stout 

Fi- 4. 



T-- 




-Ci 



Trichodectes gastrodes, sp. n. Copulatory apparatus, c? , x 45. 

5P= Basal plate ; £"= Endomere ; P=Paraiuere ; r=DeuticIe ou sac, 
a. Denticle eiilarjifod. 



single-segmented lobe, tapering slightly at tlie distal end. 
The tip of this appendage is obliquely truncate, the outer 
margin being longer than the inner. On the apex pointing 
inwards are lour or five minute spines set on relatively large 
round pedestals. On the ventral surface of the labium 
between the jiaraglossse are eight spines arranged in a circlf. 
Immediately behind this circle is a transverse brown band, 
which splits into two branches at each end, one running \\p 
to tiie front margin and the other running backwards and 
disappearing in the clear chitin behind the moulh. This is 
probably a supporting sclerite for the labium. 

7* 



100 



~S\y. B. F. (.'uinnnnc;s on 



Isopogonietrlc Apparatufs. — Anterior cornua of tlie sclerite 
as \onrr as tlie main body. The distal end of each cornu 
rounded, narrower than at tlie base. The main body is 
l<Miion-shapo«l, the posterior narrow end drawn out into a 
short truncate " tab." The upper surface is concave ; on 
each side a narrow chitinous band runs up on each side of 
the pharynx. This band partly arises from the basal part 
of the anterior cornu. The "glands'^ or basal pieces are 
rounded oval, each with a thick stout tendon inserted into it 
beiiind, some way in front of the posterior margin. Around 
the bifurcating' chitinous chords is a thin ])late (? hypo- 
pliarvnx. A similar piece is present and has been described 
in Lipeurus feroa-, P. Z. S. 1013, p. 129). 

Male Copnlatory Apparatus (fig. 4, p. 99). — The hasaJ plate 
is of rather complex sculpture, sufficiently shown in the figure. 
Tn the median area it is thin and transparent, the lateral 
margins, however, being thickl}' chitinized. Parameres fused 
at the tips. Each paramere is a sliort band, narrow at the 
base, broader at the end, where it fuses with its fellow along 
the whole line of its breadth and projects in front as a small, 
somewhat depressed beak. Eiidomeres are fused together at 
the base and shaped like a pair of tweezers. The "■preputial 
sac" is remarkable for the possession of a number of large 
denticles, of which tliere are two longitudinal rows, four in 
each, with a large number of smaller teeth in a group behind. 
This description, it must be pointed out, is made o£ the 
apparatus retracted. 

By reference to the sketch of the genitalia of T. mephiti'dis 
in the paper by V. L. KeUogg and G. F. Ferris (" Anoplura 
and Mallophaga of N. American Mammals," Stanford Uni- 
ver.-ity Publications, 1915, pi. viii. fig. 1), it may be surmised 
that the genitalia of that species closely resemble T'.gastrodes. 
On this and other smaller characters T. mephitidis^ Osb., and 
T. interrupto-fasciatus should, perha])s, be regarded as tlie 
nearest allies of 7'. yastrodes. 



1 



Measuremeids {tnillimetre-scale). 

6- 2- 

I^t'iigth. Greatest width. Length. GreatcHt width. 

Head H -86 -73 -87 

Tliorax 32 -71 -35 -72 

Abdomen 173 -90 172 110 

Total i'-7U 2-80 



new Species of Lice. lOl 



Length. Width. Len',4h. Width. 
Antennne : 

Segment 1 . . -30 -10 -11 -09 

2 .. -19 -08 -13 -06 

3 .. -18 -08 -19 07 

Total -137 -13 



c^. 9. 



.-V ^ 



Length of legs : Ist. 2nd. ."rd. l^t. 2ud. 3rd. 

Femur -21 "30 '33 -20 -30 30 

Tibia+tarsu.s.. -31 ( + cla\v) -38 -38 •3(+claw) -40 -38 

Claw 12 -15 .. 13 12 

Total -52 -80 -80 -50 -83 -80 

Family Docophovidae. 
Paragoniocotes, geu. iiov. 

This is a new panot genus known to me by several specie.", 
only one t)£ wiiicli lias iiitlieito been de.-5cribed, viz., the species 
from Calopsittacus nova-hullandice named in lb80 by tlic 
indetatigable Piaget (jonlocotes faaclatus (' Les Pediculines,' 
1S80, p. 236, pi. xix. Hg-. 11). G. fasciatus is a simple 
member of the genus in which the two large recurved ironlal 
processes one on each side of the head, so characteristic a 
feature of" the new species about to be described, are absent. 

The genus may be shortly diagnosed as follows : — 

lieatl broader than long. Front margin circular, temi)les 
rouiuled, with an elongate bristle. Prothorax narrow^ abdo- 
men short and small, tSmall species infesting parrots. 

Tiie mouth-parts and male copulatory apparatus may 
also provide some generic characters. Although the general 
facies recalls the Goniodida3, the genitalia in the male are 
distinctly iS'irmoid in character, so that in all probability it 
is more correct to include this genus in the family Uueo- 
phoiidie, raised by Mjbberg in 1910 to include the genera 
DocophoTus^ Nirmus, and F seudonirmus, 

Parayoniocotes gn'pocephalus, sp. n. 

This species is described from spirit-material, probably C)£ 
some considerable age, in the collection of the liritish 
Museum, and taken, according to the label inside the tube, 
on (Jhrysolis aiiyusta [now known as Amazona augusta, 
G. H. (jrray], the only other information available concommg 
tiiem being ilie locality indicated in the two words "August 
Amazon " (.swe). 



102 Mr. B. F. Cumniiiii;s 07i 

So far as I am aware, the only otlier member of the Mallo- 

pliaga known from a Cliri/sot/s is Nirnnts Ii(pilatus, Neumann, 

from C. IrnsHirti.sis (Hull. Sue. Hist. Nat, Toulouse, 1890, 

'xxiv. p. GO, "Contribution a rc'tudo des oiseaux de la 

famille des Psittacidaj '^). 

External Form. Male (fig. 5). — Head : pale in colour; in 
front of the antenna on each side is a large |)rocess, slightly 
curved, running downwards and backwards beneath the base 
of eacii antenna. Each process has a brown-coloured tip. 
The firm circular margin of tiie temples, the occijjital line, 
and the two incrassations — one in front of each antenna — are 
notable characteristics. On each of the third and filth seg- 
ments of the anteiuia there is a minute hair, probably of a 
sensory nature, set in a large alveolus. 

Prothorax much narrower than the head, short, parallel- 
sided. Clavicles* ap])arently absent. Meso+ metathorax 
broadens out upon the abdomen, the sides being divergent. 

Abdomen small, rather short ; broadest at the sixth 
segment. Pale or whitish. 

Ejcternal Form. Female. — Head and thorax as in the (J. 
Abdomen more regularly ovate, especially noticeable at the 
end of the abdomen, where the terminal segments maintain a 
firm unbroken curve, unbroken as in the J" by the somewhat 
sudden narrowing of the last segment. On each segment in 
the pleural region are two tergites, one on each side, leaving 
an uncovered median area. Tergites j)ale brown in colour. 
Gonopods small, represented by two delicate lobes. A rather 
long, almost parallel-sided genital plate, semitiansparent or 
whitish. Posterior margin straight, transverse, and fringed 
with hairs. On each side of the jdate, at about the level of 
the sixth segment, a small brown chitinous patch. 

Chcetota.iy. Male. — Head : along tiie frontal margin 
between the two incrassations four well-spaced hairs, the two 
middle ones short. Behind these, and between them and the 
mandibles on the dorsal surface two longer liairs. At about 
the level of the postaxial margin of the antenna on the dor.'sal 
surface, a short bristle, one on each side near the margin. 
Around the temjde margin four hairs, well-.;i)aced, the first 
three short, the fourth veiy long. Along the occij)ital line 
eeveral short hairs. On the ventral surface, four well-spaced 
fairl}' long hairs on preanteunal area behind the anterior 
margin. 

Tliorax : on the posterior lateral angle of the pronotum, a 

* " Clavicle " ie a term 1 borrowed in 1913 from vertebrate anatomy 
to signify the two endoskeletal rods in many Malluphaga which run 
from the "shoulder" of the pronotum duwu to the prosteruum. 



new Species vf L'tcc. 



1(|3 



stout l)ristle. Aloii<4; tiic liinci iiuiigiii of ineso + nictaiiolum ;i 
row of very elongato bristles, live or six on each sicK-, leaviiij^ 
the line in the median part bare. On the sterna there are two 
bristles between each pair of ccxje. 

Abdomen: provided with many very elongate bristles. On 
the dorsal surface, at the base of the alxlonicn there are four 



Fit 




Parcir/uniocotes (/npoa'iJtaliis, s^. n., c? 



well-spaced long hairs, the two outside ones situated further 
forward than the middle ones. Behind these are six hairs, a 
group of three in a row on each side of the middle line. An 
elongate bristle near the lateral margin on each side. On the 
next segment there is a closely-set row of four hairs on each 
side of the bare median area, with a very elongate pleural 
bristle. Similarly on the next throe segments, in which the 



104 



Mr. B. F. Cammino;s on 



sliort rows are set one on eacli side of tlie basal plate. Beliind 
these are a couple of ■widely-spaced hairs on each side, and 
behind these acain the usual two short transverse rows, three 
hairs on one side and four on the other. On the last tergum, 

Fip. e. 




Paragoniocotes yriiiocephalus, pp. n. Copulator}' apparatus, J 
(ventral Tiew), X 208. 

.Bi'.s: Basal plate; ^. and jE'. = Endomeral parts (.P) ; P.=Paramere; 
P(i?«.= Penis, complex. 

near the posterior margin, a semicircular row of six very 
email hairs. Along margin of upper lip of the genital 
opening six long bristles, one beside the other on each side. 
Several long bristles along margin of lower lip. 



new Species of Lice. 105 

On the voiitral surface of the last segment are scattered a 
large number of veiy elongate bristles. Cha3totaxy else- 
where difiicult to analyse with certainty : apparently five 
transverse rows of well-spaced thin hairs. 

Chd'tvta.vy. Female. — Abdomen : there are at least two 
long hairs on the median dorsal area of each segment except 
the last. On each of the lateral tergites 2 to 6 there is along 
the posterior margin a single elongate bristle (present also in 
the cJ). A pair of elongate straight bristles on the terminal 
margin of the abdomen. 

Ventrally, at the base of the abdomen four widely-spaced 
hairs, the two middle ones very long. A row of seven or 
eight well-spaced hairs on the next five segments. Posterior 
segments covered by genital plate, which is bare except for 
the hind marginal fringe and a few minute pale hairs along 
the longitudinal furrows lying one on each side of the plate. 
Five stout bristles on each gonopod. Between the gonopod 
and the lateral margin three elongate bristles, two in front 
and one behind. 

Male Copulatory Ajyparatus (fig. 6). — The male copu- 
latory apparatus presenis several interesting features. In the 
description which tollows the attempt which has been made to 
loniologize the parts must be regarded as merely tentative. 
The apparatus in this species is specialized, and rather difiicult 
to interpret without intermediate species — forthcoming, 
perhaps, in other parrot parasites of the genus. 

Basal plate delicate, thin, transparent, quadrilateral. 

The rest of the genitalia are strongly chitinized and deep 
brown in colour : — 

Parameres. — I regard as parameres the two broad blades 
which aiticulate w'ith the middle part of the posterior margin 
of the basal plate, and overlie, so as almost to completely 
hide from view, the rest of the genitalia. Usually the para- 
meres are attached laterally. Each ])aramere is elegantly 
curved on the outer margin and narrows to a slender tip, 
where a directive hair is situate. 

Mesosome. — On each side of the parameres and articulated 
to the posterior lateral angles of the basal plate is a 
smaller piece shaped somewhat like a rabbit's ear. In 
rather close connexion with this piece, but attached to the 
basal plate ventrally so as to be quite hidden by the 
parameres, is still another appendage, narrow, rod-like, half 
as long as the paramere, and with a toothed lower edge. 
These two shorter appendages on each side — one dorsal and 
one ventral — may represent the endomeral parts of the meso- 
dome. The Kcv. J. Water^ton has pointed out to me that 



106 



Mr. B. F. Cuniniin":s on 



tlie eiulomeial ]>ortion of llie co|mlatory sac is sometimes 
cliitinized unevenly on eacli side into a more or less separate 
dorsal and ventral band. In the present case, if we suppose 
the intervening thin chitin of the sac to have disappeared, we 
are left with the two separate endodermal appendages on 
each side. 

Penis. — Within the two iimer rods liesaconii)ound structure, 
nn oblong hone-siiaped box, consisting of fused penis, hypo- 
ineres, and endomeres, with two longitudinal rows of curved 
liooks on the lower surface, occupying the distal half of each 
lateral margin. The hooks are unequal in size. Near the 



VJiX. 




rRM, 



Paragoniocotes gripocephahis, sp. n. Mouth-parts, X about 260. 

Z.l/. = Left mandible; J?.lf. = Right mandible; ^P. = Basal process; 
J/. =First maxilla; P. = riiraglo.ssa ; 0<S'. = the so-called 
oesophageal sclerite ; G. = " Ghiud." 



tip, springing out from each lateral margin, is a directive hair, 
much longer than the longest hook, very straight, and of a 
whitish colour. 

Mouth-parts (fig. 7). — Mandibles of a pale whitish colour 
proximally. A fairly strong ginglymus joint in front and a 
rather large rounded condyle behind. To each point of arti- 
culation a strong bar of chitin runs from the apical end* 

On the left mandible there are three apices — two at the tip 
side by side and a large, broad, flat one projecting below 
these like a wel.bed toe. There is, in addition, the usual 
large basal process. On the lower or inner surface of the 
mandible, at the base of the first apical angle, is a small 



new Species of Lice. 107 

V-s]ia])C(l (F., fi^. 7) groove niimiiig In transversely from tlie 
cutliiig-oJgc. Tlie riyht maiulible lias two apices. At tlie 
base the lower of these twoapieal teetli is transversely ribbed, 
this ribbed siirtace working against a surface siniiiariy ribbed 
on the lower side (and theieforo not visible in the figure) of 
the first apical tooth of the opposite mandible. 

First JMaxilUe. — Soft lobes, longer than broad, with a 
small piece of thicker chitin on the outer margin as a support. 

Labium. — The so-called paraglossu', columnar, striiight, 
are rather long with soft, rounded, distal ends. On the 
inner surface at the tij), four or five s})inLS nearly as long as 
the lobe itself and all pointing inwards. Between these two 
appendages, the anterior margin of the labium runs out into 
two small round prominences, each possessing a few small 
spines. 

Isopogometric Apparatus. — CEsophageal sclerite very 
rounded, a little broader than lung. No posteri(jr cornua. 
Anterior cornua thinh' ehitinizt d, short, rather broad, and 
invisible without dissection. 

Measurements {inilliinetrc-sca^e) . 





6. 

, /^_ 






2- 




Length. Breadth. 


Length 


Breadth. 


Head 


•66 


•50 


•4 


•62 


m"so('^--- •••• 


. -20 [ 


•281 
•50 1 


■'\ 


•32 1 
•50 ( 


Abdomen 


•67 


•55 


•88 


•80 


Total 


. 1-2 




1^58 




Length of antenna : 


6- 








Segment 1 


. -082 








2 


. -OGs; 








3 


. -041 








4 


. -027 








5 


. 0.32 









»• Liiiognathoidcs citelli, sp. n. 

In the 'Bulletin for Entomological Research' (vol. v. 
])t. 2, Sept. 191-i, p. IGO) I described a new species of 
-(\noplura from a Sciurid, Citiiius lepludaclylus^ under the 
name Linoi/natlioides sperinopkili. Mr. Launcelot Harrison, 
li.Sc, has kindly pointed out that this name has already 
been used by Giubc under a figure of Linorjuathus lavi- 
Uficulus (Grube) in .Middendorff's ' Sibirischer Keise gesamm. 
Parasiten Zool.,' vol. ii. p. 498, t. ii. fig. 3 (1851). I there- 
fore rename Linognathoidcs sjirrDiophili as Linognathoidcs 
citelli. 



108 Mr. F. W. Edwards on the 



IV. — On the Systematic Position of the Genus Mycetobia, 
M(/. (Diptera Nematocera). ^y h^. W. Edwards, B.A., 
F.E.S. 

(Published bj peruiissiou of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

For many years the small oimts of tlie genus Mycetobia 
lijive been a great puzzle to all Dipterists wlio have attempted 
lo arrive at a natural classification of the order, owing to the 
tact that the adults appear to diverge very slightly in structure 
from tyjiical members of the Mycetophilid^, while, on the 
other hand, the larvse differ little, if at all, from those of the 
family lUiYPHiD^ *, which has always been regarded as 
widely se|)arated from the M YCETOPHILID^. 

O.-ten-Sacken, the foremost Dipterist of the last century, 
thus states the problem (Berl. ent. Zeit. vol. xxxvii. p. 442) : 
"... I have shown the perfect unity of type prevailing among 
the larvai of the different genera of this family. Tiiere is one 
exception to this rule, however. ... It is the larva of Myce- 
tobia puUipes, which is not peripneustic, like the larvjB of the 
other Mycetophilid^, but amphipneustic; it shows the most 
remarkable resemblance to the larva of Rhyphus, and often 
occurs together with it. Three trustwortiiy observers have 
described the larvai as ann)hipneustic : Lyonet, Dufour, and 
Ferris. The two latter have found the larva together with 
that of L'hyphus, and were struck by their resemblance, 
although fully aware of the differences. ... If there is a real 
relationship between the larvai of Mycetobia and lihyphus, 
we have a right to expect a corresponding relationship 
among the imagos. But, as this relationship does not exist, 
this is a problem yet to solve." 

In spite of the high standing of the observers quoted by 
Osten-Sacken, a recent writer (Knab, Ann. Ent. Soc. Araer., 
March 1915, p. 95) has got over the difficulty by suggesting 
" that the supposed difference rests upon an error of observa- 
tion." That this is not the case, however, has recently been 
found by ^lons. D. Keilin, whose studies (as yet unpubhshed) 
have not only confirmed the observations of the early 
authors f, but have shown that the resemblance between the 
larvae of Mycetobia and likyphus is even greater than they 
supposed. 

* Throughout this paper the terra Rhyphm has been used, though 
strictly, according to the rules of priority, it should be replaced by 
Anisopus, 

t The main facts were also confirmed by Johanusen in 1910 (' Maine 
Agricultural Experiment fetation, Bulletin 177 'j. 



Systenmtic Position of the Genus l\rycetobia, M<j. 109 

At M. Keiliii's 8U<^gestion, I have devoted some study to 
tlie adult structure of the MYCirroPiriLlD.E aud RilYPillD.E, 
ill order to ascertain whether any characters can bo I'ljuiid to 
support conclusions based on the study o£ larvre and j)upaj. 
Without clainiinn^ to have made at all an exhaustive in- 
vestigation, I think I may safely state not only that such 
cliaracters do exist, but that they should be taken into account 
in the classification of the Di|)tera as a whole. 

In order to explain clearly what these characters are, it 
will be necessary to give a brief comparative account of the 
structure of the mouth-parts and the venation in the two 
families in question. In referring to the mouth-parts of the 
]\IyceT0PIIILID.E I am relying partly on my own observations, 
but chierty on the excellent work lately published by Dr. R. 
Frey (Acta Soc. Fauna et Flora Fennica, xxxvii. no. 2, l'J13). 

Mouth-parts. 

ManrliJdes. — There seems to be no trace of these in either 
of the two families. 



Fi-. 1. 





Labrutn, epipharynx, and liypopharynx of (a) Olhiogaster africanus, Edw., 
(b) Mi/phiisfeyiestra/is, Scop., and (c) Mycetobia pallipes, Mg. 

Lahrum. — In both the MYC'ETOPHiLiDiE and RHYPHiDyE 
the labrura is very much reduced, being, as a rule, almost 
entirely membranous. There is, nevertheless, a considerable 
amount of variation. In the Rhyphid genus OUnogaster a 
distinct cliitinized piece is present on the upper side, the lower 
side (the so-called epipharynx) being chiefly membranous ; 
in Rhyphus the upper side is membranous, the lower side 
more or less cliitinized and provided with a fringe of Indrs 
towards the tip; in Mycetobia the whole labrum is mem- 
branous. 



110 Mr. F. W. Edwards on the 

Ilifpopharyiur (fig. 1, p. 109). — Frey has found tliat in most 
MyCETOPHILID.E, as also in ScIAHID.E and CECIDOMYIIDJi, 
the hypoi)liarynx is but poorly deveUiped, and is fused on to 
the upj)in" surfiice of the lahium. The only exception he 
noted was in the genus Bnlitophila, in which the hypo- 
pharynx is free at the tip; he hail not, however, examined a 
large number of forms, and Mi/cetohia was not among them — 
it has the hypopharynx very well developed and entirely free 
from the labium, being connected rather with the labrum. 
niii/phus and Olbiogaftter likewise have a free hypopharynx, 
though its form is very diverse in the three genera. In 
Mycetohia it is trilobed at the tip, the middle lobe having a 
finely toothed margin ; in Olhiogaster it is simple, and also 
in Rhyphus, though in the last-navned genus it is straighter 
and more pointed. It is connected with the " pharyngeal 
pump," which seems to be rather better developed in Myce- 
tohia than in other Mycetophilid^, and is even more 
conspicuous in the RiiYPHiDJi. 

Maa-Uhe (fig. 2). — In both families the parts of the maxillas 
present are stipes, galea, and palpus. The stipites are appa- 
rently absent in Ditomyia (fig. 4 a) and perhaps in Macro- 
cera ; small in Platyura (fig. 4 h) ; well developed in the 
other genera, attaining their greatest size in the more typical 
Mycetophilidj^, such as Phronia (see fig. 4 d), Exechia, 
and Mycetophila. In these last-mentioned forms the galea or 
blade of the maxilla is very much reduced, but in the more 
primitive MYCETOPHILID.E and in the Ehyphid^ it is quite 
large. 

The maxillary palpi of Rhyphun are four-jointed (without 
reckoning the small basal palpiger, which may be a true 
joint). The second joint is somewhat enlarged, and contains 
a peculiar gland provided with a duct which opens by a pore 
at the tip of the joint. Olhiogaster has similar palpi, but 
the joints differ in their relative lengths, and the duct of the 
gland in the second joint is shorter ; the palpiger has more 
the ajipearance of a true joint. In Mycetohia the palpi are 
only three-jointed, but, as the basal joint contains a gland 
very similar to that of li/iyjjJois, it is probabl}^ safe to assume 
that the palpi have become three-jointed by the fusion of the 
first two. In both genera the penultimate joint is roundish, 
the terminal one more elongate. Many Mycetophilid^ 
possess a structure in the second palpal joint which is, 
perhaps, comparable with the gland above referred to; but 
in no other case that I have observed is this gland provided 
with a duct, nor does it (except in the case of Simulium, 



Systematic Position of the Genus Mycetobia, M</. 1 1 1 

where it is well ileveloped) appear to possess any opening to 
the exterior. 

Ldhimn (fig. 2). — Tlie homologies of the different parts of 
the labium are still very uncertain. The structures usually 



Fii-. 




Fi- ?,. 




Fig. 2. — Maxilla and labiimi of {a) Rhyphus fenestrulis, Scop., {h) Olbio- 
ynster afn'canus, Edw., and (c) Mycetubia pallipes, ^Ig. 

Fig. 3. — Under surface of head of (a) Rhyphus punctatus, Fabr., (i) 01- 
bioyaster africanns, Edw., (c) Mycetobia pallipes, Mg. Note 
the large hairy guhir plate. 



known as labella in Dipteru are regarded by Kellogg and 
others as being j>araglossse, by Frey as representing tiie 
labial palpi. 'ilie piece to which they are attached is 



112 



j\]r. F. W. Edwards on the 



described by Kellon;g simply as the " basal labial sclerife " ; 
Frey honiold^izes it with the nientutn. I am by no means 
certain that Frey's view is correct, since it usually shows a 
median groove or suture, indicating that it may have arisen 
by the fusion of paired structures. For convenience, how- 
ever, it may be well to follow Frey. 

In Mycetophilid.E the labium consists of the two large 
labella, usually two-jointed, attached to the mentum, at the 
base of which an ill-defined sui)mentum is sometimes 
discernible. Mycetohia diti'ers from all the other Myceto- 
PHILID.E* in possessing at the base of the labium a large 
hairy gular plate (figs. 2 c and 3 c) covering the forked end 

Fi-. 4. 




Under surface of head of {a) Ditomr/ia fascia t a, Mg., (b) P/afi/vra nemo- 
rahsf, Mg., (c) Empalia vitripennis, Mg., (d) Phronia forcipula, 
AViun. Note absence of gular plate, except in c; also great 
development of the maxillary stipites in c and d. 



of the mentum t; to the anterior angles of this plate are 
attached the bases of the maxillary stipites. The only other 
Mvcetophilid in which I have found any gular plate at all is 
Empaha vitrijjennis ; in this case the plate is very small, 
bears no hairs, and is quite remote from the labium (tig. 4 c). 

* I have examined from this point of view the following species : — 
Diadocidia ferrvginosa, Ditomyia fanciata, Symmei'us annidatus, Bolito- 
j)/iil(i ciueiea, Macrocfra stiff ma, Phityura fai^ciata, P. ncmoralis, Myco- 
inyia inscisuruta, Sciophila hirta, PJmpa/ia vitripeimis, Tetrayoneara 
ty/vatica, Allactoneura cincta, Bo/etinn sciarina, Docosia valida, Leio- 
myia sub/asciata, Phronia forcipula, Exechia fungorum, and Myceiophila 
jmnctata. 

t It is possible that this " gular plate " is really the true mentum, 
which in that case is absent in tne other Mvcetophilid^. 



Systematic Position of the Oenns Mycetobia, Mg. 1 Hi 

Turning to tlie llllYPIIID.E, we fiml that in Olbiogaster 
(fig. 2 b) the hxhiuni (lifters from that of Mi/ce(ohia cliietlv in 
liaving the nientuin completely fused on to the guiar plate, 
while the former, instead of the latter, provides the attacli- 
ment fur the maxillary stij)ites. lihyphus (fig. 2 a) presents 
a very different structure : there is a well-marked median 
organ situated between the labolla, which is re^%'irdcd by 
Kellogg (* Psj'che,' vol. viii. p. 35(5) as representing tho 
fused glossa3 ; a small luirrow plate is inserted between the 
nicntum and the gular plate, on each side of which last is 
another plate, which may, j)erhaps, bo regarded as the cardo 
of the maxilla. 

A gular plate entirely comparable with that of the 
RHYnriD.^ occurs in Ptychoptera and in Trichocera, though 
it appears to be absent in Di.va. A similar plate is to be 
found in at least some of the BuACilYCERA and in the 
MusciD.E, where it is fused with the head-skeleton ; it has 
been figured for ^[usca by Wesche (J. R. Micr. Soc. 1909, 
pi. iv.), who regards it as the raentum. 

Venation. 

The Rhyphid.e and MycetophiltD/E agree in having a 
costa which docs not extend beyond the tip of the wing, but 




^"' Cu;, An 

"Wing of (a) Mycetohia i^allipes, Mg., (h) Olbiogaster sackeni, Edw. 



differ widely in that the former have a three-branched media 
and a discal cell, whereas the latter never have more t;lian a 
two-branched media and no discal cell. 

At first sight it is not easy to connect these two types, but 
if in the wing of N/n/pIius we suppress the third branch of 
the media, and with it the cross-vein forming the discal cell, 
a condition very much resembling that of Mycetobia is arrived 

Ann. tC- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol xvii. 8 



114 Mr. F. W. Edwards on the 

at, and tlie following points of resemblance between the two 
genera become more appartMit : — (1) the radial sector forks 
basallv to the R-]M cross-vein, or, in other words, the small 
cross-Vein is situated on the third longitudinal vein, instead 
of on the prrofurca ; (2) the lower branch of the cubitus is 
distinctly sinuous, the cell Cui having a convexity on the 
lower side towards the base. The resemblance between the 
venation of Mycetohia (fig. 5 a) and Olhiogasler (fig. 5 b) is in 
some respects still more marked, and it is worthy of particular 
notice that in Olhiogister africaniis, Edw., and still more 
consi)icuonsly in 0. sackeni, Edw., the lowest of the three 
veins arising from the discal cell (M3) is less strongly 
chitiiiized than the other two, suggesting that the venation of 
Mycetolda has arisen directly from that of Olhiogasler through 
the obsolescence of M3. 

In almost all other MycetOPHILID^ tlie radial sector, when 
it forks at all, does so nearer the wing-apex thati the position 
of the R-M cross-vein, whicli, besides, is usually sloping, and 
not straight as it is in Mycetohia. The only exception to this 
rule is the genus Pachyneura^ in which the radial sector forks 
exactly at the R-M cross-vein. In all other MYCETOPliILIDiE, 
with the exception of Z(f'io»f?/ia {Glaphyroptera) and its allies, 
the cell Cui is concave instead of convex on its lower margin. 
Dilomyia and Symmerus, genera which, together with Myce- 
tohia^ have been made to form the subianiily Mycetobiin^, 
ao-ree in both tiiese respects with the other Mycetopiiilidji, 
and I therefore consider that they are not at all closely 
related to Mycetohia. The genus Mesochria, recently described 
from the Seychelles Islands, is, on the other hand, closely 
related to Mycetohia. Its venation is very interesting, as the 
media is evanescent ; it evidently represents a further stage 
of evolution from Myctuhia^ in which the lowest branch of the 
originally three-branched meiiia has already disappeared. 

A comparison with other Diptera as regards the position 
of the radial I'ork reveals the fact that in the Tipulidee, 
Culicidfe, Fsychodida", Orthorrhapha Brachycera, and 
Oyclonhapha it always takes place anteriorly to the R-M 
cro.*s-vein, whereas in the Chironomidse, Simulidre, and 
Bibionidae the radial sector is usually simple, but wiien it 
forks does so beyond the R-M cross-vein. An apparent 
exception to this rule, however, is the Bibionid genus JEupei- 
tenus. It is also noteworthy that in the families of the 
first group the media is primitively three-branched, while in 
those of the second it is never more than two-branched. 



I 



Si/s(<'i/ialic Position of the Genus Mycetobin, Mj. 115 

Other Characters. 

As vcgMiils the other cliaractevs — tliose of the tliorax, 
abdoniL'ii, aiui logs, — not much need he said. Uh>ji)hus is 
])cculiar in having hoK)ptic eyes in the male and greatly 
t'ldarged enipodia ; it does not, however, share either ot" these 
characters with 0/bio(/(tste}', which resembles the MyCETO- 
PHiLIDvE rather than liJuipliiis in botii these rcspeets. 

Of the male genitalia, which iisually provide sound indica- 
tions of relationship, I have made no comparative study ; 
but it is noteworthy that MijCfioHa appears to be the only 
]\Iycetophilid which pos-sesses chitinous spermnthecae in the 
female. Of tli<'?e. there are two in Mi/celobia, two (or, 
perhai)S, three) in Olhiogaster^ one in Blii/pfnis. 

Conclusions. 

1. Mycetohia agrees with the RhYPHID^ and diverges 
from the MycETuPHILID.i: in the possession of a large gular 
plate, in the stiucture of tlie second palpal joint, in the 
position of the foi king of the radial vein, the course of tiie 
cubital vein, and in the chitinous spermatheca3 of the female. 
Since the venation of Mycetohia has been shown to bo 
directly derivable from that of the Riiyphid genus Olbiogasler, 
it is probable that any resemblances in this respect to the 
MycETOPHILID.E are due to convergent evolution, and not to 
relationship. The genus Mycetohia (and with it Mcsochn'a, 
though not Dilontyiaox Symmerus) must theretore, on grounds 
of adult as well as larval structure, be transferred from the 
Mycetuphilid^ to the Rhyphidje. 

2. It is at least possible that llie characters of the gular 
plate and of the position of the radial fork will be found on 
full investigation to divi.le the Nematocera into two groups, 
and there is evidence that these grou])S may coincide with 
those founded on other characters, notably the tracheal system 
of the larva ; this evidence, therefore, tends to confirm Knab's 
recent division of the Nematocera (Ann. Ent. Soc. Ainer. 
vol. viii. p. 9."J, March 191.5) into OligONEUIU, with peri- 
pneustic larvae, and POLYNEUUA, with amphipuoustic larv?e. 
The genus Pachyneura seems to require special study, owing 
to the intermediate character of its venation, and JEupeitenus 
is also aberrant. 

. 3. If, as seems probable from many considerations, the 
higher Dipter.i have been derived from the I'OLYNEUKA and 
the C)LiaONEURA represent aneniirely distinct line ot evolution, 

6* 



116 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

the ])iiniavv division of tlie order should be neither into 
OKTiiORRHAniA and Cyclorrhapiia, nor into Nematocera 
and Braciiycera, but into Polyneura and Oligoneura, 
the former including, in addition to the Tipulid-Culicid 
group of the Nematocera, the whole of the CyclorrhaPHA 
and the Orthorrhapha Brach\cera. 



V. — Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XIX. On new 
Species from Australia. By ROWLAND E. TURNER, 
F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Family Mutillidse. 

Epliutomorpha submetallescens, sp. n. 

5 . Caerulescens ; abdomine pedibusque cupreo-purpureis ; an- 
tennis nigris ; mandibulis nigris, basi ferrugineis ; segmentis 
dorsalibus 1-5 macula apicali albo-hirta. 

Long. 12 mm. 

$ . Head distinctly narrower than the tliorax, closely and 
rather coarsely punctured, not much narrowed behind the 
eyes, rather strongly rounded posteriorly ; eyes large, as 
near to the posterior margin of the head as to the base of 
the mandibles ; antennal tubercles well developed, second 
joint of the flagellum as long as the first and third combined. 
Thorax very coarsely reticulate, nearly twice as long as the 
greatest breadth, a little broader in tlie middle than on tlie 
anterior margin, the apical third rather strongly narrowed. 
Abdomen closely punctured, the punctures on the second 
dorsal segment larger tlian on the others and more or less 
confluent ; first segment oblique from near the apex to the 
base, slightly constricted at the apex, with a spine on each 
side at the base beneath and with a small patch of white 
hairs at the apex ; second dorsal segment very long, more 
tlian half as long again as the greatest breadth, narrower at 
the extremities. No pygidial area. The sides of the apical 
segments clothed with long black hairs. Intermediate and 
hind tibiaj without spines on the outer margin. Calcaria 
white, the outer apical angle of the tibiae produced into 
two short spines much less than half the length of the 
calcaria. 

Hab. Brisbane {Hacker') ; February. 

Tliis is very nearly related to E. metallica, Sra., but 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial IJymenoptera. 117 

differs in the absence of a longitudinal depression on the 
basal half of the second dorsal segment, in the greater 
breadth of the thorax, which is more than twice as long as 
the greatest breadth in metallica, and in the greater length 
of the second dorsal segment. The colour of the thorax is 
also different. The type of nietallicn is from Adelaide, but 
the species ranges as far west as Perth. 

Ephutomorpha dilecta, sp. n. 

2 . Ca?rulea, abdomiuc viridi-a^ueo ; an tennis mandibulisque nigris ; 
pedibus fuscis, femoribus intermediis posticisque basi, tibiisque 
posticis supra ferrugineis. 
Long. 10 mm. 

? . Head no broader than the thorax, closely and not very 
finely punctured, not narrowed behind the eyes, the posterior 
angles very feebly rounded ; eyes large, a little nearer to 
the posterior margin of the head tlian to the base of tiie 
mandibles ; antennal tubercles well develoj)ed ; second joint 
of the flagellum as long as the first and third combined. 
Thorax nearly twice as long as the breadth on the almost 
straight anterior margin, strongly narrowed from behind the 
middle ; coarsely reticulate. Abdomen closely and finely 
punctured; first segment oblique from near the apex to the 
base, slightly constricted at the i\pex, with a spine on each 
side at the base beneath ; second segment about half as long 
again as the greatest breadth, not much broader in the 
middle than at the apex, more strongly punctured than the 
other segments, a small patch of white hairs at the apex of 
segments 2-5. No pygidial area. The sides of tlie apical 
segments clothed with long black hairs. Intermediate and 
hind tibirc with one well-developed sj)ine near the middle of 
the outer margin, the apex of the tibiae above produced into 
two spines nearly as long as tlie calcaria, which are black. 

Ilab. Brisbane {I/acker) ; June. 

In many points this is related to suhmetallescens, but 
differs in the armature of the tibiae, in colour, and in the 
shorter second abdominal segment. It is quite distinct from 
amcvna, Andr($, and other metallic species from North 
Queensland. 

Family Thyunidae. 

Zaspihthynnus excavatus, Turn. 

Thynnus excavatus, Turn. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xxxiii. p. 216 

(1908). cJ$. 
Zaspilothynnus excavatus, Turn. Wvstnmn's Gen. Insect, cv. p. 53 

(1910). 



118 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

The typical form is from Kiiraiicln, North Queensland. 
A pair sent from the Qucenslaml Museum differ in colour 
from the typical form, the male having" the four apical dorsal 
segments of the abdomen wholly ferruginous red, whereas 
the Kuranda specimens have the same segments brownish 
yellow more or lo.-^s marked with black, the fourth segment 
being often wholly black. Tiie female has the abdomen 
more strongly marked with yellow than in the type, but 
Kuranda specimens vary much in this respect and in one 
specimen the yellow mai kings are almost as large as in the 
Brisbane form. The only structural differences are the 
slightly shorter hypopygium of the male, and the slightly 
narrower head of the female in the Brisbane form. These 
differences may prove to be of subspecific value. 

Tmesothrjnnus ingrediens, sp. n. 

S . Xiger ; clypeo linea marginali utriiiquc, niandibulis basi, 
macula obliqua utrinque inter atitennas, pronoto linca transversa 
utrinqiie antice, postscutelloque albido-tiavis; alis hyalinis, veuia 
nipris. 

$ . Uruneo-ferniginea ; segmento mediano nigro ; scgmcntis 
abdomiiialibus tertio, quarto quintoque plus minus infuscatis ; 
Begmcnto dorsali secundo transverse quadricarinato. 

Long., 6 9 mm., 2 6 mm. 

J. Head and thorax closely and rather finely jiunctured, 
abdiimeii more sparsely punctured, median segment shining, 
very minutely punctured. (Jiyj)eus truncate at the apex; 
antennae about as long as the thorax and median segment 
combined, of even thickness througiiont, the prominence 
between the anteJinre almost obsolete. Head very thin and 
flat, Anteiior margin of the pronotum straight and slightly 
raised, median segment rounded. Abdominal segments 
strongly constricted at the base, the seventh dor.-^al segment 
very broadly rounded at the apex. Hypopygium witli 
parallel sides, brcadly and shallowly emarginate at the aj)ex, 
with a long apical spine. Second abscissa of the radius 
longer than the third, second recurrent nervure received at 
about one-tenth from the base of the third cubital cell. 

9 . Head iu'oader than long by about one-third, the sides 
slightly sinuate in the middle ; eyes small, oblique, narrowly 
ovate, neaily touching the base of the mandibles; front 
sparsely punctured, without a sulcus, vertex almost smooth; 
mandibles long and falcate, not toothed. Pronotum finely 
punctured, much broader than long, distinctly narrowed 
posteiiorly, the anterior angles prominent; scutellum broader 



Mr. K. K. Turner on Foasorial Jlymenoptera. 1 19 

than long, broadly rounded ut the a{)ex ; median se;4incnt 
rather closely punctured, the dorsal surface a little lonpjer 
than the scutcllum and not divided from the oblique posterior 
slope. Abdomen shining, microscopically punctured, with a 
few larger punctures near the apex of the third, fourth, and 
iitth segments ; first dorsal segment rather strongly depressed 
on the apical margin ; second with four strong transverse 
carina^ including the raised apical margin ; pygidium nar- 
rowly elongate-ovate, ])ointed at the base, the sides tbrniing 
marginal carina*. Fifth ventral segment closely and deeply 
punctured at the apex. 

Ihih. Brisbane ( JJacker) ; April and September. 

This is near 7'. iridipennis, ISm., but has the elypeus much 
less strongly convex in the male. According to Smith the 
female of iridipennis has only two transverse carinfe on the 
second segment, and the male hypopygium is truncate, not 
emarginate. 

Unfortunately the types are lost, having been in the 
Bakewell collection. 



Epactiothynnus multicolor, sp. n. 

cJ . Rufo-ferrugineus ; antennis, froute ante ocellos, pronoto in 
medio, mesosteruo segmentoque mediano nigris ; maudibulis, 
clypeo, orbitis internis, macula bilobata inter antennis, prouoto 
margine anteriore et posteriore, tegulis, postscutello, segniento 
mediano macula magna curvata apical! utrinque, segmeutisque 
dorsalibus quinquo basalibus macula parva utrinque fiavis ; alia 
hyalinis, venis nigris. 
Long. 8 mm. 

(J . Clypeus scarcely convex, rather broadly truncate at 
the apex. Antennae nearly as long as the head, thorax, and 
median segment combined, slender, the apical joints a little 
narrowed ; the interantennal prominence almost obsolete. 
Head and thorax finely atid closely punctured ; the pro- 
notum short, slightly emarginate anteriorly. Median seg- 
ment shining and almost smooth ; abdomen slender, sparsely 
and shallowly punctured, the segments constricted at the 
base. Seventh dorsal segment more coarsely punctured ; 
hypopygium with a long apical spine, narrowed from the 
l)ase, with a small spine on each side at the base. Second 
abscissa of the radius a little shorter than tiie third, second 
recurrent nervure received at about one-fifth ironi the base 
of the third cubital cell. 

Hah. Oxley, near Brisbane {Hacker)) September. 

This is the eastern representative uf c.vcel/ens, Sm., but is 



120 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosson'al Ilymenoptera. 

a more slender species, the first abilominal segment is much 
narrower and proportionately longer, the scutclluin is rather 
less convex, the third abscissa of the radius is much longer, 
and the second recurrent nervure is received further I'rom 
base of the third cubital cell. 

Dimorpliothynnus hicolor, Wesfcw. 

Enteles hicolor, Westw. Arc. Ent. ii. p. 143 (1844). $ . 
Thijnnus ziuf/crlei, D. T., Cat. Ilym. viii. p. 119 (1897). $. 
? ji/ia(/i(/aster hccvwrrhoiclalis, Gner. Mag-, de Zool. xii. (1842). c?. 
? Thiinnus kchcri, 1). T., Cat. llvni. viii. p. 110 (1897). 6 ■ 
Enteles h(cmorrhoidalis, Turn. Proc. Liuu. Soc. N.S.W. xxxii. p. 242 
(1907). $. 

I used the name hcemorrJioidalis for this species in my 
revision of the grou)), probably correctly. But since that 
time I have received the male of Bhagiijaster crtstaneus, Sm., 
which would fit Guerin's very brief description equally well. 
There can therefore be no certainty as to Guf^rin's species 
without seeing the type. I). Jinibriatus, Sm.^cJjis a dis- 
tinctly larger species. 

The pair of D. hicolor in tlie British Museum is from 
Perth, W.A. There is a series of D. fiinbriatus from 
Adelaide, S.A., and Yaliingup, W.A. 

D imorphothynnus Jimhriatas , Sm. 

Thynnusfiynbriatm, Sm. Cat. Tlym. B.M. vii. p. 42 (1859). $ . 
Rhagigaster apicalis, Sm. Cat. Hym. B.M. vii. p. 63 (1859). <^ . 
Thy'nnus ottonis, D. T., Cat. Hym. viii. p. 112 (1897). (S . 

In my revision of the Thynnida? (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 
xxxii. p. 24:2, 1907) I treated this species as a synonym 
of D. hcemorrkoidalis, Guer. Further material has come to 
hand since and shows that I was mistaken. The female 
fimhriatus differs from hicolor, Westw., in the shape of the 
head, Avhich is shorter and much more strongly rounded 
posteriorly, the pronotum and scutellum are shorter ; the 
median segment is very short, only half as long as in 
hicolor ; the carinse on tiie second dorsal segment are some- 
what stronger ; the pygidium is much narrower, being 
very broadly oval in hicolor, elongate and narrowed to the 
apex in fimhriatus, the striation of the pygidium is much 
coarser, and there is a tuft of long pale hairs on each side, 
springing from beneath the dorsal plate of the pygidium, 
which is absent in hicolor. The mala hicolor has the enclosed 
triangular space on the clypeus narrower than in fimhriatus; 
the seventh dorsal segment more rounded at the apical angle.=, 



Mr. II. E. Turner on Fossor'ial Ili/nimoptera. 121 

less distinctly truncate; the second transverse cubital ncrvuro 
much less oblique, wiiicli makes the second abscissa of the 
radius much longer than the third, not shorter as in Jim- 
briatu.^, and the second recurrent nervure is received close to 
the base of the tliirtl cubital cell, distinctly closer than in 
Jiml>rialug. Tho extent of difference in these details of 
neuration varies individually to a certain degree. The type 
ol\fiml>vuitus from Adelaide is identical with s[)eeiinens from 
Yallingup, W.A. 

A form from Brisbane {flaclci'r)^ taken in March, is pro- 
bably a subspecies, the male dilfeiiiig in having the triangular 
space on the clypeus narrower ; the female in the form 
of the sixth 'dorsal segment, which has the sides almost 
paralkl. 

Dimorphothynnus trunciscutisj sp. n. 

S . Niger, nitidus, albo-pilosus ; alis fusco-cseruleis. 
Long. 10 mm. 

cJ . Clypeus tinely punctured, tiiickly clothed with white 
pubescence ; a narrow triangular area extending from the 
base to the apex, pointed at the base, with distinct lateral 
carinjB, the narrow space enclosed by the carina irregularly 
rugose-striate. Antennse scarcely longer than the thorax, of 
even thickness throughout ; the interantennal prominence 
broad, very broadly rounded at the apex and irregularly 
longitudinally striated, separated from the front by a trans- 
verse carina which does not reach the eyes, from tliis carina 
an arched carina extends over the anterior ocellus enclosing 
an almost semicircular space. Vertex shining, finely and 
rather sparsely punctured. Pronotum scarcely half as lon^- 
as the mesonotum, finely transversely striate-rugulose, the 
anterior margin raised and almost straight, the anterior 
angles of the prothorax acutely produced beneath. Meso- 
notum and scutellum shining, sparsely punctured, the dorsal 
surface of the scutellum flat, transverse at the apex and 
almost vertically truncate posteriorly ; mesopleurse coarsely 
punctured. Median segment shorter than the scutellum, 
closely punctured at the sides, spar:,oly in the middle, almost 
veitically truncate posteriorly, the dorsal surface separated 
from the posterior slope by a strong carina. Abdomen 
closely but not coarsely punctured, the segments slightly 
constricted at the base ; first ventral segment with a strongly 
raised longitudinal carina which is broken before the apex so 
as to form an apical and a prc-apical tubercle. Seventh 
dorsal segment very broadly truncate at the apex, the base 



122 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

conrscly piincturctl, tlic apex longitudinally rugulose. Spine 
of the liypopygiiun long and recurved. Third abscissa of 
tiio raclius distinctly longer than the second, second recurrent 
nervnre received just betbre one-quarter from the base o£ the 
tliird cubital cell. 

Hah. Brisbane (IJacIcer) ; September. 

Very nearly allied to morio, Westw., but may be distin- 
guished by the colour of the legs, which are ferruginous in 
vion'o, by the great breadth of tiie scutelhun at the apex, and 
by the niucli coarser sculjiture of the niesopleura^. D. morio 
is not uncommon round Sydney and has been taken by 
Mr. Hacker on Stradbrokc Ishvnd. 



Eirone suhpetiolata, sp. n. 

J. Xiger; mandibulis, antennis, fronte, vcrtice, pronoto fascia 
arcuata, mesonoto, scutello tegulisque pallide ferrugineis ; 
clypeo, orbitis internis late, prouoto postscutelloque flavis ; alls 
hyalinis, venis nigris. 

Long. 8 mm. 

(J. Clyfieus slightly convex, truncate at the apex, without 
a flat triangular area ; the whole head finely j)unctured. 
Antennje rather slender, scarcely as long as tlie thorax and 
median segment combined, the a])ic;il joints feebly arcuate 
beneath. Ocelli in an equilateral triiingle, the posterior pair 
more than twice as far trom the eyes as from each other. 
Pronotum about half as long as the niesonotum ; scutellum 
broadly rounded at the apex, the whole tliorax finely punc- 
tured. Median segment rounded, very minutely punctured, 
almost smooth at the base, with short white pubescence on 
the sides and apex. Abdomen fusiform ; dorsal segments 
2—4 slightly depressed at the base, first segment very narrow 
at the base ; the whole abdomen shining, minutely punctured, 
more coarsely on the seventh segment. Hypopygium 
broadly rounded and ciliated. Third abscissa of the radius 
halt as long again as the second, first recurrent nervure 
received just beyond tiie middle of the second cubital cell, 
second just beyond one-third from the base of the third 
cubital cell. 

IJab. Brisbane {Hacker) ; April. 

Allied to E. rvfodorsata^ Turn., from Herberton, but differs 
in the colour of the head and autennse, in the slenderer 
antenna?, and in the slenderer first abdominal segment, also 
in the shorter second abscissa of the radius. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossor'ud ffi/nienoptt^ra. 123 

Family PsaminocharidaB. 
Datozonus tricolor, Sm. 

Pompilus tricolor, Sm. Trari3. Ent. Soc. London, p. 242 (18G8). (J . 
Poinpilus trichrous, D. T., Cat. Ilyni. viii. p. 327 (1897). J. 

2 • ^^igra ; capitc, antennis, segraentis abdominis quatuor analibus, 
segraento dorsali sccuudo vel toto vel diniidio basali, femoribus 
anticis, tibiis tarsisque aurantiacis ; alia aurantiacis, apice 
infuraatis, venis testaceis. 

Long. 20-24 mm. 

? . Clypeus transverse at the apex, closely and minutely 
|/uncturetl, witU a tew lar<^er punctures intermingled, the 
apex of the lahrum exposed. Second joint of the flagellum 
nearly half as long again as the third ; eyes separated on the 
vertex by a distance equal to the length ot" the third joint 
of the flagellum. Pronotum broadly arched posteriorly, not 
angulate ; scutellum strongly convex. Median segment 
longer than the apical breadth, without sulcus or stria?, 
clotli<-'d with short fuscous hairs. Sixth dorsal segment 
punctured, sparsely clothed with long black hairs. Basal 
ji)int of fore tarsus with three spines ; ungues of the fore 
tarsi bifid, of the intermediate and hind tarsi unidentate. 
Second abscissa of the radius nearly half as long again as 
the third, the first recurrent nervure received beyond three- 
quarteis from the base of the second cubital cell, second a 
little beyond the middle of the third cubital cell. Cubitus 
(if the hind wing oiiginating at a distance before the trans- 
verse median nervure equal to about three-quarters of the 
length of the third abscissa of the radius. The fuscous 
apical margin of the wing does not extend to the third 
transverse cubital nervui'e. 

//(///. Adelaide, 8. A. (iS'//i<fA), ^ ; Mackay, Q. [Turner),^ ; 
Tuwnsville, Q. {Dodd), ? . 

Ihe sexes are exceedingly different, as is usual in this 
genus, but the neuration is similar. This is the Australian 
representative of the Indian B.unifascialus, Sm., from wiiich 
it differs in the colour of the thorax and abdomen, and in the 
slenderer median segment of both sexes, also in the longer 
second joint of tiie flagellum in the male. The group, which 
includes Ji. fuliginosus Klug, and B. madecassus, Sauss., is 
distinguished from other species of the genus by the great 
distance between the cubitus and transverse median nervure 
of the hind wing. 



124 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

Batozonus vespoides, Sin. 
l^ompilus t^gjwides, Sin. Trans. Ent. Soc. Loudon, p. 244 (1868). $, 

c? . Niger ; clypeo, orbitis internis late, prouoto, tegulis, scutello 
macula quadrata, postscutello macula, sogmento dorsali primo 
macula parva utrinque, segmeutis dorsalibus 2-7 fascia lata 
transversa utrinque pallide tlavis ; anteniiis basi et subtus pedi- 
busquo forrugineis, tibiis tarsisque posticis uigris ; alis hyalinis, 
apice extreme pallide iufumatis, venis uigris. 

Long. 11-15 mm. 

cJ . Clypeus transverse at the apex, the labrum exserted. 
AuteniiOB stout, the joints moderately arcuate beneath, but 
less strongly so than in tricolor, second joint of the flagelluin 
distinctly shorter than the third. Pronotutn strongly rounded 
at the anterior angles, the posterior margin widely arched. 
Median segment broader than long, clothed with thin white 
pubescence. Seventh dorsal segment narrowly truncate at 
the apex. Second abscissa of the radius twice as long 
as the third, first recurrent nervure received at two-thirds 
from the base of the second cubital cell, second close to the 
middle of the third culntal cell. Cubitus of the hind wing- 
originating just before the transverse median nervure. 
All the tarsal ungues bifid. 

IJab. Mackay and Cairns, Q. (Turner); Brisbane, Q. 
{Hacker) ; Victoria {Frencli). 

This is the Australian representative of the group of the 
European B. quadripunctatus , Fabr., and is nearest to the 
Asiatic B. orientalis, Cam., the female of which has been 
described by Bhigham under the name biocidatus. In the 
Oriental region a dark-winged form of the female occurs, 
named by iJingham hracatus, but I do not believe that any 
corresponding aberration occurs in Australia. The species 
is common in Queensland, but I never guessed the connection 
o£ tiie sexes during my residence there. B. tricolor seems 
to be a rare species. As far as I know these are the only 
two Australian species oi' Batozonus. 

Aporoideus ultimus, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; clypeo linea transversa subapicali, fronteque macula 
parva utrinque flavidulis ; raandibulis basi, femoribus, tibiis, 
tarsisque subtus ferrugiueis ; pronoto marginibus indistincte 
albidis ; alis sordide hyaUnis, venis nigris. 

Long. 5 mm. 

? . Clypeus shallowly emarginate at the apex, the labrum 
not exposed ; second joint of the flagellum half as long again 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossori'al llymenoptera. 125 

as the third; eyes converging a little towards the vertex ; 
head finely and closely punctured, front with a distinct 
lonjjitudinal sulcus. Pronotuni short and broad ; ])arapsidal 
furr(nv3 very indistinct ; scutellum longer than broad. 
]\Icdian segment shorter than the pronotuni, oblicjucly sloped 
posteriorly, with an almost obsolete median sulcus. Thorax 
and median segment sabo|iaque ; abdomen shining, almost 
smooth. Hind tibiae with three or four fairly long spines on 
the outer margin ; fore tarsi without a conib, with only a 
few very minute spines beneath the first joint; tarsal ungues 
with a small tooth near the middle. Second abscissa of the 
radius about equal to the third ; first recurrent nervure 
received just beyond two-thirds from the base of the second 
cubital cell, second at the middle of the third cubital cell. 
Submedian cell a little longer than the median ; cubitus of 
the hind wing originating distinctly beyond the transverse 
median nervure. 

^ . Without the whitish band on the clypeus, the spots on 
the inner margin of the eyes very minute, the apical dorsal 
segment and a spot at the base of the hind tibire white. 
Pronotum entirely black. 

Clypeus subtruncate at the apex; first recurrent nervure 
received close to the middle of the second cubital cell ; fore 
tarsi smooth. Antennte stout, the joints not arcuate beneath, 
the second joisit of the fiagellura no longer than the third. 

Length 4 mm. 

Hah. EaglehawkNeck; February, 1 ?. Mt. Wellington, 
2200 ft. ; January, 1 S • 

The ? is the type. 

This is very nearly allied to the European A. cinctellus, 
Lind., tVom which it differs in the longer second joint of the 
flagelluin, the less distinct sulcus on the median segment, 
the longer third abscis.^a of the radius, the absence of the 
yellmvish spots on the hind margin of the pronotum, and 
the very slightly longer submedian cell of the fore wing. The 
male cinctellus has the legs without ferruginous colour, 

A colour- variety taken by me at Yallingup, S.W. Australia, 
has the clypeus of the female black, the frontal sj)ots almost 
obsolete, and the pronotum entirely black. A male taken in 
the same locality is black, with the middle of the hind femora 
ferruginous and a white spot at the base of the hind tibia;. 

Aporus hiUi\ sp. n. 

$. Nigra; clypeo, fronte sub antennis, genis, postscutello, seg- 
mento mediano fascia transversa basali et apicali, segmento 



12G Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosnorial Hymenoptera. 

dorsali prirao macula raa?;na basali, scgraoiitis dorsalibus basali- 
busque 1-5 fascia lata apicali, seginento dorsali sexto lateribus, 
raesoplcuris fascia, coxis, trochaiiteribus, foiuoribus subtus, tibiis 
supra tarsisque supra dense albido-pilosis ; orbitis internis 
supra auteimas late, capite margine posteriore, proiioto utrinque 
nigro-maculato, mcsoiioto inaculis duabus margine posteriore 
scutelloque macula deuse aureo-pilosis ; alls fusco-hyalinis, apice 
late itifumatis. 
Long. 11 mm. 

? . Clypeus broad, truncate at the apex. Eyes almost 
parallel on the inner margin, separated on the vertex by a 
distance about equal to the lengtii of the second joint of the 
fla<Telluni ; posterior ocelli as far from each other as from 
the eyes. Front rather flat ; second joint of the flagellum 
as lonor as tiie first and third combined. Pronotuni in the 
middle a little sliorter than the mesonotnm ; the posterior 
margin arched, notangulate. Median segment much broader 
than long, the posterior slope oblique, a longitudinal sulcus 
on the dorsal surface. Fore tarsi with a long comb, the 
spines more or less spatulate, the basal joint with four spines. 
Tarsal ungues with one to )th near the middle ; hind tibiie 
spinose. Second abscissa of the radius a little shorter than 
the first ; second cubital cell receiving both recurrent 
uervures, the first a little bt^fore the middle, the second 
just before the apex. Cubitus of the hind wing interstitial 
with the transverse median nervure. 

Ilah. Port Darwin, N.T. {Hill) ; May. 

Tiie markings consist of sliort hairs laid very flat and close, 
much as in " Pompilus " labilis, Sm., from which the 
neuration diflfers cons])icuously, through the absence of a 
third cubital cell. The structure is very similar to that of 
A. cingulutus, Fabr., also the shape of the second cubital 
cell. 

Family Crabronidae. 
Zoypldnm flavofasciatum, sp. n. 

cJ . Niger, opacus ; mandibulis, labro, clypeo apice, flagello, pro- 
noto, tegulis, scutoUo, postscutello, segment is abdomiiialibus 
primo, quinto, sexto septimoque, femoribus apice, tibiis tarsisque 
bruneo-t'errugineis ; mesoplcuris segmentoque mediano apice 
obscure ferrugineis ; clypeo, apice oxcepto, scapo, pronoto fascia 
utriaque, segmcnto(jue dorsali primo fascia undulata utrinque 
flavis ; segmentis dorsalibus quinto sextoque fascia utrinque 
obscure flavidula ; alis hyalinis, venis fuscis, costa stigmateque 
ferrugineis. 

Long. 7'5 mm. 



Mr. 1{. E. Turner on Fossor/al Ilymenoptera. 12 7 

($ . Mandibles deeply notched on the lower margin; 
clypeus flattened, truncate at the apex, t!ie apical martjjin 
narrowly depressed, inoro broadly in the middle than at the 
sides, a small tooth on each side of the depressed apical 
margin. Face clothed with golden pubescence; antennas 
twelv<'-jointed, the joints griuliially thickened towards the 
apex, joints 8-11 broader than long, apical joint very large 
and stout, blunt at the apex. Posterior ocelli twice as far 
from each other as from the eyes. Median segment clothed 
with fine pale goldon pubescence on the sides and apex, the 
dorsal surface with a rather broad longitudinal sulcus. 
Abdomen fusiform, the second segment the broadest, apical 
segment produced into a blunt point with a small spine on 
each side. The whole insect very closely microscopically 
punctured. Third abscissa of the radius distinctly shorter 
than the second transverse cubital nervure, first recurrent 
nervure received very distinctly before the apex of the first 
cul)ital cell, second beyond the middle of the second cubital 
cell. 

ilah. Brisbane {Uacker) ; November. 

Very distinct in colouring from any other species of the 
genus; the club of the antennae is much stouter than in 
tufonigrum and ert/t/ivosoma, but apparently more conical 
than in crassicorne, Ckll. 

Fison (^Parapison) exclasiDU, sp. n. 

J . Niger, opacus ; anteunis articulis quinque basalibus, tegulis 
pedibusque ferrugineis ; segmcntis dorsalibus, secuudo excepto, 
upice pallida bruneis et pallide aureo-sericeis ; alls sordide 
liyalinis, venis nigris. 
Long. 8 mm. 

^. Clypeus feebly bilobed at the apex, covered with pale 
golden pubescence which extends on to the front. Antennae 
short and stout, the second joint of the flagellum a little 
longer than the third, joints 6-11 broader than long. The 
wliole insect closely microscopically punctured, a distinct 
frontal longitudinal groove reaching the anterior ocellus; 
posterior ocelli farther from each other than from the 
anterior ocellus and a little farther from each other than 
from the eyes. Median segment with a distinct lonuitudinal 
groove, in winch lies a low carnia, a tiansverse groove at 
the ba'se of the segment, the remainder of the dorsal surface 
very finely granulate. Abdomen subsessile, short and bioad ; 
seventh dorsal segment truncate at the apex. Secoml 
abscis:ja of the radius a little more than half as lono- as 



128 Mr. R. E. Tinner on Fossorial Ilymetioptera. 

the first, second recurrent nervure received just beyond one- 
fourth from the base of the second cubital cell, a little further 
from the first transverse cubital nervure tiian is the first 
recurrent nervure. 

Hah. Brisbane {Hacker) ; November. 

Apart from the neuration this strongly resembles the male 
of Pison vestitum, Sni., but the clypeus is quite diff'crcnt and 
the abdomen more sessile, the antennaB shorter with the 
joints differently proportioned, the punctures less distinct, and 
the distance between the eyes on the vertex greater. 

Key to the Genera of Australian Pemphredoninae. 

$$■ 

1. Three cubital cells ; antennae inserted on the 

front far above the base of the clrpeus Neofuxia. 

Two cubital cells ; antenuoe inserted low down, 

on the sides of or at the base of the clypeus . . 2, 

2. Two recurrent nervures Passaloecus. 

One recurrent nervure 3. 

3. Abdomen petiolate ; hind tibiae with short spines 

on the outer margin Paracrabi'o. 

Abdomen not petiolate ; hind tibiae without 
spines 4. 

4. Ventralplateof the apical segment produced into 

a stout spine-like process ; abdomen ferruginous. Harpacto^ihilus. 
Ventral plate of the apical segment not pro- 
duced 5. 

5. Pronotum with a distinct transverse dorsal 

surface Austrostigmus. 

Pronotum oblique, without a distinct dorsal 
surface Spilomena. 

Key to the Australian Species of Neofoxia. 

1. Thorax yellow, with a quadrate black spot 
on the mesonotum ; abdomen pale testa- 
ceous brown ; head black N. inter stUialis, Cam. 

Black ; scutellum and postscutellum marked 
with yellow N. sciitellatus, Turn. 

These species were described as Psemilus. Psen lutescens, 
Turn., is a synonym of inter stkialis. Cam., which was 
described from a New Guinea specimen. Both the Austra- 
lian species are from North Queensland. 

Genus Passalcecus. 

I do not think that Polemistus, Sauss., can be separated 
from this genus. The only Australian species is P. exul, 
Turn., which occurs on the whole eastern coast of Queensland. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorinl IJymenoptera. 129 

Genus Paracrabro. 

The only repre?entative of this ^cnus is P. froggatti, Turn., 
a Victorian species. The genus is nearly allied to the wide- 
ranging genus Stigmus. 

Key to the Species o/'Harpactopliilus. 

_ $?■ 

1. Pronotuni with a distinct transverse dorsal 

surface, the angles sharply produced ; front 

yellow H. tricolor, Turn. 

Pronotum without a distinct dorsal surface ; 
front black 2. 

2. The carina between the antennae produced 

at the apex in the form of a ploufi;hshare, 
overhanginp^ the base of the clypeus ; 
recurrent nervure received distinctly be- 
fore the first transverse cubital nervure . . II. arafor, Turn. 
The frontal carina low, not produced at the 
apex ; recurrent nex'vure interstitial, or 
very nearly so, with the first transverse 
cubital nervure 3. 

3. Eyes separated from the posterior margin of 

the head by a space exceeding twice the 
distance between the posterior ocelli .... 4. 
Eyes separated from the posterior margin 
of the head by a distance scarcely ex- 
ceeding the distance between the posterior 
ocelli 5. 

4. Vertex rugose, mesonotum punctured ; wings 

hyaline, second cubital cell pointed on the 

radius H. kohlii, Turn. 

Vertex and mesonotum longitudinally 
striated ; wings fusco-hyaline, second 
cubital cell not pointed H, sulcatus, Turn. 

5. Wings dark fusco-hyaline, second abscissa 

of the radius half as long as the first .... H, bicolor, Sm. 
Wings hyaline, first abscissa of the radius 
about three times as long aa the second . . H. steindachneri, Kohl. 

Tiie genus Harpactophilus is confined to the Australian 
and Anstro-Malay region, all the known species being from 
the Queensland coast, except H. hicolor, the type of the 
genus, which is from Mysol. //. steindachneri seems to be 
the Australian representative of bicolor, probably a geo- 
graphical race. 



Keg to the Australian Species o/Spilomena. 

istaceous brown, the head black 

ack ; legs, antennae, mandibles, and tegulaa 
;e6taceou3 brown 

An7i. d) Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 



1. Testaceous brown, the head black S. aiistralu'!, Tum. 

Black ; legs, antennae, mandibles, and tegulaa 
testaceous brown 2. 



130 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosson'al Ilymenoplera, 

2. Recurrent nervure interstitial with the first 

transverse cubital nervure ; wings strongly 

iridescent S. iridescens, Turn. 

Recun-ent nervure received before the first 
transverse cubital nervure; wings only 
slightly iridescent 8. 

3. Second abscissa of the radius longer than 

the first transverse cubital nervure ; head 

almost smooth 4. 

Second abscissa of the radius much shorter 
than the first transverse cubital nervure ; 
head longitudinally striated «S. longiceps, Turn. 

4. Length 5 mm. Distance between recurrent 

nervure and first transverse cubital nervure 
equal to half the length of the latter 

nervure S. hohartia, Turn. 

Length 2 mm. Recurrent nervure received 
very close to the apex of the first cubital 
celf 'S. eleganttda, Turn. 

Spilomena is very near Austrostigmus in some of the 
species, especially in S. long'iceps. The absence of the 
groove ill front of the mesopleurae for tiie reception of the 
anterior femora does not seem to be a very satisfactory 
generic distinction in the group, the degree of development 
showing much variation in tiie different species. The genus 
has a wide range in Australia, being recorded from 
N. Queensland, Tasmania, and S.W. Australia. 

Key to the Species of Austrostigmus. 

1. Pronotum ferruginous red A. ruficollis, Turn. 

Pronotum black 2. 

2. Mesonotum almost smooth '. 3. 

Mesonotum rugose or coarsely reticulate . 5, 

3. Second cubital cell pointed on the radius . A. queenslandensis, Turn. 
Second cubital cell not pointed on the 

radius 4. 

4. Second abscissa of the radius as long as 

the second transverse cubital nervure ; 

stigma fuscous A. glahrelliis, Turn. 

Second abscissa of the radius scarcely 
more than half as long as the second 
transverse cubital nervure; stigma pale 
testaceous A. approximatus, Turn. 

5. Mesonotum coarsely reticulate A. reticulatus, Turn. 

Mesonotum rather finely rugose A. dubius, Turn. 

The genus has a wide range, being recorded from North 
Queensland and S.W. Australia; I iiave also seen specimens 
of A. reticulatus from Port Darwin, N.T. The species 
utilise small deserted beetle-holes in dead trees for nesting- 
purposes. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosson'al Hymenoptera. liJl 

Austrostigmus duhius, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; mandibulis, antcmiis, tcgulis pedibusqiio bruaoo- 

testaccis ; alls hyaliuis, venis testaceis j inesonoto rugoso. 
Long. 4 mm. 

? . Head longer than broad, with a carina from tlie 
anterior ocellus to the base o£ the clypcus, the carinre round 
the eyes stronj^ly developed, the front between the carinse 
punctured-rugulose. Eyes divergent toward tiie clypeus; 
posterior ocelli as near to the eyes as to each other. 
Antennas inserted on each side of the clypeus, nearer to the 
base than to the apex, farther from each other than from the 
eyes, as long as the head, the flagellum more than twice as 
long as the scape. Pronotum transverse, pointed at tiie 
angles; mesonotum rugulose ; scutellum smooth, opaque; 
niesopleurse opaque, with a few scattered punctures. En- 
closed area o£ the median segment well detined, almost 
triangular, the marginal carinre not quite meeting at the 
apex, witli two longitudinal carinse near the middle, the 
space between the carinte transversely striated ; the surface 
of the posterior truncation indistinctly transversely striated, 
with a fovea at the base. Abdomen smooth and shining, the 
sixth segment without a ))ygidial area. Second cubital cell 
very small, the second abscissa of the radius less than half 
as long as the first, second cubital cell less than half as long 
on the radius as on the cubitus, the length on the cubitus 
equal to about half the length of the first transverse cubital 
nervure; the recurrent nervare received at a distance before 
the apex of the first cubital cell slightly exceeding the length 
of the cubital margin of the second cubital cell. 

Ilab. Knranda, N. Queensland {Turner) ; June. 

This is very near A. queenslandensis. Turn., but differs in 
the much coarser sculpture of the mesonotum, being inter- 
mediate in this respect between queen slandensis and redculatus. 
The second cubital cell in queenslandensis is triangular. 

Austrostigmus approximatus, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; anteunis, tegulia pedibusque bruueo-testaceis ; mandi- 
bulis basi flavis, apice ferrugineis ; alis pallide flavo-hyaliuis, 
venis pallide testaceis. 

Long. 4 mm. 

? . Head longer than the greatest breadth, finely shag- 
reened, with a carina reaching from the anterior ocellus to 
the base of the clypeus, and continued to the apex of the 
clypeus in a gradually broadening form. Mandibles acutely 

9* 



r,\2 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ifj/menoptera. 

bidentate at the apex. Antenna3 inserted as far from each 
otlier as from the eyes, shorter tlian the head, the flagellum 
a little more than twice as long as the scape. Eyes elongate- 
ovate, not quite reaching the base of the mandibles, distinctly 
divergent towards the clypeus, the carina round the margin 
of the eyes rather indistinct. Posterior ocelli farther from 
the eyes than from each other, and about twice as far from 
the posterior margin of the head as from the eyes. Pronotum 
short, transverse, the anterior m:ugin raised, the angles 
sharply pointed ; the tubercles of the prothorax reaching the 
tegulaj. i\I<jsonotuni opaque, closely ami microscopically 
punctured; scutellum subopaque, with a transverse groove 
at the base. Dorsal surface of the median segment almost 
entirely occupied by the enclosed area, which is strongly 
reticulate, with two or three distinct longitudinal carinse, 
the segment abruptly truncate posteriorly, the surface of the 
truncation opaque, with a longitudinal carina near the apex. 
Abdomen subpetiolate, fusiform, smooth and shining; the 
sixth dorsal segment finely punctured, without a pygidial 
area. Second cubital cell twice as long on the cubitus as 
on the radius ; first abscissa of the radius a little longer than 
the second ; recurrent nervure received by the first cubital 
cell at a distance before the apex equal to the length of the 
second abscissa of the radius ; stigma more tlian twice as 
long as the greatest breadth. 

JJah. Kuranda, N. Queensland {Turner) ; ^lay. 

Differs from A. reiiculatus, Turn., conspicuously in the 
sculpture of the mesonotum, in the much longer head, the 
shape of the second cubital cell, and in the finer sculpture 
of the head and median segment. From queenslandensisj 
Turn., it differs markedly in the sculpture of the head, the 
greater length of the head behind the eyes, and in the much 
larger second cubital cell. The legs in this genus are un- 
armed as in Spilomena, from which it differs in the structure 
of the pronotum. 

Austrostigmus glabrellus, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra : mandibulis, antennis, tegulis pedibusque testaceis ; 

alls hyalinis, venis fusco-ferrugineis. 
Long. 3 rnm. 

? . Head a little longer than the greatest breadth, opaque 
and almost smooth, the orbital carinse developed on the outer 
margin of the eye only ; the frontal carina almost obsolete 
and not reaching the anterior ocellus. Eyes divergino^ to- 
wards the clypeus, almost touching the base of the mandibles. 



Mr. R. E. 'riirner on lossorial Iljmenoptera. 133 

Antenna) inserted on the sides of the clypeus, a little nearer 
to the base than to the apex, shorter than the head, tho 
flagclliim more than twice as long as the scape. Posterior 
ocelli much nearer to each other than to the eyes. Pro- 
notum very short, transverse, the angles acute ; mesonotum 
opaque, the parapsidal I'urrows distinct, but very shallow ; 
scutellum subopaque, with a transverse groove at the base ; 
pk'urfe almost smooth. Median segment rather coarsely 
reticulate, the enclosed area well marked, with two rather 
low longitudinal carinas near the middle. Abdomen smooth 
and shining. Second abscissa of the radius a little shorter 
than the tirst, equal to the second transverse cul)ital nervure; 
second cubital cell less than half as long again on the cubitus 
as on the radius ; recurrent nervure received at a distance 
before tlie apex of the first cubital cell equal to about half 
the length of the first abscissa of the radius. 

Rah. Kalamunda, Darling Ranges, S.W. Australia 
{Turner) ; March. 

This species is nearest to A. approxiniatus in the sculj^ture, 
but is a smaller species, with the head less massive, the 
nervures darker, and the second cubital cell much longer. 

Austrostigmus ruficolUs, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; scapo tegulisque bruneo-testaceis ; prothorace rufo- 
ferrugineo ; femoribus apice, tibiis basi, tarsisque luteis ; alia 
hyalinis, venis pallidis, stigmate fusco. 

Loug. 3 mm. 

? . Head scarcely longer than the greatest breadth ; the 
front obliquely striated, with a carina from the base of the 
clypeus not quite reaching the anterior ocellus. Eyes 
strongly divergent towards the cly])ens, not quite reaching 
to the base of the mandibles, or to tiie posterior margin of 
the head. Posterior ocelli as near to the eyes as to each 
other; the carina round the eyes well marked. Antennae 
inserted nearer to the eyes than to each other, a little longer 
than the head, the scape about half as long as the flagellum. 
Pronotum transverse, crcnulate, the anterior angles ])ointed ; 
mesonotum granulate. Median segment very long, much 
longer than broad, reticulate, the enclosed area triangular, 
with a median longitudinal carina. Abdomen subpetiolate, 
elongate, smooth and shining, the sixth segment without a 
pygidial area. Second cubital cell rather more than half as 
long on the radius as on the cubitus; the first transverse 
cubital nervure a little longer than the second abscissa of the 
radius, about equnl in length to the first abscissa of the 
radius : stiuma about twice as long as tho greatest breadtli. 



134 I^lr. R. E. Tinner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

Hah. Kuraiula, N. Queensland {Turner) ; June 26, 1913. 

Easily distiiiguisheil from other species o£ the genus by 
the colour of the pronotum and legs and by the sculpture of 
the front. As in other species of the genus, there is a trans- 
verse crenulate groove at the base of the scutellum. 



Spilomena hngiceps, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; maudibulis, antennis pcdibusque bruneo-testaceis ; 

alis hvalinis, vcnis tegulisque testaceis. 
Long. 4 mm. 

? . Head very long, about one-third longer than the 
greatest breadth ; eyes slightly divergent towards the 
clypeus, very long, elongate-ovate, not quite reaching to 
the base of the mandibles ; the whole head rather finely 
longitudinally striate, with a low carina from the anterior 
ocellus to the base of the clypeus and continued on the 
clypeus to the apex. Antenuie shorter than the head, the 
scajje about half as long as the flagellum. Posterior ocelli 
nearly twice as far from the eyes as from each other, farther 
from the posterior margin of the head than from the eyes. 
Pronotum very small, sunk far below the niesonotum and 
almost vertical, the dorsal surface not developed and without 
sharp angles. The tuljercles of the protliorax reach the 
tegulse. Mesonotum opaque, closely and minutel}^ punctured, 
nearly twice as broad as long ; scutellum smooth, opaque, 
with a depressed, crenulate, transverse line at the base. 
Basal area of the median segment well defined, large, broadly 
rounded at the apex, longitudinally striated, tlie striai 
diverging towards the apex, with small transverse striae 
giving a reticulate appearance ; outside the enclosed space 
are rather indistinct oblique strise. Abdomen subpetiolate, 
smooth and shining. Fore tarsi without a comb, tibife with- 
out spines on the outer margin. Two cubital cells, the 
second more than half as broad on the radius as on the 
cubitus; first abscissa of the radius nearly half as long again 
as the second, the recurrent nervure received just before the 
apex of the first cubital cell. Stigma more than twice as 
long as the greatest breadth. 

IJah. Kuranda, N. Queensland {Turner) ; May. 

This species is very near the genus Austrosiigmus ^^iStrm^ 
chiefly in the strongly depressed pronotum, wliich shows no 
transverse dorsal surface, as in that genus. The characters 
of the head are nearer to Austroshgmus than to Spilomena. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 135 

S/i'ilomena ir'idescensy sp. n. 

$ . Xifjra ; mandibulis tcgulisque flavo-luteis ; antonnis pedi- 
busque brunco-fcrrugineis ; alis hyalinis, valde iridescentibus, 
venis I'usco-ferrugineis. 
Long. 3 mm. 

? . Hearl niucli broader tlian long, broadly rounded be- 
hind the eyes ; subopaque, niicroscopically punctured, the 
frontal carina very short, only extendintj: a short distance 
from the base of the clypciis; antennaj inserted very low 
down, on each side of tlie clypeus near the apex, nearer to 
the eyes than to eacli other, the flagellum about twice as long 
as the scape. Posterior ocelli nearly twice as far from the 
eyes as from each other; very little farther from the poste- 
rior margin of the head than from each other. Pronotum 
very small, depressed below the mesonotum, obliquely sloped, 
the tubercles of the prothorax touching the tegulaj. Meso- 
notum and scutelluni subopaque, minutely punctured, a 
transverse crenulate groove at tiie base of the scutellum. 
Median segment about as long as the mesonotum, slightly 
narrowed to the apex, the enclosed area well defined, with 
two longitudinal carinse near the middle, the space between 
the carinje and the space between them and the marginal 
carinaj transversely striated. Mesopleur^e minutely punc- 
tured, sides of the median segment rugose. Abdomen 
shining, minutely punctured, sixth dorsal segment without 
a pygidial area. First abscissa of the radius very short ; 
second cubital cell much longer than broad, almost as long 
on the radius as on tlie cubitus, the recurrent nervure inter- 
stitial with the first transverse cubital nervure. 

Hah. Yallingup, S.W. Australia (T'wr/j^r) ; October. 

This species has the inner margin of the eyes almost 
parallel, only slightly divergent towards the clypeus. The 
head is shorter and broader than in other Australian species 
of the genus, and the position of the recurrent nervure is 
different. 

Spilomena elegantula, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; mandibulis, anteunis, tegulis pedibusque bruueo- 
testaceis ; alis hyalinis, venis pallide testacois, stigmata infumato. 
Long. 2 mm. 

? . Head distinctly longer than the greatest breadth, 
smooth and subopaque. Eyes almost parallel on the inner 
margin, touching the base of the mandibles; posterior ocelli 
far apart, farther from each other than from the eyes, as fur 



136 Ml". O. Thomas oti the 

from the posterior margin of the head as from each other, 
Antenme much shorter than t!ie licad, inserted low down 
close to the apex of the clypeus. A short, almost obsok-te, 
longitudinal sulcus below the anterior octdluP. Pronotum 
narrow, depressed, and obliquely sloped; mesonotuni narrower 
than the head, opaque ; scutellum subojiaqiie, with a trans- 
verse groove at the l^ase. Median segment almost as broad 
as long, reticulate ; the enclosed area not clearly defined, the 
marginal carinje being very far apart and merging into the 
margiii of the segment before the apex, two short carinse from 
the base not reaching the middle, about twice as far from the 
marginal carinse as from each other. Abdomen smooth and 
shining. Second abscissa of the radius more than twice as 
long as the iirst, and about twice as long as the first trans- 
verse cubital uervure, a little shorter than the cubital margin 
of the second cubital cell ; recurrent nervure received close 
to the apex of the first cubital cell. Stigma less than twice 
as long as broad. 

Hab. Kuranda, N. Queensland (r«?-?i<??-) : May. 

This is the smallest Australian fossorial wasp which I have 
seen. I took it from the calyx of a blossom of Enrjenia. 
The second cubital cell is much longer than in other species 
of the genus. 

All the types of the species described in this paper are in 
the British Museum. For the Brisbane species collected 
by Mr. Hacker I am indebted to Dr. llamlyn-Harris, of the 
Queensland Museum. 



VI. — The Porcupine of Tenasserim and Southern Siam. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Publisbed by permission of tbe Trustees of tbe British Museum.) 

The National Museum owes to Mr. C Boden Kloss a first 
typical set of the fine collection of mammals from S.E. Siam, 
of which he has been giving an account to the Zoological 
Society. Among these there is a Porcupine, which for want 
of material for comparison lie has asked me to woik out for 
him, and 1 have at the same time examined the other speci- 
mens that the Museum contains from the same region. 

Porcupines from the Burma-Siam area have been some- 



Porcupine of Tenassenm and Southern Siam. 137 

times referred to Acanthion bnic/ifjurus *, Linn., and some- 
times to -I. beiif/alensis, Blytli, the latter l)eiii<!; unfortunately 
an tiiiiiiial of which no one seems to have modern specimens 
aviiihihle for comparison. 

In his original account Blytli says of it " general colour as 
in A. hod(jsoni ; the quills generally having the basal half 
white, the rest black, most of them with a white tip more or 
less developed." This description no one would apply to 
the move southern animals under notice, for in thein the 
black ring on the quills is in length only from one-third to 
one-tifth of the w hite tip, whereas Blyth's account obviously 
suggests that the greater part of the terminal half of the 
quill is black, and only just the tip white. This latter con- 
dition is found in A. hudgsoni, and would fulfil his statement 
as to the general colour. Possibly, indeed, betu/alensis is not 
distinct from liod<jsoni, but this nnist be settled later. 

A. hemjcdensis being thus idiniinated, all tlie ])orcupine3 in 
question — those of Burma, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula — 
are practically identical externally, with a small brown and 
white crest, greater than in hodgsoni,- ^av smaller than in 
leucurus, and liave the main body-spines bufTy white, with a 
median blackish ring. The nuchal crest is rather less deve- 
loped in the Malay animal, but the difference is not great. 

In the skulls, however, I find that two forms are readily 
distinguishable — the one from the Malay Peninsula (true 
hrachyurus) and the other from Tenasserim and Siam. 
These may be diagnosed as follows: — 

Acanthion hrachyurus, Linn. 
Syn. A. grotei, Gray t. 

Size smaller, coiuJylo-incisive length less than 130 ram. (see 
table of measurements on p. 136). Nasals comparatively 
small and frontals correspondingly large, the length of the 
frontal suture over 55 per cent, of that of the nasals. Supra- 
orbital edges tending to the development of a fairly definite 
postorbital process. Size of teeth and other proportions as 
indicated by the measurements. 

A good figure of the skull of this porcupine has been given 
by Bonhote J. 

• Tliere is a curiously widespread idea tliat every word ending' in -on 
is neuter ; but the majority of Greek substantives ending in -a>v are mas- 
culine, and it is only the adjectival ending -6v which is necessarily noutei". 

t It is useless to try and allocate Gray's names _/?ewi/?e/7j and barfletti, 
baaed on specimens of douljtful locfility and asserted to be menagerie 
hybrids. 

X Fascic. Malay, i. pi. iii. (lUOo). 



138 On the Porcupine of Tenasserim and Southern Siani. 



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On the Qrouping of some South- American Muridse. 139 

IIa}>. ]\ralay reniiisula. Type-locality and also that of 
A. grutei, Giay — ^Malacca. Good skulls cxaininod from 
Mabck, Jalor {Robinson and Annandale), Malacca {Ca/i<or), 
and Singapore {Uidley). 

Acanthion Jclossi^ sp. n. 

Size larger, well-developed skulls attaining a condylo- 
incisive length of 140 mm. Nasals largo, their length more 
than twice that of the comparatively short frontal suture. 
Interorbital region broad, swollen, convex, with scarcely any 
indication of a postorbital ])r()jection. 

Skull-measurements in table on p. 138. 

JIab. Southern Tenasserim and Southern Siam. Type 
from Tenasserim Town, other specimens from Bankachon, 
Tenasserim {Shortridge), S. Siam, 12° N., 9I.>° 50' E. (A". G. 
Gairdner), and Klong-Yai, S.E. Siam [G. Boden K/oss). 

Tj/pe. Adult male. B.M. no. li. 12. 8. 223. Original 
number 4905. Collected by G. 0. Shorfridge. Presented 
to the National Collection by the Bombay Natural History 
Society. 

This species is .distinguished from A. brachyurus by its 
shorter frontals and longer nasals and the lesser development 
of postorbital processes. 

I have named the species in honour of Mr. Kloss, who 
noticed and drew my attention to its difference from 
A. Irachyxirus, and himself collected the specimen from 
S.E. Siam. 

Anderson's Hijstrix ynnnanensis has markedly shorter 
nasals than any of the porcupines here referred to. 

The Chinese porcupine, Acanthioji suhcristatus, Swinh., has 
a skull very like that of A, klossi, but its coloration appears 
to be more as in A. bengalensis and hodgsoni. 



VII. — On the Grouping of the South- American Muridrc that 
have been referred to Phyllotis, Euueomys, and Eligmo- 
dontia. ^y Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The South-American Muridse which have been referred at 
various times by various authors to the genera mentioned in 
the title, as also to Heithrodon and IJesperomya^ have liitherto 
formed a very confused group, and I have thought it useful 
to go over the Museum series of them, which includes types 



1-40 Mr. 0. Thomas on the Grouping of 

of most of tlie si)ecios, and to make an attempt to classify 
them more satisfactorily. 

Kecentlj* Mr. Osgood lias proposed the snhgeneric name 
Anh'scoviys for a grouj) of species some of which had been 
referred to Reithrodon and others to Phyllotisy and which I 
had placed in Euneomys when last writing on the subject f. 
This subgenus I am prepared to recognize, though 1 still 
consider it more nearly allied to Euneomys than to Phyllotis, 
to which Mr. Osgood assigns it. 

The position of the whole group among S.-American 
Muridoe may be seen in Winge's synopsis \ of Lagoa Santa 
Muridse, where they would all fall under what he calls 
" Hesperomys,^^ though he did not have occasion to deal with 
the more hyi)sodont Euneomys series, none of which occur 
at tlie locality he was writing about. 

Tiie group divides broadly into two — the slenderly built, 
slender-footed, and more brach3'odont Phyllotis and Eligmo- 
dontia series, and the stoutly built, Microtine-looking, thick- 
footed, and more hypsodont Enneomys set. 

In working out these animals I have largely used the 
external characters of build (ears, feet, and mammre), as the 
characters of the skull and dentition do not suffice to indicate 
all the natural groups. 

Eligmodontia, F. Ciiv., 1837, 

Size small. Form delicate. Tail medium, about as long 
as or rather longer than the head and body, well-haired, 
slightly pencilled terminally. Feet characteristic; j)alms 
and soles hairy; in the former the outer part is occupied by 
two large hairy cushions, the anterior of wliich bears the 
two outer digital pads and the posterior the outer carpal pad 
as quite inconspicuous smooth places on the otherwise hairy 
surface ; of the two cushions the posterior is by far the 
largest and most conspicuous. Soles also witii hairy cushions, 
tlie {posterior sole-i)ad obsolete. Mamma3 2 — 2 = 8. 

Skull small, delicate, unridged, without special charac- 
teristics. 

Type. E. typuSy F. Cuv. (syn, Mus elegans^ Waterh.). 

* Publ. Field Mus. x. p. 190 (1915). 

t Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (I) viii. p. 254 (1901). 

X Gnavere fra Lagoa Santa, p. 12 (1887). Winge's synopsis is, as 
usual, an admirable presentation of the natural relations of the genera, 
but to brinor its nomenclature up to date Holochilus must be read for 
Sigmodon, Akodon for Hahrothrix, and Ori/zomi/s for Cnlomys. 



some South' American MuriJw. 141 

The following are also referable to the genus : — 
Eligmodontia hirtipes, Thos. (described as Phyllotis 
liirlipes). 

,, moreni, Thos. [Eligmodon moreni). 

,, inorganic All. 

,, inorgani pamparum, Thos. 

Hesperomys, Waterh., 1839. 
Syn. CaloDvja, Waterh., 1337, nee Cullomys, d'Orb. & Geoff., 1830. 

Size small or medium. Form delicate. Ears short. Tail 
short, rarely attaining tiie length of the head and body. 
Feet normal, slender, the pads 5-0, not covered by hair ; 
surface of palms and soles generally naked, but occasionally 
hairy. Mammae variable, ranging from 2 — 2 =8 or 3 — 2 = 10 
to a continuous scries attaining a total of 14, different num- 
bers often occurring in the same species. 

Skull delicate, lightly built, the supraorl/ital edges square 
in old specimens, divergent and slightly ridged in the larger 
species ; zygomatic plate not cut back anteriorly. 

Molars small, brachyodont. 

Type. H. bimaculatus {Mas himaculcUus, Wafcerh.). 

Other species : — 

Hesperomys callosus, Rengg. {Mas callosus). 

„ „ bolivice,Thos.{7^ligmodo7i(ia cholivice). 

,, carilla, Thos. {Eligmodontia carilla). 

,, ducilla, Thos. (/i'. dacilla). 

„ e.rpidsus, Lund (Mas expulsus). 

„ gracilipes, Waterh. [Mus gracilijjes). 

,, laucha, Desm. {Mus Inucha). 

„ ,, muscalinus, Thos. (^Eligmodontia I. 

musculina). 

., lepidus, Thos. ( Hesperomys bimaculatus lepidus). 

„ sorella, Thos. (^Eligmodontia sorella). 

,, tener, Winge. 

„ venustus, Thos. {Oryzomys (?) vennstus). 

Graomys, gen. nov. 

Size comparatively large. General appearance graceful, 
with long ears and long fine fur. Tail longer than head ami 
body, thickl}' hairy, pencilled terminally, prominently bicolor. 
Feet normal, with the usual j)ads small and well defined, 
the space between them coarsely granulated. Mamma; 
2—2 = 8. 



142 ^fr. 0. Tliomas on the Grouping of 

8kull ill gcncial form like that of P/ii/Uotis, but the supra- 
orbital edi^os riilgcil and divergent as in tiie larger species of 
Ilesperomys. Anterior edge of zygomatic plate undercut, 
concave. Bullae generally large. 

Type. Graomys griseo-flavus {^}[us gr{seo-jlavus,W&i&x\\.). 

Other members of the genus : — 

Graomys chacoensis, All. (described as Pliyllotis chacoensis) . 

„ cachinus, All. (^Pliyllotis cachinus). 

,, domorum, Thos. (Eligmodoiitia domorum). 

,, griseojlavus centralis^ Thos. (C. g. centralis) . 

Phyllotis, Waterh., 1837. 

Size various. Form slender, graceful. Ears long. Tail 
about as long as or (generally) longer than head and body, 
thinly haired, not pencilled. Feet normal, slender, with the 
usual j)ads small and well defined. Mamnire 2 — 2=iS. 

Skull, compared with that of the Euneomys group, long 
and narrow, the zygomata not widely expanded. Interorbital 
region more or less parallel-sided, its edges, at least in the 
larger forms, not broadly divergent ])osteriorly and not 
ridged. Anterior edge of zygomatic plate straight or occa- 
sionally slightly concave, but never distinctly undercut. 
Bullffi generally small, though larger than in Ilesperoinys. 

Teeth brachyodont. 

Type. Fhyllotis darwini {Mas darwini, Waterh.). 

About a score of other species appear rightly referable to 
Fhyllotis. 

Euneomys, Coues, 1874. 

Size various. Form comparatively stout, more or less 
Microtine. Tail medium or short, well-haired, especially at 
tip. Feet stout, dumpy, generally heavily fringed; pads 
large, low, more or less tilling up the surface of the palms 
and soles. Mammae 2 — 2 = 8. 

Skull comparatively short, stout, rounded, the zygomata 
widely expanded. 

Incisors grooved or smooth. Molars more bypsodont than 
in Fhyllotis and the otlier allied genera. 

Type. Euneomys chinchilloides {Reithrodon chinchilloidesy 
Waterh.). 

Three subgenera, as follows : — 

Euneomys, s. s. 

Tail of medium length. Palms and soles completely 
naked. 



some South- American Muridae. 143 

Incisors stronf^ly find clearly f^rooved. Premaxillo- 
niaxillary suture bowed forwards below. 
Type as above. 

Other species : — 

Eitncoviys fossorj Thos. (Reitln'odon fossor). 

,, vwrddx, Thos. 

„ petersoni, All. 

AuLiscoMYS, Osgood, 1915. 

Tail medium or rather short. Palms and soles naked. 
Incisors faintly or not grooved. Premaxillo-raaxillary 
suture mainly vertical. 

Type. E. \Auliscomys) pictus {Reithrodon p ictus j Thos.). 

Other species : — 

Euneomys (Auliscomys) holivienais, Waterh. (Pkyllotis 

boliviensis) . 
„ „ „ flavidior, Thos. 

[Pkyllotis h. flavidior), 
„ „ decoloratus, Osgood. 

„ „ micropus, Waterh. (Mus micro- 

pus) . 
„ „ sublimis, Thos. {Pkyllotis sub- 

liniis). 
„ ,, xant/iopygus, Waterh. [Mus 

xanthopygus). 

G.u:.EN0MYS, subgen. nov. 

Tail very short, barely 1\ times the length of the hind 
foot ; palms and soles partially hairy. 

Zygomata especially widely expanded anteriorly. Naso- 
frontal region flattened. Zygomatic plate slanting, not 
])roiected forward above. 

Incisors narrow, much thrown forward, not grooved. 

Type. Euneomys (^Galenomys) garleppi ( Pkyllotis garleppi, 
Thos.). 

The striking external appearance of ''Pkyllotis " garleppi^ 
recalling tiiat of OnychomySj always appeared to indicate 
more tiian merely specific distinction from other members of 
the group ; but upon only a single specimen with imperfect 
skull I have not hitherto ventured to separate it. It is, no 
doubt, most nearly related to E. {Auliscomys) boliviensis, but 
may be distinguished by the characters above noted. 



144 Mr. H. A. Baylis on 



VIII. — On Crassicauda crassicaiula [Crepl.) [Nematoda] 
and its Hosts. By II. A. Baylis, B.A. 

(Published bj permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Ox July 18tli, 1015, an exanijDle of the rare Ciivier's wliale 
{Ziphius cavirostris^ was lound .stranded on the coast of 
Ireland near the entrance to Bannow Bay, Co. Wexford. 
This Avhale has recentlj' been reported u]»on by Dr. S. F. 
Harmer*. During its dissection by members of the staff of 
the British Museum, a portion of a Nematode worm was 
found in the neighbourhood of the kidneys, having evidently 
been pulled out of the renal tubules. This fragmentary 
specimen was handed to me for examination, and proves to 
be of interest on grounds which will be mentioned in this 
paper. 

Although the specimen is incomplete, and I have been 
unable to decide to which sex it belongs, it seems almost 
certainly to be an example of the curious Fila7-ia-Vike form 
originally described by Cieplin f in 1829, under the name of 
Filaria crassicauda, and lattdy redescribed in part by Leiper 
and Atkinson \, who have created for it the new genus 
Crassicauda. 

There seems to be some doubt as to the species of whale 
from which Creplin's original material was obtained. This 
was a whale stranded on the island of RUgen, in the Baltic, 
in 1825. According to the opinion of Rosenthal and Horns- 
chuch §, who described the whale, it was of the same species 
as the '"'' Balana minima seu rostraia'''' of Fabricius ||. This, 
according to True ^, is in all jirobability the species now more 
correctly known as JBahenoptera acuto-rostrata, Lacep. 
Miinter **, however, who examined the skeleton of the same 
specimen, refers it to the blue whale, Balcenoptera musculus, L. 
[ = .B. sibbahlii, auctt., nee B. musculus^ auctt.]. Dr. S. F. 
Harmer, who has kindly given me the benefit of his know- 

* Abstr. of Proceedings Zool. See. 1915, no. 148, p. 42. 

t Verb. d. K. Leop.-Carol. Ak. d. Naturf. xiv. 2 Abth. 1829, p. 873. 

\ ' Teri-a Nova ' Report, Zoology, vol. ii. no. 3, Parasitic Worms 
(1015), p. 29. 

§ ' Epistiil.1 de Balcenopteris quibusdam ventre sulcato distinctis &c.,' 
Grj'phiae, 1825. 

II O. Fabricius, ' Fauna Groenlaudica,' 1780, p. 40. 

% F. W. True, " On the Xoruenclature of the Whalebone Whales of 
the Tenth Edition of Linnajus' 'Systems Naturae.'" Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. xxi. (1898) pp. Gl 7-635. 
** Mitth. naturwiss. Yer. Neu-Vorpommeni u. Rugen, ix. Jahrg. 1877 
(Berlin), p. 1. 



Crasslcaiula cras.'^icaiula {Crcpl.) and its Hosts. 1-45 

led'^G of the Cetacc.i, and lias, at my request, examined the 
descripfion o£ Rosenthal and Ilornschuch and that of 
Milliter, informs mo that, in his opinion, tlie facts point to 
the conclusion that tho whale in question was a common 
rorqual {JJahnnoplera piti/salus, \j.=-Ii. muscu/iis, ancit.) and 
not a Ijliie whale. The main reasons for this conclusion, 
stated briefly, are : — (1) The general coloration of the body 
— bhick above, white beneath ; (2) the colour (white) of the 
first ninety baleen-plates on the riglit side (this asymmetrical 
condition is highly characferi.stic of the common rorqual) ; 
('.\) the comparatively small breadth of the baleen-plates : 
(4) the number of vertcbrai (Gl) and of pairs of ribs (15) ; 
(o) the number of Hnger-bones ; ((I) the figures representing 
the external appearance of the animal, reproduced by Munter 
from drawings made in 1825 (these, in Dr. Ilarmer's opinion, 
'* indicate the common rorqual rather than the blue whale '') ; 
(7) the montii (April) in which the 1825 whale was stranded. 
The blue whale seldom appears off the Norwegian coasts 
before the end of May or beginning of June. 

It is somewhat remarkable that Diesing * has recorded 
the host of ('replin's original material as '■^Balcvna hurealis,^^ 
while von Linstow f has included the parasite (the reference 
being to Creplin's material) among those of Balcena mysti- 
cclus, L. It may be supposed that both these records are 
erroneous ; they were doubtless due to the uncertainty 
existing as to the determination of the 1825 whale. 

In the case of the 'Terra Nova' material the host was 
another baleen whale, Megaptera nodosa, taken off New 
Zealand. Mr. J. E. Hamilton, who has been investigating 
various questions connected with whales at the Belmullet 
Whaling Station, states in his report for 1914 J that he 
fouiul " Nematode worms of some size '* in the urinary 
vessels of twenty-one finners {B. phj/salus), in one blue 
whale {B. muscultis), and in the scjhval [B.horealis, Lesson). 
These worms, j\Ir. Hamilton considers, are very closely allied 
to, if not identical with, Crassicauda crussicauda. It is of 
especial interest to note that they occurred most commonly in 
B. jthysalus, a fact which lends great probability to the view 
that the host of the types belonged to that species. 

The parasite evidently has its normal habitat in the urino- 
genital system of its host. In Creplin's original case the 
worms were discovered in the corpoia cavernosa of the male 

* ' Syslenia Ilelmiuthum/ 18r>], p. 204. 
t ' Compendium der Ilelmiuthologie,' 1878, p. Gl, 
X British Association Keport, 1915, " Report on Belniullet Whaling 
Station." 

Ann. d: May. N. Hist. Ser. S. Vol. xvii. 10 



14G Mr. H. A. Baylis oti 

co|Milatory ornjan, wliile in the 'Terra Nova' case, and 
])robably in that now recorded, tliey were iiiliabitiiio- the 
renal tubules. In the * Terra Nova' whale some specimens 
are also said to have occurred in the stomach (wall ?). 

Mr. Hamilton has oiven * some interestini>- details as to the 
disposition of the worms in the kidneys ofc" JJ. pln/sdJux, which 
I tnke the liberty ot quoting : — "The worms are found |)artly 
in the m-inary tube system, partly in the interlobular tissne. 
The point at which the worm passes into the urinary system 
is usually, if not always, situated in the wall of a calyx. The 
extralobular part of the parasite is embedded in a mass of 
connective tissue, in which it has a very tortuous course. It 
is i)robable that the presence of the nematode is responsible 
for the growth of the tissue in the regions where it occurs, 
since the connective tissue masses may betaken as indicative 
of the presence of the parasites which they invariably 
contain.'' 

Assuming that the worms observed in all cases were 
C. crassi'cauila, we are now in a position to enumerate three 
genera and five s))ecies of whales as tolerably well authenti- 
cated hosts for this species, viz. : — 

1. BaIcenopt€raphi/salu.<t,lj. (= B. niusculus, Ruclt.). (Com- 

mon rorqual or tinner.) 

2. B. 7niiscuhiSj L. (Blue whale or Sibbald's rorqual.) 

li. B. borea/is, Lesson. (Northern rorqual, Rudolphi's 
Mhale, or kSejhval.) 

4. Megaptera nodosa^ Bonn. ( = .!/. hoops = M. lonrjimana). 

(Humpback.) 

5. Ziphius cavirostris. (Cuvier's whale.) 

It is a point of some importance that the last-mentioned 
species is a toothed whale, all the others being baleen whales. 
It would be premature at present to speculate on the probable 
intermediate host (if any) of the worm ; but in considering 
this question the fact that the parasite occurs in both groups 
<»f whales would have considerable weight, since the nature of 
tlieir food differs widely. 

I am unable to find any definite reference to the possible 
occurrence of this worm in a toothed whale, previously to the 
]jresent case. I am, however, again indebted to Dr. Harmer 
for bringing to my notice the following interesting passage 
from the wi itings of P. J. Van Beneden f concerning the 
])arasile3 o^ Ziphius cavirostris : — 

''On ne cotniuit jusqu'a present qu'un Cestode et un ver 

* Loc. cit. 

t " Jlistoire Naturelle des BaUnopl'eres,'' Memoires Courouutl?:, Ac. 
Tioy. de Belgique, xli. (1888) p. 03. 



( 'lasslcamla ciassicaiula {Crej>l.) and its Ilosfs. 147 

roiid qui j)eut Ctre nn Nematode on un Ecliinorliynque : lo 
))reniicr est un Fhyllohothriinn atranie, que le professeiir 
llaeckel a trouve dans I'dpaisseur de la poau. Le second est 
un vcr tres lon<T, lo*;^ dans I'estomac d'un Zij>hius ('c\\o\\ii sur 
les cotes de Siifede en avril 18(37 (Malm). Le prole.sseur Sir 
Turner suppose que cVst un J-^cliinorliynque ; un nouvel 
oxamen est indispensable. Nous ne savons si cet animal a 
ete conserve." It is, of course, impossible to be certain of 
the point from this brief notice, but it is not unreasonaljje to 
suspect that this latter worm was another example of Crassi- 
candi. Its occurrence in the stomach finds a parallel in the 
case of the 'Terra Nova' material. 

Van Beneden also statics that F'daria crassicaudu occurs 
in "Bahrnoptera rosirota." He does not inention his authority 
for this statement, and it is not improbable that the reference 
is again to the LS25 whale, which, as has been seen, has 
aj>peared in the literature under a variety of names. 

The present specimen from Zip/iitis (19 L5) consists of an 
anterior end only, the tail, which mii^iit have served as a 
guide to the sex of the individual, having untbrtunately been 
lost. The fragment is twisted in a s|)iral fashion, and 
lueasures, when stretched as far as the twisting will permit, 
about 30 cm. The anterior part of the body is thick, but 
tapers off rather suddenly in the first quarter of an inch to 
the very narrow oral extremity. I have been unable, on 
clearing in creosote, to make out any genital organs. 

The * Terra Nova ' specimens did not include any heails, 
the material consisting entirely of posterior portions. No 
description of the anterior end, therefore, was ])0ssible. 
Creplin's original material did include complete individuals, 
and a figure of the oral extremity of one of them is given by 
that autiior*, but the features of the head are very vaguely 
indicated, and the figure does not appear to agree very closely 
with the description given. Creplin's descri|)tion of the 
mouth is as follows : — " Os terminale, subrotiindum, aut; 
])otius aubtransversum, subellipticum, minimum, margini 
insigni, tumido, notlulis experte, cinctum."' 

Supposing that the determination of the present specimen 
is correct, I am now able to give what is, I hope, a more 
jnecise description of the head of this species, together with 
a figure. Accordijig to my findings, the mouth is a narrow 
.slit-like aperture whose long axis runs not in a transverse 
but in a dorso-ventral direction. Its margin is certainly 
conspicuous, but hardly tumid. It is lined with a very thick 
cuticle, which is an invagination of the external cuticle of 

* L. c. \)\. lii, tl^'. o. 



118 On Crassicauda crassicauda {CirpJ.) atid its flosfs. 

tlie body. TIic expression " noilulis expcrte" would appear 
to mean that Creplin did not observe any circumoral papilb-p. 
1 have, liowever, satisfied myself that these are present, and 
have a definite arranrjement. On eitlier side of the nioutli, 
situated in the middle of its length and very close to its 
inartrin, there is a small rounded papilla. Laterally to this 
there are, towards each side of the extremity of the liead, 
three more jiapilla?, considerably larger than those first 
mentioned. There are thus four pairs of papillse in all. The 
.six outer papilla) are mastoid in shape and but slightly raised 
above the general surface of the cuticle. Those of the middle 
pair project in a ibrward direction, while the other^ four 




01 mm. 
Head-end of Craxgicauda crassicauda (Crepl.). 



])apill?e, represent in fT, as it were, the corners of a square, are 
more laterally directed. 

It will be .«een that the general appearance of the mouth 
and [lapillae is very Filaria~V\ke. Except for a difference in 
the number of the outer papilla?, there is a close resemblance, 
lor example, to the arrangement seen in Filar ia horrida*. 
Although, as Leiper and Atkinson have pointed outf, tiiere 
is reasonable ground for separating this species from the 
genus Filaria, sensii stricto, yet the characters of the month 
and papillai, as exhibited by the present example, seem to 
indicate a very close relationship to that genus. 

* See Schneider, * Monographie der Nematoden," pi. v. fig. 17. 
t L. c. pp. 29-30. 



'^f 



TIIH ANXALS 

ANU 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTOIIY. 

[KRJUTII SI-KIE.S.] 

No. 98. FEBRUARY 1[)U\ 



I X .—Rhynchutul Notes.— h\ 1 1 L By W. L. Distant. 

H O M O P T E R A. 

Farn. Membracidae (continued from vol. xvi. p. 496). 
Basilides, gen. nov. 

Pronotum with the anterior area stronglygibbous, centrally 
perpendicularly raised, the apex developed into a transverse 
curved process on each side^ the posterior process as in 
A/ic/ion, Buckt. 

The type of this genus is the Centrotus bipennis, Walk., 
for which that writer has given an unusually complete 
structural description, which may be used for the generic 
characters. 

Allied to Beninia, Dist., from which it differs by the 
])eculiar structure of the posterior pronotal process, which 
also separates it from the Australian genus Eutryonia^ 
Coding. From the latter it is at once 5-eparated by the 
different structure of both the anterior and posterior pro- 
notal processes. 

Basilides hipcniiis. 

Cciifrotiig bipeiniis, Walk. List Iloni. ii. p. GOO (18'')1). 
A icliun fiisciim, Buckt. Trans. Linn. Soc. Loud. ('J) vul. ix. p. 334, 
pi. xxii. li^^. L'rt (lUOG). 

Ildh. W. Africa ; Old Calabar, Camcroons {Escalera, 
Brit. Mus.). 

Ami. ii- ALio. X. lJi.-^t. Ser. S. Vol. wii. 11 



150 Mr. W\ L. Distant's lihi/nchotal Xolcs. 

Ibiceps inuu7isei/}. sp. n. 

Head and pronotum black ; a frontal lateral pronotal 
fascia on each side, two discal jironotal fasciic, a central 
fascia to face, tlie clypeus, and lateral sternal areas jj;reyislily 
pubescent ; lejjs testaceous ; abdomen beneath black, ex- 
clndinfj apical area, fjreyishly pubescent ; te<2;niiua stra- 
mineous, apical area dark castaneous, base, costal and sub- 
costal areas, aiul apical margin black ; pronotum coarsely 
punctate, the anterior produced processes almost horizontal, 
very slij^htly recurved, their apices acute, disk centrally 
carinate, posterior process triearinate and passing the 
posterior an^jle of the inner tegminal margin, frontal area 
strongh' centrally carinate. 

Long., incl. tegm., 12 mm. ; cxp. ant. pronot. process. 
5 mm. 

Hfih. Philippine Islands (J. J. Monmey^. 

Allied to /. eriffens, Walk., but differing by the much 
more slender and less curved anterior pi'onotal processes, &c. 

Ibiceps erigeiis. 

Centroftis erigens, Walk. List Horn. ii. p. 014 H^^-jI ). 
Sertorius eriyens, StSl, (Efv. Vet.-Ak. F.irh. 1870, p. 727. 

Hah. Philijipines. 

Genus Leptocentrus. 

Leptocentntx, St;11, TIein. Afr. iv. pp. 87 & 90 (1S60). 
Kahdiichus, IJnckt. Monnpr. Monilnfic. p. '2i'>\ (]90.'3). 
liocchav (part.), Jacobi, Sjiistedt, Kilimaiidj. Expod. xii. p. 120 (1910). 



Leptocentrus altifrons. 

Centrotus aUifrom, Walk. List. Tlom. ii. p. 008 (1851). 

Centrotm atiafiis, Walk. he. rit. p. 624 (18.51). 

litihfluc/ius (/nomon, Bvickt. Monogr. Merabrac. p. 2.51, pi. Ivii. fig. 4 « 

{V.H)S). 
Lfptorcnfints bos, "SleVich. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiv. p. 29.") (190.5). 
Lvptoci'iitrus altifrons, Dist. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 191;>, p. 51G (pub. 

1914). 

Hub. Lagos, Calabar, Sierra Leone, Cameroons. Nyasa- 
land ; Melange {S. A. Neave). Uganda, N. Ruwenzori and 
Kafu 11., near Hoinia, Kampala Kd., 3500 ft. (,S'. A. Neave). 

The unique type of C atrutus, AValk., is a mutilated one. 
with the posterior pronotal process broken off. 



Ml-. W. L. Dlstatit's RlnjjicJioial Xoles. 151 

Leptocentrus cnnfusuit, sp. n. 

Lnplorpntrti.t Ipucaspm, Melich. (n»'c Walk.), Wit'ii. eiit. Zfit. xxiv. 

p. L»5>."» (100.')). 
Hocc/nir monftnius, J Acoh'\ fvar.), Sjiistedt, Kiliraaiidj. Exped.xii., Horn. 

p. 120, t. ii. tig. 2 (1910). 

HfJ). Canicroons (Escalera, Brit. Mns.). Brit. East 
Africa; W. slopes ot" Kenya on Meru-Nvcri Kd., 0000- 
8500 ft., and E. foot and sloipes Aberdare iMts., 7000-8500 ft. 
(S. A. Xeave). 

Distinfjnished from L. altifrons by the shorter and more 
robust lateral pronotal processes. 

Leptocentrus ugandensis^ sp, n. 

Plead, pronotum, sentollnm, body beneatli, and le^^s 
black; tcgmina bronzy brown, the apical area transversely 
and faseiately ochraceous, base, costal area, and apical 
margin black ; pronotum thickly coarsely punctate, strongly, 
centrally, percurrently cariiiate, the lateral processes mode- 
rately convexly recurved^ their apices sul)acute, posterior 
process somewhat slender, strongly tricarinate, its apex 
passing the posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin. 

Long., inch tegm., 8^-9 mm. ; exp. pronot. lat. process. 
4^-5 mm. 

Huh. Uganda ; Entebbe (C. C. Gowdeij a.nd C. A. IViyf/ins) ; 
Buamba Forest, Scmliki Valley ; Budongo Forest, Unyoro ; 
Mabira Forest, Southern Toro, ]Mbarara, S, of L. George 
{S. A. Neavfi). 

Tliis very distinctly marked species is allied to that 
described and figured by Buckton as Ibiceps riifipennis from 
the Cameroons (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. (2) vol. ix. 
p. 334, pi. xxii. fig. 8 a, 1900). When this species is studied 
by its short description and the qualifications perused on 
the "Explanation of the Plate," it can with certainty be 
ascribed to the genus Leptocentrus^ ami to be separated from 
the species above described by the much more upwardly 
raised lateral pronotal processes. 

Leptocentrus per acatuSy sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, scutellum, body beneath, and logs black ; 
tegmina pale brownish ochraceous ; pronotum coarsely 
l)nnctate, the lateral processes long, their expanse ecpialling 
the length of the body including tcgniinn, carinate and 
roundly curved, the apices acute and recurved, the central 

11* 



152 ]\Ir. W. L. Distaiit's Uhynchotul JSoles. 

cariuation less prominent frontally tliau disoally, the poste- 
rior j)rocess very strongly tricarinate, curved backwardly, 
the apical area impinging ou tegmina at and beyond poste- 
rior angle of inner tegminal margin, the apex acute; tarsi 
testaceous ; scutellum more or less greyishly pubescent. 

Long., inch tegm., 9 mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 9 mm. 

Hab. Somaliland {E. Lord Plnllips^ Brit. j\lus.), 

Xiphopa'us erect us, sp. n. 

Pale fuscous brown, more or less greyishly tomentose ; 
lateral margins of tlie pronotum distinctly greyish ; femora 
black, their apices aud the whole of the tibiie and tarsi pale 
ochraceous ; tegmina dull greyish, the venation and the 
apical area (more or less) pale fuscous brown ; pronotum 
with the lateral processes obliquely erect, inwardly coarsely 
serrate for about half their length, their apices broadened, 
flattened and bispinous, in other respects resembling O.plian- 
tasrna, Spin., from West Africa, and 0. horridulus, Walk., 
from Southern Africa. From the first this species is sepa- 
rated by the less broadened and differently angulated apices 
of the pronotal processes, and from the second by the same 
character and the more oblicjuely erect direction of the 
processes. 

Long., incl. tegm., 6^ mm.; exp. pronotal process. 5 mm. 

Hab. Lgauda ; Kafu K., near Hoima, Kampala Road, 
3000-5000 ft., and N. of L. Isolt, 3700 ft. {S. A. Neave\ 

In the genus Kleidos = Xiphopoeus, Buckton (Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Lond. (2) vol. ix. p. 333, 1906) has described a species 
from Zanzibar under the name of K/eidos palmatus. 1 have 
not seen the type, and the short description is insufficient. 

Eligius, gen. nov. 

Elongate, moderately compressed ; pronotum with the 
lateral processes long, broad, laminate, erect, the posterior 
margins bicarinate, more flattened anteriorl^'^, and broadly 
rounded at apices, the posterior apex shortly spinous, poste- 
rior process strongly tricarinate, slightly recurved on apical 
area, moderately broad at base, gradually narrowing to apex, 
which is subacute, and slightly passing the posterior angle 
of inner tegniin.d margin ; tegmina elongate, with five apical 
cells, their margins straight. 

The erect, l)roadly laminate, pronotal lateral processes, and 
the gradually narrowing posterior process, are the salient 
characters of this genus, the fir.st feature separating it from 
C'tntrolypnn, vStal. 



^Ii, W. I^. I)irftaiil\> lilii/m-liotid yote.^. 1.').'] 

]Ji(/iiis iiitriiijiikciisis. 

\\vm\ and pi-oiiotiun l)lack ; Ijoily Ijt'iifatli and h ji:s 
])icc()iis : ti'ffiiiiiia bronzy i>r(>\vn, the costal area black ; 
pronotiiiti coarsely punctate, centrally longitndinally carinatc, 
the posterior process very strongly tricarinate, and between 
tliecarinations very coarsely punctate ; tegraina twice longer 
til an broad. 

Long., incl. tcgm., 7 mm. 

Hab. Borneo ; Mt. Merinjak (■/. C. Moulton). 

Genus Eufkenchia. 

Eufi^eHchioy Godiiig, Pruo. Linn. Soc. X.S.W. x.vviii. p. 24 (^HJO.»). 
iSertorins, St&l (part.), CEfv. Vet.-Ak, i'orh. IbO'J, p. 'IHI, 

Type, K. falcala, Walk. 

Stal {supra) referred to his genus Seriurius (indicated 
without type in his 'Hem. Afncaua^), and including his 
^'. curvicurnis:siCentrotus Jalcatus, Walk. This alone would 
have disqualified Euf7-encliiaj of which falcatus is the type. 
However, previously, in 1866, " Bcrl. ent. Zeitschr. x. 
p. 387,'^ iStai had given L'entrotus uustralis, i'airm., as the 
type of his genus Sertorius^ which disposes of his subsequent 
determination (1869j, and the genus Eufrenchia becomes a 
necessity. 

Eufrenchia fulcata. 

Centrotus falcatus, Walk. List Horn. ii. p. (522 (1851). 
L'entrotus bicurris, Walk. List lloni., Suppl. p. Itt4 (1858). 
^Sertorius ctirvicurnis, fStal, LEfv. Vet.-Ak. Furh. 1809, p. 287. 
Eufrenchia falcata, Godiiifr, Troc. Liun. !Soc. N.S.W. xxviii. p. 25 
(1903). 

Hab. Australia; Tasmania. 

Walker ascribed the habitat of his C bicurris (supra) as 
'■'■ New 11 clj rides ? ^' The S[)ecimenson which he founded his 
species were really received from Australia. 

Eiifrencliia striyala. 

L'entrotus striyatus, W aik. Jouin. Linn. ?!»(jc. Loud., Zunl. x. p. 1^4 
(18(i8J. 

Hab. New (Juinea. 

Otinoliis it'Kjrortifus, sp. n. 

Head, pronotuin, and scutellum black ; lateral apices of 
tlic scutellum ochraceous ; lateral margins of face and lateral 



154 Mr. W. L. Distant's ninjncliotal Notes. 

areas of sternum ocliraeeonsly tomeutose; body beneath and 
femora blaekisli, tibiie and tarsi eastaneoiis ; tegraina sbinino^ 
pale castaneous, extreme base black, immediately followed 
by an obscure transverse oeliraeeous fascia ; pronotum very 
coarsely punctate, tlie lateral processes horizontally and a 
little I'lpwardly produced, centrally carinate, their apices 
obtuse and very slightly recurved, posterior process somewhat 
slender, tricarinate, very slightly elevated above the scu- 
tellum, after which it impinges more or less on the tegmina, 
its apex subacute and passing the posterior angle of the 
inner tegniinal margin ; tegmina punctate on the black base. 
Long. 8-9 mm. : breadth lat, pronot. process. 5-5i mm. 
Hub. Uganda, near Masindi, 3500 ft.; Eastern Mbale 
Distr., S. of Mt. Elgon. 3700-3900 ft.; Mpanga Forest, 
Toro, 400-800 ft. : :Mabiri Forest, Chagwe, 3500-3800 ft. ; 
Kafu II., near Hoima, Kampala lid,, 3500 ft., between Jinja 
and Busia, E. Busoga (-S. A. Neave). Entei)be (C. C. Gowdey). 
TJrit. E. Africa, slopes of Mt. Elgon, 5100-5800 ft. (S. A. 
Nsave). 

Otinotus recurvus, sp. n. 
Closely allied to the preceding species in colour and 
markings, but with the ])ronotal lateral processes broader, 
more distinctly recurved, and less obliquely elevated; the 
posterior pronotal process considerably more elevated above 
the tegmina, which are also paler and more ochraceous in 
hue. 

Long. 10 mm. ; breadth lat. pronot. process. 6 mm. 
Hob. Uganda ; Entebbe (C'. C Gowdey) ; shores of 
L. Isolt or AVamala, 3800 ft. {S. A. Neave). 

Oiinotus curvidens, sp. n. 

Allied to the preceding species, O. recurvus^ but with the 
lateral ])ronotal ])rocesses much more slender, though some- 
what similarly recurved, but when viewed from the front 
ajjpearing niucii siiorter and less obliquely raised; scutellum 
with a white spot at each basal angle and the apex ochra- 
ceous (these niarking.s, however, are inconstant) ; apical 
area of posterior pronotal process impinging on tegmina. 

Long. 8-9 mm.; breadth lat. pronot. process. 4^-5 mm. 

Hub. Cameroons {Escalera). Uganda ; Entebbe {Dr. 
C. A. JViyyins) ; between S.E. shore of L. Kioga and Ka- 
kindu, 3500 ft. (,S'. A. Neave). 

Centrotus marshalli, sp. n. 
Ochraceous ; tegmina with two dark suffusions, one at 



^Ir. "\V. L. Distiuii's lihijnclotal Notes. 15') 

base black, the other (nearly oecupyinf; apieal area) ijroiizy 
brown ; face (excluding lateral margins) black ; pronotuiu 
thicklv, rather finely punctate, with the anterior lateral 
processes broad, somewhat discally flattened, moderately 
narrowed towards apices, which arc somewhat recurved and 
obliquely truncate, these ])roccsses are subhorizontal and 
very slightly elevated, the disk is distinctly centrally carinate 
above, but faintly and obsoletely so in front, posterior pro- 
cess moderately undulate, distinctly sejjarate from scutellum, 
impinging on tegmina beyond scutellum, its apex about 
reaching the posterior angle of inner tegminal margin, 
gradually diminishing in breadth from base to apex, which 
is subacute, centrally rather strongly carinate ; tegmina 
strongly wriidvled, the basal black area finely punctate. 

Long. Q\-7 mm.; breadth lat. pronot. process. 4i-5 mm. 

Hub. Mashonalaud ; Salisbury, 5000 ft. ; Umfuli lliver 
(G. A. K. Marshall). 

Centra (lis hixatiis, sp. n. 

Allied to the preceding species C. marsliaUi, but differing 
in the following characters : — the lateral pronotal processes 
are broader, longer, and less apically recurved, the apices 
blackly margined, more truucately oblique, and distinctly 
finely bicarinate on the apical areas ; the posterior ])ronotal 
process is more robust, its apex more downwardly recurved 
and passing the posterior angle of the inner tegminal 
margin ; the coloration is generally similar, but on the 
tegmina the bronzy-brown apieal area is much less pro- 
nounced and more distinct at its inner margin. 

Long. 8.^ mm. ; breadth lat. pronot. process. 6 mm. 

Hub. Natal; Durban [J. P. Creyoe). 

Cent rot us cornutus. 

Cicada curnuta, Liun. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 705. (1767). 

Centrotus cornutus^ Buckt. Monojjr. Membrac. p. 24o, pi. hi. figs. 1 a,b 

(1903). 
Campy locentrus rtu/osus, Buckt. loc. cit. p. 243, pi. hi. fig. 3 a (11X)3). 

Although Buckton's figures are somewhat diverse, I have 
before me the type of his C. ruc/osus and his identical speci- 
men of typical cornutus. 

Plutybelus sinuosus, sp. n. 

Piccous brown, somewhat thickly ochraceously pilose ; 
legs brownish ochraccous, femora piceous brown ; face longly 



].')(') Mr. W . L. Disfant's R/ii/nchotal yotcs. 

and stroiiply ochraceously pilose, lateral areas of steninm 
dull oehraeeously tomentose; alidonien beneath blaekisli ; 
teijniina brownish oehraeeons nineh suffused with pieeous 
bri)\vn, especially at base and on costal :n)(l snl)costHl areas ; 
pronotutn with the frontal area oblicpicly convex, the lateral 
processes somewhat short, moderately reenrved, and apieally 
bent downwardly, broad at base, subacute at apices, the 
})Osterior process very strongly sinuous, strongly elevated 
above seutellum, and roundly depressed and touching 
tcgmina near its base, afterwards broadly concave before 
])osterior angle of inner tegniinal margin, and again de- 
])ressed and becoming subacute at apex, which nearly reaches 
tegminal apex. 

Long. 8 mm.; breadth lat. pronot. process. 4^ mm. 

Ha/). Nyasaland. 

A distinctive character of this species is found in the 
peculiar structure of the pronotal lateral processes. 

Barsumas, gen. nov. 

Pronotura with the disk a little rounded in front between 
the lateral processes, which are short, broad, a little upwardly 
raised, their apices suddenly narrowed, acute, and a little 
recurved, the posterior process very strongly sinuous, at base 
strongly convcxiy raised above the seutellum, at the extre- 
mity of which it touches the tegmina, then again convexly 
raised and broadened but still adjacent to the tegmina, its 
apex suddenly attenuate and acute and passing the posterior 
angle of tiie inner tegminal margin, the whole of its surface 
shortly spinous above ; tegmina closely wrinkled, with the 
venation very prominent. 

This genus is allied to Platydelus, Stal. 

Barsumas primus, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, body beneath, and legs testaceous or 
castaneous ; tegmina subhyaline, wrinkled, the prominent 
veins pale oehraeeons, the base, some irregular scattered 
'markings, and extreme apical margin castaneous; pronotum 
with the disk strongly centrally earinate, paler in hue at and 
rear the lateral processes, which have their margins serrate, 
the acute narrowed apices darker in hue, the posterior 
sinuated process with its upper surface strongly serrate, 
its apical area finely tuberculate, its extreme apex flavous, 
lateral margins behind the bases of the lateral processes 
greyish white; face strongly pilose. 

Long. 5 mm. ; breadth lat. pronot, process. 3 nam. 



]\Ir. ^V. r.. l>i-i:iiil's liJijuchulal Sutes. l.')7 

Ilah. ^r:ls]l()^:llaIl(l ; Salisbury, 5000 ft. (G. A. K. 
Marshall). 

SriJKixc ATou, gcii. nov. 

Pronotum witli tlir disk l)roa(l, moderately convex, very 
prominently, centrally, longitudinally carinate, lateral |)ro- 
cesses absent, but tlie lateral margins broadly, obtusely 
subangulate. the posterior process short, lamiiiately, con- 
vexly dilated, its a|iev sliortly subacute, about reaching the 
posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin ; face broader 
than long, rugose, eyes prominent; tegmina a little more 
than twice as long as broad, the veins prominent^ four apical 
cells ; legs robust, but tibiic not dilated. 

Subrincator ionkinensis, sp. n. 

l5ody and legs black; central carination, lateral margins, 
and a curved iascia on each lateral area to pronotal disk, 
central earination, a transverse fascia near middle, and the 
apical area of posterior pronotal process, apices of femora, 
and bases and apices of tibiae sanguineous ; tegmina sub- 
hyaline, the veins black, basal area black spotted with san- 
guineous, two black spots on apical margin and some black 
macular suffusions on central area ; pronotum coarsely 
punctate, the lateral margins somewhat ampliate and re- 
Hexed ; face moderately shortly pilose ; other structural 
characters as in generic diagnosis. 

Long, 9-lU mm,; breadth lat. pronot, angl. 4 mm. 
Hub. U|)per Tonkin, Lao Kay, near Chapa [R. Vitalis de 
S'alvaza, Brit. Mus.). 

Genus Hamma. 

Hamma, Buckt. Trnns. Liiin. Soc. hond., Zool. (2) vol. ix. p. .'i-K', 
pi. xxi. fig. 3 (1900). 

Type, //. nodosum, Buckt. 

Hamma pattersoni, sp. n. 

Body and legs piceous, apices of tibiae and the tarsi pale 
ochraceous ; tegmina hyaline, wrinkled, reflecting the dark 
abdomen beneath, extreme base piceous, immediately fol- 
lowed by an obscure transverse pale ochraceous fascia, a 
costal ochraceous spot beyond middle, and some small di>cal 
indeterminate ochraceous suffusions ; pronotum with the 
whole of the frontal margin and the central earination to both 
the frontal angles and posterior process coarsely serrate, the 



158 



Mr. AV. L. Distant's nhynclioial Notes. 



nliolc pronotal surface finely tuhorciilatc, tlic face darker and 
more l)lacU in line; the sinuosity of tlio posterior pronotal 
])roeess with its ])ale ajjcx and the upturned apex of the 
scutellum is perfectly shown in the figure. 



Long. 4 mm. 



Hab. Gold Coast ; Aburi {IV. H. Patterson), 





Ilamma pattersoni, sp. n. 

Genus Trice.xtrus. 

Trict7jirvs, St:ll, Hem. Afr. iv. p. 89 (1860). 

Otaris, Biickt. Monojrr. Menibrac. p. 249 (190:^). 

Tuloipa, Ikickt. Traus. Liuu. Soc. Loud., Zool. ix. p. 334 (1905). 

Tricentrus auritus. 

Olaris auritus, Biickt. Monogr. Menibrac. p. 249, pi. lix. fig. 1 a (190u). 
IJab. Sumatra. 



Tricentrus orcus. 

Centrotus orcus, Buckt. Mouogr. Membrac. p. 247. pi. Ix. figs. 7 a, 6 
(1903). 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Genus Bocchar. 

Bocchar (part.), Jacob!, Sjootedt, Kiliiuaiidj. Exped. p. 120 (1910). 

Bucchar montanus. 

Bocchar vwntanus, Jaoobi Cpart.), Sjostedt, Kilimandj. Exped. xii. 
p. 120, t. ii. tigs. 2 a, 2 6 (1910). 

Hah. Uganda ; Ruanda, IMutanda, Kigesi {Dr. C. H. 
Marshall). Brit. E. Africa ; ^'airobi [S. A. Neave), 

Genus Daunus. 

Daunas, StSl, Hem. Afr. iv. p. 87 (1866) ; Eerl. ent. Zeitschr. x.p. 386 
(18GG) ; Coding, Proc. Linn. Soc. X.S.W. sxviii. p. 30 (1903J. 

Type, D. tas7nania?, Fairm. 



On new Fre.^JiW'iler She^is Jruin Japan. 159 

Daunus tasmanicp. 

Criifrolus t(i8 luinue, Fairm. Ann. Soc. Enf. Fr. (i') iv. p. 51;', pi. iii. 

tifr. l.'MltiW). 
Datoias tuftiinnice, Coding' (part.), Pror. Liiiu. Soc. N.S.W. xxviii. 

p. ;u (i!»u.'}i. 

Ccntruchoulcs twinanue, Buckt. Monogr. Membrac. p. 227, pi. 1. fig. 
(1903). 

Hab, Tasmania, Australia. 

Daunus vitta. 

Centrotus vitta, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 620 (18.')1), 

O.iijrhachii cotitmta, Walk. Ins. Saund., Ilnna. p. 06 (18o8). 

i'eiUrotus tncucaticornis, Walk. luc. tit. p. 81. 

Daunus tasmatiiee, Goding (part.), Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xxviii. 

p. 31 (l'J03). 
Daunus vitta, Goding, he. cit. p. 02 (1903). 

Hab. Tasmania, Australia. 

Daunus contractus. 

Centrotus contractu^!, Walk. List Hom. ii. p. 622 (1851). 
Dauiin.s tatmania, Godiutr (part.), Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xxviii. 
p. 31 (1903). 

Hab. Australia. 



X. — JJtacrijjtions of new Freshicater Shells Jrom Japan. 

By H. B. Preston, F.Z.S. 

[Plate IX.] 

The shells described in the present paper were collected 
recently by Dr. X. Aiinandale during his dredging-o})eratioiis 
in Lake Biwa. Though the collection includes only some 
seven species, a curiously varied Molluscan fauna is revealed, 
including as it does the Pala?arctic Pisidium casertaninn, a 
species whicli ranges over Xorthern Europe and Siberia, and 
the genus Choanomplialus, which has hitherto been supposed 
to be confined to North-eastern Siberia, together with a small 
shell which the author has been unable to generically separate 
from Lithods, which has, up to the present time, only been 
recorded from Central India. 

It is greatly to be hoped that further investigations may 
be carried out in the lake, when, doubtless, further interesting 
material will be brought to light. 



IGO Mr. H. B. Piesfon on nrip 

It may also be of interest here to slate tlint speciiiuMis of a 
ppecies undoubtedly bel(>ni;i)i<;- to tlie Indian genus Catnpto- 
ceras were forwarded to the anther with tlie ))ieseiit colh^ction ; 
this interesting form was colhctcd in tiie Koganiura-Osaka 
district of Japan, and a specimen liad abeady reached the 
writer witli a request for confirmation of its generic position 
from Mr. Bryant Walker, of Detroit, Mich., who, he uiuler- 
stands, intends to describe it at an early date. 

Class GASTROPODA. 

Order PULMONATA. 

Suborder G E r ii i L a. 

Family SiiccneidaB. 

Lithotis japom'ca, sp. n. 
(PI. IX. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

Shi'U imperforate, small, ovate, reddi.-;h brown ; whorls 2i, 
the first small, the last very large, transversely striate and 
slighllv angled above, laterally compressed ; columella margin 
obliquely descending, flattened, broad; labriun continuous, 
acute; aperture large, slightly dilated. 

Alt. 1-5, diam. maj. 4, diara. min. 3 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 2*5, diam. 2 mm. 

JJab. L :ke Biwa, J;ip;>n ; on the lower surface of stones' 
at the edge of the lake [IJr. jS\ Annand(de). 

The shell in general form recalls, in miniature, the genus 
SHptaria. 

Suborder H T G R P H I L A. 

Family Limnseidae. 

Choanomphalus japonicus, sp. n. 
(PI. IX. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 6, 2 c.) 

• Shell rather small, subovate, with swollen spire, thin, pale 
yellowish brown ; whorls 3, lapidly increasing, the last 
descending in front, tricarinato, the middle carina being 
situated at the periphery, the upper and lower about equi- 
distant from it ; betweeji thecarinai appear somewhat distant, 
microscopic, spiral striw, while the whole shell is trans- 
versely obliquely striate ; suture impressed ; umbilicus 
moderately wide and deep, occupying about one-tifth of the 
total diameter of the shell ; columella margin very obliquely 
descending, extending above into a fine, polished, restricted, 



Freshicatei' Shells from Japau. 1(j1 

parietal callus; labruni acute, projecting in IVoiit, rapidly 
receding below, sharply angled at each carinal point ot 
termination ; aperture irregularly quadrate. 

Alt. 1-25, diam. niaj. 3"25, diam. niiii. 2*75 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 1, diam. '75 mm. 

Halt. Lake Biwa, Japan ; on the lower surface of stones 
near the edge of the lake (^l)r. N. Anuandale). 

Choanomplialus japonicus perstriatulas, subsp. n. 
(PI. IX. figs. 1, la, 1 ^ Ic.) 

Shell differing from the typical form in its less swollen spire, 
strong intercarinal, spiral striation, and less angular labruin, 
the oidy marked angle being at its base. 

Alt. 1*5, diam. maj. 3*5, diam. inin. 2*75 mm. 

Aperture : air. 1*25, diam. 1 mm. 

IJah. Lake Biwa, Japan ; on tlie lower surface of stones 
near the edge of the lake, in company with the typical form 
(-Dr. N. Anuandale). 

Planorhis (Gyrauluii) hiwaensis^ sp. n. 
(PI. IX. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 ^ 3 c.) 

Shell subovate, somewhat |)lanulate above, with sunken 
first whorl, gently rounded at the periphery, pale yellowish 
brown, thin ; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, rather distantly 
and coarsely spirally, and closely, finely, and indistinctly 
transversely striate, the last whorl large and rather rapidly 
descending in front ; suture well impressed ; base of shell 
angled in the median region; umbilicus wide open, occu- 
pying about one-fourth of the total diameter of the shell ; 
columella margin very obliquely descending, slightly curved, 
diffused above into a restricted });irietal callus ; labrum 
receding below, acute ; aperture ovate. 

Alt. 1"5, diam. maj. 4"75, diam. niin. 3*75 mm. 

A])erture : alt. 1*75, diam. 1*75 mm. 

ILtb. Lake Biwa, Japan ; on the lower surface of stones 
near the edge of the lake (Dr. S. Annandale). 

Order PROSOBRAXCIIIA. 

Suborder Pectinibranciiiata. 

Family Valvatidae. 

Valriita hhod'ensis, sp. n. 
(PI. IX. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Sln-U turbiuMte, somewhat flattened above, {lale j'ellowisli ; 



162 On new Freshwater Shells from Japan. 

wliorls 3, the first flattened, microscp/ncaUi/ spirallij striate, 
the last two cavinate above and sul)|)Ianuhite above the 
cariiiation, ratlier finely and closely obliquely costulate, the 
last rounded at the periphery ; suture impressed ; uinbih'cus 
deep, occupying; in breadth about one-seventh of the total 
diameter of the shell ; base of shell convex ; columella 
margin descending in a vertical curve, extending above into 
a restricted, but rather thick, parietal callus, which joins it 
with the uj)per margin of the labrum, and gives to this last a 
continuous appearance; labrum acute ; aperture subcircular; 
operculum whitish, thin, multispiral, with central nucleus. 

Alt. 3-75, diam. maj. 5, diam. min. 3*5 ram. 

Aperture : alt. 2*25, diam. 2-25 mm. 

llab. Luke Biwa, Japan ; on a muddy bottom at depths 
greater than 40 metres [Dr. X. Annandale). 

Valvata annandalei, sp. n. 
(PI. IX. figs. 0, 5 a, ob.) 

Shell allied to V. Uwaensi'n, but rather larger, with ex- 
serted first whorl, coarser and more distant transverse costulae, 
projiortionately narrower umbilicus, whicli, in the present 
species, occupies about one-eigiith of the total diameter of the 
sliell, and in possessing a basal carina situated near the 
circura-umbilical region ; moreover, the aperture is more oval 
and proportionately much larger than in V. hiwaensis. 

Alt. 5, diam. maj. 5*25, diam. min. 4 ram. 

Aperture : alt, 3, diam. 2 mm. 

Ilah. Lake Biwa, Japan; on a muddy bottom at depths 
greater than 40 metres [Dr. N. Annandale). 

Class PELECYPODA. 

Order TETRABRAXCIIIA. 

Suborder Conchacea. 

Family Cyrenidae. 

Pisidiam casertanum (Poli), forma lacusLris. 

Ilah. Abundant on a muddy bottom in Lake Biwa at 
depths greater than 40 metres, and not found in shallower 
water. 

The author must here tender his thanks to Mr. B. B. Wood- 
ward, the well-known expert in the Paliearctic Pisldia, for 
his kind assistance in the above determination, and who 
remarks that the specimens submitted to him are '' rather 
more oval than usual." 



Oit Home little-hnown British S/u'dtrs. IQ'.] 

KXl'LAXATION OF ri.ATI-: IX. 

Fiffii. 1, 1 rt, 1 /*. Choanomphalns jiipu/iicus persfridtidus, subsp. n., X 8. 

Fiff. 1 c. Sculpture of same, X l''>. 

Fiffs. 2, "2(1, '2 b. Choanomphalia /uponicus, sp. n., X 0. 

Fiff. 2 c. Sculpture of ^aine, X 9. 

Hffs. .■{, 3 (f, '-ib. Planorbis ((iiirwilus) biwacnsis, sp. n., X 4. 

Fig.ic. Sculpture of same, x S. 

Fig, 4. Vnlcata hiicncnsis, sp. n., X 4. 

Fig. 4 a. Sculpture of same, X '"^. 

Figs. '), n a. J'alrnta annroidalei, sp. n., X 4. 

Fig. 5 b. Sculpture of same, X 8. 

Figa.6, 6 a. Lithotis japonica, sp. u., X (>. 



XT. — ()/* the Xomenclatnre and Id'-ntity of some Uttle-hnoioa 
British Spiders. By A. Randell Jackson, M.D., D.Sc. 

During the Inst two years the Rev. 0. Pickard-Canibridge 
has kindly aUowed me to examine the actual types of a 
number of little-known British spiders. For the most part 
these were descril)ed many years ago, when microscopes 
wore new or little-known instruments. JMany of these 
spiders had never been recorded since ; but there was no 
doubt that several of tiiem had been redescribed under other 
names when the use of microscopes became more general . 

I here publish the result of these investigations as far as I 
have gone. I had hoped to hive examined all the species on 
the British list which were unknown tome, but circumstances 
will not now permit this. I hope, however, to finish this 
investigation at some future date. 

For half a century Mr. Pickard-Oambridge has laboured 
in the field of arachnology, and iiis collection contains nearly 
all the species hitherto recorded as British. Hence tiie great 
kindness he lias shown nie in allowing me to examine these 
types has put me in possession of many facts otherwise 
inaccessible. I here thank him for this and for all the 
innumerable other kindnesses he has done me. 

In my previous papers on the genera Microneta and Por^ 
rhomma I accounted for many of these haU-forgotten species. 
1 here continue the work, and have now, save lor about a 
dozen s])ecies, finished the great laniily Argiopida3, which 
contains considerably more than half of the British spider- 
fauna. 

I may .^ay that I have not gone into any ancient questions 
of nomiMiclature, but have started from the basis of 
Mr. Piekard-Cambi idge's ' List of British and Irish Spiders,' 
published in lOOO. 



164 Dr. A. K. Jackson on some 

Bolyphantes suhnujripeSj Camb. 

Llwfphia suhnigripes, Camb., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. \x. 
1879, p. L'Ol (uo tigure) ; Camb., Pruc. Dorset Nat. Hi.'st. & Antlq. 
Field Club, vol. vii. 1886, p. 73, pi. iv. tigs. '2 a, -Jb, 2c; Camb., 
List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 

I have examined this example, which is still unique and 
lather the worse for wear. 

In size, general facies, and ocular relations it is indistin- 
guishable from the female of B. luteolus, Bl. The vulva 
almost exactly resembles that of that species ; if any diffe- 
rences are present, they are so slight as to render necessary 
a series of examples in order to guard against variation 
within the species. As a matter of fact, the vulva of this 
sj)ccimen does seem rather broader than tliat of B. luteolus. 

The pigmentation of the legs is, however, very striking, 
and has faded very little, although the example was taken in 
1.S78. 

First leg : tibia a)ul metatarsus very black, contrasting 
strongly with the other articles, which are very pale brown. 

Second leg : distal two-thirds of tibia and proximal half 
of metatarsus very black ; the rest of the leg pale brown. 

Third leg : distal two-tifths of metatarsus very black; the 
rest of the leg pale brown. 

Fourth leg : j)atella and tibia deep black, proximal half of 
metatarsus brown ; the rest of the limb pale brown. 

Abdomen at present quite devoid of markings. 

In no case are two legs of the same pair present. 

Tliis leg-pigmentation is very extraordinary, and the colour 
remains, after thirty-seven years' immersion in spirit, deep 
inky black. 

With the vulva not quite typical and this curious pigmenta- 
tion j)resent I sliou'd certainly hesitate to remove tiiis species 
from the British list. It i.'^, however, very closely related to 
J3. luteolus. 

Tlie specimen was found near Belfast l)y Mr. F. Workman. 

Linyphia impiyra, Camb. 

Linyphia inipif/ra, Camb., Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xxvii., 1870, 

p. -i-J-J, pi. Iv., no. 18. 
Leiitijpluintes culta, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. «fc Antiq Field Club, 

vol. xiv., 1893, p. 152, pi., tigs. 8, 8 «, 8 6. 
Lcptyphantes cultus, Camb., List of British & Iiish Spiders, 1900. 

Tlie examination of the ly|je of L. culta showed clearly 
that it was a female of L. impigra. 



lililc-liiown Dihish S/iiders. 105 

Lepti/phantes ericctus, Bl. 

Lfpfyphiinfes benftila, Cauib., Proc Dorset Nat. Hist. & Antiq^. Field 
Club, vol. x.\xii., 1911, pp. 52, 53, pi., Cgs. 8-11. 

There i.s no doubt that L. hentuhi, of wliicli T have examine.! 
the siii<;Ie nmie that forms the type, is identical with L. eri- 
ccevs, Bl. 

Air. Pickard-C'anibridge's figure of the palpus is taken 
from below as will as from the outer side. The speciuieu is 
not well pigmented. 

Lepti/phantes iusi<jnis, Cainb. 

Lt'pti/phantes insujnis, Camb., Proc. Dorset Xat. Hist. & Antiq. Field 
Club, vol. xxxiv., 1913, pp. 131-132, pi. A, Hjrs. 4-6. 

I have had the pleasure of examining the sole existing" 
specimen of this distinct species, which is an adult male. 

]\Ir. (Cambridge's figure of the palpus shows the tibia and 
patella in outer profile, but the tarsus and palpal organs from 
the outside and below. The tarsus is considerably rotated 
upon the tibia in the specimen. 

It is an extraordinary thing that this distinct and striking 
species should be found at Bloxworth after so many years of 
close work there. 

Since writing the above, I have received both sexes of this 
species from Mr. H. Britten, who found them in a mole's 
nest in the neighbourhood of Oxford. The female is a very 
distinct animal, with the epigyne i^ituated at the end of a 
long process directed almost vertically downwards. 

1 hope to publish figures of this and of the male in course 
of time. 

Paeciloneta glolosa, Wid. 

Baihi/phimfes varieffatus, Bl., Camb., List of British & Irish Spidery 

19b(J. 
Linijphia Jinitima, Camb., Traus. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xxvii., 1870, 

pp. 426-427. 
Linyphia contrita, Camb., Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xxviii., 1873, 

p. 5.37, pi. xlvi., tig. 7. 
Tinetkus Jinitimns, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 
Tinciicus contritits, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 

I have followed Professor Kulezyn.ski in sinking Black- 
wall's JJathi/jyhautes variegatus under Poiciloneta glohosa. 

I examined the two males whicb are the types of L. con- 
trita and L.fiidlima respectively. The former was taken on 

Ann. cJD .1%. xV. lUst. Ser. 8. Vol xvii, 12 



1G6 l^r- A. K. Jackson ori some 

tlie Cheviot Hills and the latter near London, both many 
years ago. 

Both specimens are very much bleached, bnt the palpal 
structure can be made out, and there is no doubt that both 
are examples of F. ylohosa, Wid, Both appear to have been 
rather abnormally pigmented when alive. 

Centromerus suhacuta, Camb. 

Opisfo.ri/s suhacuta, Camb., List of British Sc Irish Spiders, 1000 ; id., 

Proe." Dorset Nat. Hist. & Antiq. Field Club, vol. xii., 1891, p. 92, 
• pL, li-.S. 
Leptuphmites pafem, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Ilist. & Aiiliq. Field 

Ciub, vol. xxviii., 1907, pp. 139-140, pi. A, figs. 20-25 (male, not 

female). 
Opixfo.ri/s suhacuta, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & Antiq. Field 

Club; vol. XXXV., 1914, p. 128, pi. A, figs. 19-20. 

I have examined the types of 0. suhacuta, Camb., and 
L. patens, Camb., male, and find that they are identical. 
]\Ir. Cambridge has confirmed this, and his remarks will be 
found in the last reference given above. 

The drawings on plate A, figs. 19 & 20, are quite rough 
ones by myself. The type of 0. suhacuta is now im fortu- 
nately destroyed, and the male described as L. patens is at 
present the only example extant. The female of L. patens 
turned out to be Lepti/phantes pnlliduft, Camb. (see Proc. 
Dorset Nat. Hist. & Antiq. Field Club, 1910, vol. xxxi., 

This species is a typical Centromerus, and there seems to 
be no reason for considering Opistoxys as a British genus. 

The following is the chajtotaxy of the species : — 

/^a/ce^.-^Anterior border bears three large teeth. Posterior 
border bears four or five very small teeth very closely 
grouped. 

Legs. — Femur i. : a spine on dorsum about the middle ; a 
epine on anterior border near the apex. 

Femur ii. : a spine on dorsum near middle. 

Femur iii. & iv. : unarmed. 

Patellre : one spine above on each. 

Tibiae ; two spines above on each. The first tibia bears, in 
addition, an extra spine on the anterior border nearer the apex 
than the middle. 

Metatarsi : unarmed in the type of 0. suhacuta. In that 
o£ L. jatens the first two each bore a very fine erect spine 
near the middle. 

These may have been broken off in the other example, but 
I saw this specimen first and did not look for their bases. 



Jittle-knowa British Sjnders. 1<j7 

Palj/i very clKiractori.stic and (iuite simihii- in the two 
specimens. 

Centi'omerus sylvat'icufi, Bl. 

Tmeficus sijlvaticus, Bl., Camb., List of British & Irisli Spiders, 1003. 
Tineticus serratiis, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat, Hist. & Antiq. Field 
Club, vol. xsviii., 1907, pp. 143-144, pi. B, figs. 45-43 (female oal}). 

Centromenis prudens, (Iamb. 

Tmeticus prudens, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 
Tmeficus serrafus, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & .-Vntiq. Fi.>ld 
Club, vol. xxviii., 1907, pp. 143-144, pi. B, figs. 4o-48 (male only). 

I liave examined the Britisli example3 of the supposed 
C. sernituSj C'amh. The male is C prudens and the female 
C. si/lvaticus. They differ markedly from the true C. serratns, 
of which I possess French examples, and which, among other 
things, is a very much smaller s[)ider. 

Centromenis similis, Kulcz. 

Tmeticus simiiis, Kulcz., Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Ilist. & Antia. Field 
Club, vol. xxvi., 190-5, pp. 62-63, pi. A, figs. 12-13. 

I have examined this small female, which is unknown to 
me, though certainly 2l Centromerus. It is not, 1 helieve, 
G. simiiis, Kulcz., and more closely resemhles C. incilium, 
L. Koch ; but, since it has not been compared with that 
species, I do not advise altering the name under which it 
stands on the British list at present. 

Micryphantes rurestris, C. L. Koch. 

Microneta rurestris, C. L. Koch, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 

1900. 
Eupolis e.rcavatn, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & .\nti(j. Field Club, 

vol. xxi., 1900, pp. 26-27, pi., figs. 7 a, b, c, d. 

I examined the type-female of E. excavata. In my opinion 
this is certainly a decolourize 1 female of ^[. rurestris, C. L. K. 
The depression at the occiput is, I believe, due to traumii. 

Ificrt/pliantes beatus, C.imb. 

Microneta beata, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & Antiq. Field Club, 

vol. xxvii., 1906, pp. 90-91, pi. A, figs. 27-31. 
Bathyphantes cxp/icafa, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & Aatiq. Field 

Cliib, vol. xxxiii., 1912, p. 75, pi. A, figs. 14 & 15. 

The type of B. e.rpUcata exactly resembles M. healus in 

12* 



1G8 Dr. A. R. Jiicksoii on some 

every respect, includiiiG: the muis-iuil structure and shape of 
tlie hmulla chaiacteristica. I have Jio hesitation in sinking 
the former name ainonixst the synonyms of J7. beatus. I 
have, of course, examined the types. 

Phaulothiix hardii, Bl. 

Tmeticus hardii, Bl., Camb., I>ist of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 
Tmeticus catyenteri, Canib., Pioc. Dorset Xat. Hist. & Antiq. Field 
Club, vol. XV., 1894, pp. 1U8 & 109 (female only). 

The female of Tmelicint carpenfen, Camb., is a rather large 
(xajnple of P. hardii. The specimni is cuiiously piebald — 
due, I think, to the uneven solution of the abdominal pigment 
in spirit. Ho mention is made of this in the description, and 
it has probably taken place during the long period in which 
the specimen has been iu this fluid ; otherwise the specimen 
is typical enough. 

Macraryus carpenterii, Camb. 
Tmeticus carpenterii, Camb. luc. cit. (male only). 

The male of this species is a very puzzling animal. I 
believe it to be an abnormal specimen of the common M. rufu?, 
AVid., but cannot deny that there are difierences difficult to 
account for by any theory of maldevelopment. If these prove 
constant, the species might be considered good, though nearly 
related to M. rufus. No further examples have yet occurred. 

There are a number of little differences, and sooner or later 
I hope to publish figures illustrating them. 

Small or stunted-looking examples of J/, rufns should be 
carefully preserved for reference by collectors. The best 
differences are in the palpal oi'gans. These are the same on 
both sides in tiie ty))e, but a series of the species should be 
obtained before more can be said. Meanwhile, the name is 
Lest left on the British lis^ It can only, however, be con- 
sidered as a doubtful species. 

Lophomma stativum, Sim. 

Lophomma utativum, Sim., Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Ilist. & Antiq. 

Field Club, vol. xxvi., 1905, pp. 04 & G-j. 
KeiifjieluciJa, Camb., Trans. Liun. Soc. Lond., vol. xxviii., 1871, p. 452, 

pi. ,x.vxv., no. 27 (male only). 
Corniculaiia lucida, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 

I examined a j air of accredited C. lucida, Camb., kindly 
sent nie by Mr. Cambridge which I believe to be the type?;, 
but about which there seems to be some ambiguity. The 



Viltle-knoxcn British Spiders. 100 

male is, I think, without doubt L. statlvnm, Sim., the very 
characteristic palpi corresponding exactly with tlie description 
and figures of those of that species. The t'eniale is quite 
another species — Dlplocephalus cristatus^ Bl., in tact. Sonie 
day J hope to take ilie matter up more tiioroughly; mean- 
wliile, I iiave little doubt that my present statement is correct. 

Mlnijriolus pusillas, Wid. 

Mini/rio!us pusillns, ^^'iJ., Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1000. 
ainlitla jiyijnuea, Caiiib., Proc. Dorset Nut. Hist. &. Autiq. Field Club, 
vol. .\iv., 1893, p. loo, pi., tigs. '6 a, b, & c. 

The type of 'S'. ;)^^»uFa has lost all its pigment, but is, I 
think, clearly a female of M. inmillas, \V)d. 

Tmeticus c/ranuiiicuhis, BI. 
GoTtfft/lidium graminicotum, lil., Camb., List of British «& Irish Spiders, 

lyoo. 

Tmeticus adeptus, Camb., Proc. Dorset Xat. Hist. & Antiq. Field Club, 
vol. xxvii., 1906, pp. bo-8G, pi. A, hys. 8-11. 

The types of 'T. adeptus consist of two females. These 
are undoubtedly young examples of 2\ grain'inicolus, Bl. Tiie 
chitin covering the vulva is very transparent, and the sexual 
apertures are visible through it. This does not seem to be 
the case with all young T. graminicolas ; but in a series of 
these juveniles several individuals showing exactly tliis 
condition can generally be found. 

Trichoncus saj:icohts, Camb. 

TifjelUnus saxicolu^, Camb., I^ist of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 
Hiidiila jiiyrutibialis, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & Autiq. Field 
Club, vol. xxi., 1900, pp. 29-30, pi., tigs. 6, U a, 6. 

The type of S. nigrotibialis, which is a female, turned out 
on e.\aiiiination to be 1\ iuxiculus, Camb. 

Wideria melanocephala^ Camb. 

Widetia melanocephala, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1000. 
W'atckenaera atrol ibialis, Camb., Ana. & -Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. i., 

1878, pp. 110-117, pi. xi., tigs. 3, a, b, c, d, 
Vrusopotlieca atrotiOialis, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 

I examined the ty|)e of P. atrotUdahs, which is a female. 
All the tibiie are said in the description to be deeply pig- 
mented, but nearly all trace of this [)igmcnt has now gone. 
The whole spider is much bleached. 

In Jl". mclanocephala, as a rule, only the tlist four tibi?eaie 



170 On some Utllc-known British Spiders. 

pigmented, but occasionally, as in a specimen of my own from 
the New Forest, all eight may be very dark. The epigyne 
and general structure ot P. airotihiaUs are quite typical of 
W. vidanocephala. 

Wideria cucullaia, C. L. Koch. 

Wideria cuctiUata, C. L. K., Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 

IDOO. 
Wideria incerta, Camb., Proc, Dorset Nat. Hist. & Antiq. Field Club, 

vol. xxiii., 1902, pp. 35-36, pi., iigs. 9, or, b, c, d. 

The type of W. incerta is an immature male of W. cucuUata. 

The tibial apophysis is not really continued transversely 
across the dorsum of the tarsus, although some long hairs in 
this ])Osition give sometliing of this ap)<earaiice with poor 
illumination. This apophysis is quite developed and tyjtical 
of W. cucullatn. The j)alpal organs are, however, enveloped 
in membrane. The caput, too, is quite undeveloped, and, as 
certainly as one can be certain of immature spiders, this is an 
example of IF. cucuUata. 

Wideria fuga.r, Camb. 

Wideria fugax, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900, 
Wideria warburionii, Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & Autiq. Field 
Club, vol. xxiii., 1902, pp. 34-35, pi., tigs. 8, a, b, c, d. 

I can detect no difference between the type of W. icar- 
lurtoni'i and typical nniles of W.fitfjax. 

Prosopotheca incisa, Camb. 
Prosoj'otheca incisa, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 

This is a fine distinct species which I had not seen before. 
The epigyne is curiously like that of Cornicidaria cuspidata, 
131., but in other respects the spider is very different. 

WoJchenaera capito, Westr. 

WaJekenaera capita, "VN'estr., Camb., List of British & Irisli Spiders, 

1900. 
Walckenaera capita, Westr., Camb., Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & Antiq. 

Field Club, vol. xxvi., 1905, p. 53, pi. B, fig. 24. 
Cornicidaria pudens, Camb., List of British & Irish Spiders, 1900. 
Aejiene pudens, Camb., Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xxviii., 1873, 

p. 544, pi. xlvi., fig. 15. 

There is no doubt at all that the type of C. pudenfi, which 
is a female, is identical with what is supposed to be the 
female of 11'. capita. Tiiis female ha.s, however, never been 



On the Thorax in Anoplura and in Nesiotinus. 171 

found accompanying an adult male, and there is some doubt 
whether it really is the female of IT. capita. However, 
until more evidence is forthcoming-, it is best considered as 
such. 

Cormcularia karpinsJcii, Camb. 

CornicnUiria pavitans, Camb., List of Uritisb Sa InAi Spiders, 1900. 
Neriene pavituns, Camb., Trun.''. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xxviii., 1873, 
p. 543, pi. xlvi., lig. \ii. 

Cormcularia pavitans, of which the ty)ie is a female, is a 
very striking species, and is identical witli C. /iU7'/nnskii, 
which has priority. Mr. Cambridge will shortly publish a 
note on this subject, which 1 will not anticipate. I obtained 
a pair of C. karpinskii on Helvellyn on August 28th, 1900. 
They were taken together under one stone, and the association 
of the male with the female is thus established. 



XII. — Sate on the Thorax in Anoplura and in the Genus 
iS'esiotinus o/ the Maliophaga. 13y EuuCE F. (JUMMIXUS 
(British Museum of iS'alural History). 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

TuoRAx IN Anoplura. 

The three segments of the thorax are fused together *. On 
the dorsal surface in most species may be seen certain trans- 
verse bars or rafters of thick chitin, which serve to support 
the thoracic nota, to provide on the extreme lateral margin a 
point for the attachment of the coxae on each side, and may 
roughly represent the original delimiting lines between pro-, 
meso-, and nietanotum. No epimeral or episternal pieces 
can be traced at the sides. The fused thoracic nolum fits 
down as a kind of " lid " upon the sternal surface, which 
shows no sign of segmentation at all, and in many species 
carries a single sternal plate of various sizes and shapes. 

These notal rafters — or, if we use the cautious phraseology 
of the systematist, " bands" — are important elements in the 
exoskeleton, and are frequently made use of by descriptive 
writers, and certainly afford useful, if superficial, characters. 

Tlie Anopluran thorax to the comparative anatomist is of 

* My friend Mr. Harrison points out that tlie prolhorax is distinct in 
ll<emutumyzi(.^, which i have not seiu. 



172 Mr. 13. F. Ciininuiig-; on the T/iora.v in 

sonic inleicst, inasmuch as it affords us with an example — I 
iiua^ine, rare in the Insecta — of the attachment of the coxfe to 
liie n argin of the dorsal or notal surface. Tlie coxre, roughly 
cu)i-shaped, are applied by their concave surfaces to the 
ventro-lateral regimi of the thorax on each side. The lower 
(or inner) half of the edge of each cup is attached to the 
sternal surface, while the upper (or outer) half reaches to tlie 
depressed margin of tiie notum, which on each side has a 
clearly marked rim, and is usually strengthened by a dark 
longitudinal bar connecting iip each trans-verse rafter. Just 
where the upper half of each coxal cuj) establishes a point of 
contact with the notal rim the chitin of the latter becomes 
thickened, and often runs out into a dark depressed pro- 
montory or jetty — one for each coxa. A raiter runs iu from 
each jetty. 

It is unnecessary to summarize here the form and course 
of these exoskeletal rafters ; suffice it to say that, with the 
exception of the meso-metanotal one in many Hiematopini 
for example, they rarely run right across the upper suiface, 
but disappear before halfway into the thinner chitin of the 
middle area. 

I believe I have discovered in Ilcematnpinus asini a pair of 
clavicles within the prothorax, very mucli as they occur in 
some Mallophaga ; while in many, if not all, llrematopiiii 
there is present in the midtlle of the metanotal region a 
.'structure of some interest, not hiiherto described. It shows 
on the surface as a small circular depression, but in specimens 
passed through caustic potash the depression is seen to be the 
mouth of a small chitinous funnel, which does not descend 
into the thorax perpendicularly, but is directed backwards as 
well as downwards, so as to lie beneatii, and in many cases 
to project behind, the posterior margin of the metanotum. 
The funnel is graduated, and ends blindly in a point, like a 
dunce's cap. It should be regarded presumably as a thoracic 
apodeme for the attachment of muscles, and a more careful 
examination of it by the method of sections might produce 
results of interest. In one form or another all tiie members 
of the genus II(einutoj>iiius, I believe, possess this funnel, and 
it occurs also in Atitantu/Jit/iirus or/morhinij End., and m a 
less funnel-shaped condition iu A, Irichtci (Boh.), and 
Fediculus cap'nis, De Geer, 

Thorax in 2^esiotinus (Mallophaga). 

The much more complicated thorax of the Mallophaga 
jircbcnts a very interesting study in comparative anatomy; 



Anoplura and in the Genus Xesiotlnii?. \1\\ 

but as n iiicmoir wlii'-Ii, I believe, will iiK-Iiide this subject in 
its scope is in course of jx-iparation by my tVieiid ]\Ir. Launcelot 
llani.sitii, li.Sc, of tiie University of 8ytliiey, I iiifeud to do 
no nioie here than to correct an error extant eoncerrjini^ the 
thorax of the remarkuhle S|)ecie8 ^^es'otuim demersuy, Kello;jg'. 
For our knowledge o£ tiiis parasite we are indebted to 
Prof. Vernon Lyman Kello^^', of the Leland Stanford 
Junior University, Californiaj who, so lotior ago a3 in 1903, 
published a short description i?i the ' Biological Bulletin 
of the Marine Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass.' (vol. v. 
p. 89, 1903), of a single female specimen received from 
Dr. GUntlier P^nderlein, and taken on a Kerguelen penguin, 
Aptenodytes lonrjirostris. 

No other specimen, according to my knowledge, has since 
been recorded, and therefore the capture of another female in 
November \i)\'.\ on a king penguin (Aptenodi/tes sp. ? pen- 
vanti) in the Bay of Isles, S. Georgia, by Mr. P. Stammwitz 
(who accompanied the late Major Gerald Barrett-Hamilton on 
his whaling expedition) is worthy of being placed on record. 

Kellogg remarks that one of the distinguishing features 
of the genus and species is " the complete distinctness of the 
]iro-, meso-, and metathorax in a degree unequalled elsewhere 
among the known Mallophaga, unless it be in Trinoton." 
Further on he remarks that tlie meta-segment is '* nearly as 
wide as the first (widest) abdominal segment," and so resembles 
an abdominal segment. 

No particular reasons are adduced in favour of this singular 
interpretation, and all Mallophagan morphology is against if. 
A comparative study of the thorax of Mallophaga makes 
it certain that the tliorax of Nesiotinus consists of pro- and 
metathorax, the mesothorax being quite absent, and that 
Kellogg has mistaken the first segment of the abdomen for 
the metathorax. The tliorax of S^esiolinus is short, and 
consequently on the sternal surface but little space is left for 
the articulation of the legs, which are relatively large 
appendages. There is therefore a good reason why the 
acetabular bars should be prolonged backwards, so that the 
liind legs are suspended from the base of the abdomen. 

A similar state of affairs occurs in Menopon antennatunif 
Kell. & Paine, where the short thorax has involved u 
lenfrtheniii'; of the acetabular bars of both the second and 
third j)airs of legs, so that the second pair appears to come 
from under the metathorax and tiie third pair from as low 
down as the second abdominal segment. 

Kellogg's interpretation allows only seven segments in the 
ab lomen and only five pairs of spiracles. In all Mallophaga 



174 Mr. C. H. T. Towiisciul on Two new 

except Gli'j'icola and possibly Triinenopon there are six pairs 
of abJoiuinal spiracles, ami they o|)eii u|)oii either the tliird 
to the eighth or upon the second to the seventh segments — 
never upon the first segment *. 

Finally, neither the chrototaxy nor the coloration lend any 
supi ort to Kellogg's interpietation. 



XIII. — Two neto Genera of African ^fnseoidea. By CllARLKS 
Jl. T. ToWNSliNi), Bureau of Eiitouiologv, Washington, 
D.C. 

CONGOCURYSOSOMA, gen. nov. 

Genotype, Conrfochrysosovm snyderi, sp. n. 

Differs Irom Chrysomasicera as follows : — Female only : 
Eyes bare. Vertex about three-fourths width of one eye. 
Ocellar bristles very small, but distinct, short. Outer verticals 
scarcely developed. Second antennul joint elongate, the 
third only one and one-half times second. Arista shorter. 
Face rather flattened, epistoma quite prominent, vibrissa well 
above oral margin. Tarafacials bristly in middle. Four 
lateral pairs of sciitellar macrochaitae ; a short median jiair 
on first abdominal segment, no discals on internu-diate 
segments. Hind tibiae short-ciliate, with a longer bristle 
below middle. 

Congochrysosoma snyderi, sp. n. 

Length of body ll'O mm., of wing 0*5 mm. 

One female, Luebo, Congo (/>. IF. Snyder). 

Face dull silvery, the parafacials with a faint greenish 
lustre. Cheeks silvery, with a bronze lustre. Parafrontals 
greenish bronze. Frontalia and anteni ae blackish, the 
second antennal joint brown. Palpi fulvous, infuscate at 
base. Mesoscutum and arcuate area on base of scutellum 
greenish bronze ; five vittfc showing, widening and narrowing 
with the incidence of light, the middle one disappearing in 
front of suture in some lights. Pleurae, humeri, and outer 
aspect of front femora rather silvery. Abdomen and very 
broad margin of scutellum bright frosted green, the first 
segment and rather irregular hind borders of others black. 

* See Launcelot Ilamson, ' rar;uitolog-v,' vol. viii. no. ], June 2.5th, 
1015, p. 101. 



Genera of African Musci'idea. 175 

Venter piile hrownisli. Lcp^.s l)lacki:ili bio>Yu. Wiiig.^ 
iaiiitly iiifiiscated, to^^ulio nearly wliitc. 

llnlotypo, no. lU97b U.S. N. 11. 

Nanitil ill honour ot Mr. 1). \V. Snyder. 

OcYPTEKOillMA, gen. nov. 

Genotype, Ocypteromima polita, sp. n. 

llelatoil to the Aphiia-Kriotlirix series of groups, froin the 
genera of which it may be distinguisiiod by the folh)\ving 
cliaracters : — Female only : Front anteriorly about width of 
eyp, gently narrowing to vertex; face widening therefrom at 
same angle. Parafacials rather narrow, not as wide as third 
antcnnal joint. Frontalia occupying nearly one-third of 
frontal width posteriorly. No occllars. Inner verticals 
strong, reclinate, not decussate ; no outer verticals. Two 
proclinate and two reclinate fronto-orbitals. Only one frontal 
below base of anteinia\ Second antennal joint only slightly 
elongate; third narrow, of even width, about three times as 
long as second. Arista slender, finely pubescent, a little 
thickened on basal half, rather tapered, basal joints very 
short. K})istonia produced, but vibrissie very close to oral 
margin. Checks narrow, the eyes descending as low as 
vibrissre. Eyes practically bare, only very faintly and 
sparsely short-hairy. Proboscis rather short, but corneous, 
part below geniculation hardly as long as lower border of 
liead ; palpi slender, short, sublilit'orm. Two sterno-pleural.s 
and three postsuturals. Scutellum without apical or discal 
bristles, but with one long postero-lateial and one very short 
antero-lateral. No discals on alxlonien, first two segments 
with median marginal pair, last two with marginal row. 
Abdomen subcylindrical, but swollen in middle, thence 
tapering both ways. Legs slender, not very elongate. 
Apical cell open, constricted apically, ending a little before 
wing-tip. Cubitus abru})tly rounded ; hind cross-vein nearer 
same, straight. Third vein biistiy nearly to small cross- 
vein. No costal spine. 

Ocypteromima polila, sp. n. 

Length of body 8*5 mm., of wing 6*5 ram. 
One female, Lorenzo AJarqucs, March 1, I'JIO (C. W. 
Howard) . 

Black, silvery-white pollinosc. Anteniife l)lackish, fron- 
talia daik brown. Palpi appearing black, but in reality deep 
nitous, with many short black bristly hair?. Head all 



17G Mr. Iv. I. Pocock on a 

silvery white, oxoej)t tliat paralVontals show throuf;li bhickisli 
uM vertical iiait. Thorax showing two very wide heavy 
bhick vitt;e. Seutelliiin with faint sheen of silvery. Abiio- 
lueii with bases of segments 2 to 4 silvery white, more broadly 
so on sides and venter, the rest shiniii<>; bhick, but with iaint 
sheen of silvery continuation in phices as seen in very 
oblique lights. Legs bhick, tibiaj more or less reddish ; bases 
of legs and pleuiio silvery. Wings lightly smoky yellowish, 
tegulai j)early white. 

Ilolotype, no. l'J1177 U.S. N. M. 



XIV. — A new Genus of African Mongoose'', with a Sote 
on Galeriscus. ^y ii. I. PocuCK, F.R.S. 

Ctnictis selousi was described by Mr. de Winton * on the 
evidence of a skull |)ieked up by Mr. Helous near Bulawayo ; 
and since the cranial and dcnt;il characters agreed tolerably 
closely with those of C. penicillaia, the type of the genus 
C't/iiiclisj no alternative generic reference was open to the 
describer. 

►Subsequently Mr. P. C Reid sent to the British jMuseum 
a complete specimen caught on the Liuyanti River, and 
Mr. de Winton published an illustrated descri|jtion f of its 
colour, pointing out that the blackness of the legs and the 
absence of the rufous tint on the body confirm the skuil- 
characters in differentiating C. selousi trom C. peincillata. 

In 1900 ^Ir. C. II. B. Grant seemed the species at Wood- 
bush, in the north-eastern Transvaal, as recorded by Messrs. 
Thomas and >Schwaini|, and in 1U09 Mr. E. C. Chubb § 
gave a list of several examples taken at Bulawayo and 
Inyaniandhloven, in Matabeleland. 

I am not aware of any later rccoids or published particulars 
relating to the species. 

The marked likeness in colour between C//nictis selousi^ 
Ichneumia alhiatula, and some species of Bdtojale — e. g., 
J3. nigripes — induced me to examine the British Museum's 
specimens, consisting of the skins procured by Reid and 
Giant ; and since Cynictis, Ichneumia, and Bdtogule can 
easily be distinguished by the number of the digits, the feet 

* Ann. & Maj?. Nat. Hist. fO) xviii. p. 469 (1896). See also W. L. 
Scliiter, 'Fauna of South Africa, Mammals,' vol. i. p. 75 (IKOlj. 
t Proc. Zool. Soc. rjOl, vol. i. pt. 1. pp. 2-3, pi. i. 
\ Ibid. IWB, p. 588. § Ibid. lOU'J, p. 118. 



nexo Genus of African Mongooses. 177 

natinallv tluiiiicfl aftontiDU firsf. Tlio result was tlie tlisco- 
V(M"v of the c<)inj)lete aljsciice of all external trace of the first 
cli<:;it of the fore-foot — a feature hritigin;^ C. selonsi into line 
with Bdeoijale and severin<^ it from Cynictis. It does not 
appear whether this character was detected \)y the authors 
above quoted and dismissed as a taxideiiiiic accident or 
iie<>lected as unimportant systematically, or not. Possibly 
the presence of the corresponding digit in C'l/niclis penicillata 
was for the moment forgotten *. 

However that may be, the character is, in my opinion, 
quite siitlicient tor generic recogriiiion. I propose, therefore, 
to place C. selousi in a new genus, which may be named and 
diagnosed as follows: — 

Paracynictis, gen. nov. 

Related to Cynictis, but differing in the suppression of 
digit 1 of the fore-foot, the digital formula being -4 — 4 as ia 
Bd ogale. 

Type, Cynictis selousi, de Wint. 

Two genera of African mongooses have the same digital 
formula as Paracynictis — namel}', Surica/a and Bdeogale ; 
but with neither of the last two can the first be associated. 
Suricata occupies an isolated position in the group, and need 
not be further considered in this connection ; but, as already 
stated, Paracynictis selousi bears such a close superficial 
resemblance to some species of BdeogaU, like B. nigripes, 
that the main reasons for its exclusion Irom that genus may 
be biiefly given. Apart from the differences mentioned by 
de Winton in his original diagnosis, the skull of Paracyiiidis 
selousi is very like that of Cynictis peuicillata, and shows no 
special resemblance to the massive .skull of Bdeogale. The 
bulla is larger and more inflated than in Cynictis, and the 
partition divides it into two subcqual chambers, whereas in 
Cynictis the posterior chamber is smaller than the anterior. 
In Bdeogale, on the contrary, the anterior chamber is smaller 
than the posterior, in B. puisa about half its size. Numeri- 
cally the teeth of Paracynictis are as in Bdeogale, but, 
wh rer.s in the former the injiitting portions of ;'m\ m\ and 
ni^ of the Uj)ptr jaw are transversely elongated and narrow, 
in Bdecgafe they are very rioticeably thick-r and more 
rounded. JSiuiilar but h ss well-marked differences occur in 
the molars of the lower jaw. 

• The coloured figure of C. selousi published by de Wiuton shows the 
feature in question quite plainly. 



1 78 0« a new Genus of African Mongooses. 

So far as external characters can be interpreted on dried 
skins, tlie feet of Parac>/nictis resemble those oE Bdeognle not 
only in the number of the digits, but also in the extension o£ 
the hair over the metatarsus nearly or quite down to the 
jthintar pad. But in Paracynictis the carpal pad is compara- 
tively sniall, and, although the feet have been slit down the 
middle line beneath, it appears to me that the area between 
this pad and the plantar ])ad was wholly or mostly overgrown 
witii hair. There may, however, have been a narrow strip of 
naked skin extending between the two pads. In Bdeogale, 
on tlie contrary, the carpal pad is large and joined to the 
plantar pad 1)T a wide and distally widening naked area. 

Finally, in Paracyyiiciis it seems certain that the digits are 
longish, slender, and very imperfectly webbed, as in Ct/nictis, 
but in Bdeogale the thick short digits are webbed to approxi- 
mately the same extent as in Muvgos — tiiat is to say, up to 
the base of the digital pads on the admedian side of each. 

Although on paper it may appear that Paracynictis occupies 
an intermediate place genetically between Cgnictis and 
Bdeogale, I do not think that is the true opinion to hold. 
Paracynictis seems to me, on the available evidence, to be 
nothing but an aberrant form of Cynictis, specialized by the 
loss of the first digit of the fore-foot. Hence it may be 
inferred that the occurrence of a similar defect in Bdeogale is 
an adaptive resemblance ; and, without due consideration of 
other facts connected with the feet, one would be inclined to 
associate this defect with the adoption of a digitigrade gait. 
In the case oi Bdeogale, which has sliort, compact, somewhat 
*' canine " feet, this may be so — at least in part, — but the 
long-clawed feet of Paracynictis are fossorial rather than 
cursorial ; and I suspect the suppression of the digit in ques- 
tion is connected with burrowing. Support for this suspicion 
is supplied by the independent incidence of a precisely similar 
character in Svricata, the fore-feet of whicli are essentially 
fossorial. A short weak pollex must be a hindrance rather 
than a help in digging amongst roots and stones ; and the 
atrophy of the hallux may likewise be explained by the part 
the hind-feet play in raking backwards the loosened material 
of the burrow. So far as I am aware, there are no records of 
the habits oi Bdeogale helping a decision as to whether the 
loss of the pollex and hallux is connected with digging or 
running. 

The close resemblance in coloration above alluded to 
between Paracynictis, Ichneumia, and some species of Bdeof 
gale is curious, since it does not appear to be attributable to 
mutual affinity. Special attention may be drawn to the 



Generic Names of certain Old- World }[onkeyr,. 179 

prevalent Avliifencs.s of tlie tiiil, the cfToct of wliicli must 1)6 to 
ii'iuler the animal comj)aratlvely vi.sil)lc, especially at night. 
In view of the existence in all montjooses o£ an anal sack 
and foul-smelling secretion of the anal ghuuls, coupled with 
the known power in the case of Mangos tirva* of ejecting 
this secretion to a distance, as in the skunk, I suggest that 
tlie whiteness of the tail may be a warning attribute ; and 
since hhneuviia geographically overlaps DdeOijale to the 
north and Paran/nictis to the south, the likeness between 
the three may, perhaps, be Miillerian. , 

Note on Galeriscus. 

In 1894 M-. F. J. Jaekson sent to the British Museum 
the skin, without the skull, of a Carnivore from Mianzini, in 
in Masailand. This was described by M\\ Thomas f as a 
new genus and species, Galeriscus jacksoni, which was 
assigned to the Mustelidas, and compared more particularly 
with the South-American genus Galictis, now known as 
Grison. Mr. Thomas subsequently came to the conclusion 
that the specimen must be referred to BdeogaJe — a view 
iullv confirmed by the structure of the ear, which is like that 
of Mangos rather than of Grison. Since I am not aware 
that this correction has ever been published, I take this 
occasion to point out that Galeriscus falls as a synonym 
of Ddeogale, 



XV. — On the Getieric Names of certain Old-lVorhl Monkeys. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British ^Euseum.) 

The generic names used for some of the Old- World monkeys 
have of late years been in a state of continual incertitude, 
so that for the langurs Presbytis, Pijgathrix^ and Semno- 
pithecus have been used by different authors for different 
reasons, for the macaques Simla, Pitliecus, and Macacits, 
and for the guenons Cercopitliecus and Lasiopyga — not to 
mention the use of such little-known names as Pan and 
Pongo for the chimpanzees and orangs. 

The question of Pitliecus has recently been again brought 

* Ann. & MafT. Nat. Hist. (8) viii. p. 75G (1911), 
t Ibid. (G) xiii. p. 5:22 (1894). 



180 l\Ir. O. Thomas ou the 

u]i l)y Pr. Lyon *, ■wlio, for reasons in mIucU I concnr, con- 
siders valid my selection in 1894 of ^^ Simla veter " as the 
type of that name, and uho then qnotes my assertion that, 
/S. veter being; indeterminable, the name Pithecus should 
droj) — a conclusion wliich Dr. Lyon accepts. He would, 
therefore, abolish the name Pithecvs, and {failing Simla, 
■which he does not mention) use the name Macaca for the 
macaques. 

But, in doing this, we are always confronted with the risk 
that, after zoologists liave got accustomed to the resulting 
names, attempts will later on be made to identify Simla veter, 
and thus embroil the whole question afresh. 

It appears to me, therefore, to be better to make this 
attempt now, while usage is still in an unsettled condition, 
and so, whatever conclusion may be come to, to introduce 
a nomenclature which may have some chance of finality — a 
desideratum which can never be attained while Pithecus, the 
earliest of the names in question, is still "in the air." 

That Simla veter as a known definite species is indeter- 
minable may be true, but, nevertheless, the consequence does 
not follow that Pithecus as a generic name is untenable; 
for if the species between which its identity lies are con- 
generic, its validity is unaffected. A determinable genotype 
is not a sine qua noti for the validity of a generic name, as is 
evident from the number of recognized genera which have 
been founded merely by diagnosis, -without mention of 
genotypes. 

Lhider Simla veter Linnaeus f gives only two references — 
to Brisson and Ray, — that of the former being, again, simply 
a repi'oduction from the latter, whose account J is therefore 
the essential basis of the name. 

Kay's monkey, the " Simla alba sen incanis pilis, barba 
nigra promissa, ex Zeylona: elawandum Zeylanensibus,^' 
is clearly the whitish monkey described by Kelaart § as 
" Presbijtes alblnus" which Blanford considers to have been 
either an albinistic form of Semnojnthecus cephalopttrus or 
ursinus — these two species being certainly congeneric — or a 
special white species nearly allied to them. It is to be noted 
that Ray's native name of '' Elawandum '^ and locality of 
Ceylon agree very well with Blanford's Semnopithecus 
cejjhalopterus — " Kalli Wandcru (and Elli \yanderu ?),'' with 
locality Ceylon. Kelaart also gives " Ellce Wanderoo'^ as 

* P. Biol. Soc. "Wash, xxviii. p. 179 (1915). 
t Svst. Nat. (12) i. p. .36 (1766). 
■ X Quadr. p. 158 (179.3). 
\ Prodr, Faun. Zevl. p. 7 (1852). 



^ 



Generic Names of certain Old- World Monkeys. lyi 

the Singhalese name oF tlie brown langur which he calls 
Preshytes thersites. All these species are langurs, nearly 
allied to each other, and no macaque comes into the question. 

Since, then, the genus of langurs has of late years had 
several changes of name, it appears to me no great harm if a 
fresh and far earlier name be attached to it, thus removing 
(so far as this point is concerned) all question as to the 
extent and validity o{ Pygathrix, and, in fact, at the cost of 
one more change after many, by putting its date much 
further back, rendering the name of the genus far more 
stable than has hitherto seemed likely ever to be the ca<'e. 

The result of this would be that the langurs should be 
called Pit/iecus and the macaques Miicnca — that is to say, if 
Simia is removed by Fiat from competition with the latter. 

If, therefore, as almost everyone on this side of the Atlantic 
hopes will be the case, the Anthropoid names included in the 
Fiat list published in lOlJ-* are accepted as there advocated, 
the generic names of the Anthropoids and chief Old-World 
monkeys will be as follows : — 

Chiiupauzees Anthropojnthecus, Blainv., 1838 (by Fiat). 

Synn. Pan, Oken, 1816, et al. 

Gorilla C^onV/a, I. Geoff., I801'. 

Orangs Simia (by Fiat). 

Synn. Pongo, Lac, et al. 

Langurs Piihecus, Geoff. & Cuv., 1795. 

Synn. Presbytis, Escbsch., 1821 ; Semno- 
pithecus, Desm., 1822 ; Pygathrix of 
Elliot's Primates. 

Macaques Macaca, Lac, 1799. 

Synn. Simia, Linn., 1758; MacacuSy Desm.; 
Pithecus of Elliot. 

Guenon.s Cercopithecujt, Briinn. (removed from Tamarins by 

Fiat t). 

Lasiopyga of Elliot. 

We thus obtain a set of names which are comparatively 
familiar, and represent to most people the genera to which 
they are here applied. The names produced by rigid 
technicality, without Fiat — as, for example, those used in 
Elliot's ' Primates,' — do not possess any meaning at all to the 
minds of the majority of naturalists. 

The attachment, apparentl}"^ technically valid, of the one 
unfamiliar name in the list — Pithecus — to a genus for which 
no name is now really familiar, appears to me to help greatly 
to render stable the results at which I arrive. 

• Zool. Anz. xliv. p. 284 (1914). 

t And in no ca.«e properly referabl*> there, aa Gronovius tras not a 
binomial writ«»r. 

Anu. cC- .l/'T'/. X /7/,s7. iSer. 8. Vol. xvii. l;5 



182 Mr. O. Thomas on 



XVI. — Xotes 071 Argentine, Patar/oiiian, and Cape Ilorir 
Muridsc. By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.)' 

Thk Mice of the Hesperomts laucsa Group. 

Oy the small grey field-mice of the Hesperomijs laucha groui> 
there is happily no doubt about the identification af the 
original species, Azara's " Laucha," as Mr, Perrens sent 
from Goya, Corrientes, specimens exactly agreeing with 
Azara's description. 

But I am now convinced that the larger form occurring 
in the same region — the largest of the genus as now re- 
stricted — cannot be identified with Rengger's Mus callosu»y 
as I had hitherto supposed, and iiceds a fresh determination'. 
Kengger's animal has too long a tail and too long ears, and^ 
owing to the extreme insufficiency of the description, it 
should probably be put aside as unidentifiable. Perhaps 
it was a common rat — to which Rengger compared it — or 
possibly a Reithrodon, a^enus in which the pads of the feet 
are more conspicuous than in Hesperumijs: In any case, 
however, the doubt is so great that a guesswork identification 
is of no use to anyone. 

The Goya Hesperomys seems to represent a Parana race of 
the Cordova H. venustus, and may be described as follows : — 

Hesperomys venustus caUidus, subsp. n. 

Fur not so long as in true venustus, hairs of back about 
i) mm. in length. General colour above greyish, very much 
the colour of Mus musculas, darker '' mouse grey " ante- 
riorly, more drabby posteriorly, but not so drab as in true 
venustus. Flanks with a slight wash of buffy, decidedly less 
marked than in venustus. Under surface pale grey, tiie 
liairs slaty basally, white or greyish white terminally. Ears 
large, appearing larger than in true venustus, rounded, brown 
anteriorly, greyish posteriorly, the usual postauricular white 
patch not very conspicuous. Hands and feet white. Tail 
shorter than head and body, thinly haired, pale brownish 
above, greyish white on sides and below. Mammae usually 
3—2=10. 

Skull stoutly built^ with broadly divergent supraorbital 
edges, which form well-marked ledges over the orbits, but 
not upwardly projecting beads ; the ledges in continuation 
with distinct ridges running across the parietals, 



Arc/entitie, Puftiifonutti, and Cape Horn MuiitUe. 16'.) 

DimcMision.s of tlic type fmcasiircd in flesh) : — 

Head and l)ody 115 mm. ; tail 77 ; liind foot 21 ; ear 18. 

Skull: <(reatest lenj^^th 29*2; condylo-incisive lenj^th 27; 
zygomatic Ijreadth 16 ; nasals 11*6 ; intcrorbital breadth 4'5 ; 
breadth of brain-case 13 ; palatilar length 12*8; palatal 
foramina 65 ; upper molar series 4"5. 

Hab. Goya, Corrientes. 600'. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 98. 12. 3. 12. Original 
number 100. Collected lOtli August, 1896, by R. Perrons. 
Presented by Oidfiekl Thomas. Fifteen specimens examined. 

This mouse may be distinguished from the true H.venustus 
of Cordova by its darker, less drabby colour, shorter fur, and 
apparently rather longer ears. 

" Common. Killed in maize-field." " Trapped in quinta/^ 
~-R. P. 

The Jujuy species, H. musculinuf! , is smaller, paler, with 
shorter hair, and has six or seven pairs of mammae. 

Of the smaller members of the group, the true H. laucha, 
Desm., is an animal with head and body about 70 mm., tail 
about 50, and hind foot 14-15 mm., as represented by the 
Goya speeimeas. And in the south of the Argentine Water- 
house's H. gracilipes is very closely allied to it; but I have 
not material for a ])roper comparison. 

IJct-vveen the two, however, in the Buenos Ayres and La 
Plata region, there occurs a mouse which I collected in some 
numbers in 1890 and supposed to be the same as the laucha, 
the natives even calling it by that very name. 

But comparison shows that it has a conspicuously longer 
tail, which nearly cr quite equals the head and body in length. 
It uiay be called 

Hesperomys muriUus, sp. n. 

General appearance very much as in Mus mvsculus. Size 
about as in H. laucha, though old individuals may attain a 
larger size. 

Colour mouse-grey above, slightiy more drabby poste- 
riorly, an inconspicuous buffy wash along the sides; under 
surface greyish white, the bases of the hairs slaty. Ears of 
inedium size, greyish brown, a well-marked postauricular 
M bite patcli present. Hands and feet white above; palms 
and soles naked. Tail about as long as the head and body, 
sometimes actually longer, but more commonly a few milli- 
metres shorter : grey-brown above, slightly darkening 
terminallv, whitish below. 

13* 



184 Mr. O. Thomas on 

Skull without marked supraorbital rido^es or ledges. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 72 mm. ; tail 72 ; hind foot IGS ; ear 13*5. 

Skull : greatest length 21 ; eondylo-incisive length 19-2; 
zygomatic breadth ITS ; iuterorbital breadth 33; palatilar 
length 8'8 ; palatal foramina 4*3 ; upper molar scries 3'4. 

An older specimen measures: — Head and l)0(ly91 mm. ; 
tail 85 ; hind foot 18; ear 15. Skull: greatest length 23*6; 
eondylo-incisive length 22'4. 

Hab. Province of Buenos Ayres ; type from La Plata City, 
other specimens from Las Talas, Ensenada, and Bahia Blanea. 

Type. Young adult male. B.M. no. 6. 4. 6. 26. Original 
number 148. Collected 8th June, 1896, and presented by 
Oldfield Thomas. Fifteen specimens. 

This mouse is readily distinguishable from H. laucha by 
its conspicuously longer tail, but is otherwise closely like 
that species. It is the only member of the restricted genus 
Hesperomys in which the tail is proportionally so long. 

Like the true laucha, this animal is not much of a burrower, 
but lives about in the grass, and examples may be easily 
obtained by kicking up loose heaps of hay, thistle-stalks, or 
other rubbish, under which the mice take refuge. One 
specimen I have marked as found under a heap of thistle- 
stalks, in a round nest, the size of a tennis-ball, made of 
thistle-down. Another was dug up, semi-torpid, in very cold 
w eatlier, from about 6 inches below the surface of the ground. 

There is also a AVestern form of the same species, which 
may be named 

Hesperomys murillus cordovensis, subsp. n. 

General characters as in true nmrillus of La Plata, but the 
colour paler and less saturate, the back nearly matching 
" drab " of Ridgway ; sides rather more buffy. Under sur- 
face more heavily washed with buffy whitish, the slaty bases 
of the hairs less evident. Colour of crown especially lighter 
and more drabby than in true murillus. 

Skull apparently with a more inflated brain-case than in 
murillus, but the number of fully adult specimens is not 
sufficient to prove how far this is constant. 

Dimensions of type : — 

Head and body 85 mm. ; tail 74; hind foot 16; ear 14. 
Another specimen measures: — Head and body 80 mm. ; 
tail 84 ; hind foot 17 ; ear 15. 

Skull : greatest length 23*2 ; eondylo-incisive length 21"5; 
breadth of brain-case 10 8; upper molar series 3*3. 



Ar>jcnt'tne^ Patagonian, and Cajfc Horn Miiiida\ 185 

Huh. Near \'illa Dolores, Cordova. Type from Yacanto, 
900 m. ; other specimens from El Carrizal, 1000 m. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 16. l.G. 21-. Original 
number 2537. Collected 17th Nov., 1915, by Robin Kemp. 
Presented by OldfieUl Thomas. Eight specimens. 



The Cape Horn Evneojits. 
Euneomys ultimus, sp, n. 

Allied to E. chinchilloides, but larger. 

General appearance about as in E. chinchilloides. Fur 
long and soft, hairs of back about 12-13 mm. in length. 
Colour apparently of the same dull greyish fawn as in chin- 
chilloides^ but all the available specimens arc or have been in 
spirit, by which the colour may have been affected. Under 
surface drab, the bases of the hairs slaty. Ears of medium 
length, greyish brown. Hands and feet thick and clumsy, 
with large palm and sole-pads •which nearly touch one 
another ; edges of feet lieavily fringed and the back of the 
soles hairy except along the centre; upper side of both hands 
and feet white. Claws of normal size, not enlarged as in 
E. fossor. Tail short, thick and fleshy, closely haired, 
markedly bicolor, brown above and white below. 

Skull and teeth quite like those of E. chinchilloides^ but 
larger and heavier in all dimensions. On the other hand, 
they are both smaller and lighter than in E. mordax and 
fossor. Upper incisors clearly and distinctly grooved. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the spirit-speci- 
men) : — 

Head and body 129 mm.; tail 90; hind foot 30; ear 19. 

Skull : upper molar series 6. 

Dimensions of adult skull in the Paris ^luseum : — 

Greatest length 33 mm. ; condylo-incisive length 30*5 ; 
zygomatic breadth 20-3; nasals 14- x 4*6; interorbital 
breadth 3"8; breadth of brain-case 14; zygomatic plate 3"2 ; 
diastema 9 ; palatilar length 15 ; palatine foramina 8'5 ; 
upper molar series 5'6 ; breadth of m^ \'7. 

Hub. Cape Horn Islands. Type from St. Martin's Cove, 
Hermite Island. Other specimens from Orange Bay, Hardy 
Peninsula, Hoste Island. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 43. 11. 16. 26. Collected 
in 1842 by Sir James Ross's Antarctic Expedition. 

This far southern species may be readily distinguished 
from the Magellan E. chinchilloides by its greater size and 
lieavicr teeth. 



ISO Mr. 0. Thomas on 

It was first obtained by tbe Autavotio Expedition of 
] 84 1-2 under Sir James Ross, and, later on, by tbe French 
(^ape Horn Mission, iu wbose Zoolou:y (AFuridae written by 
nivself) it is referred to as " Reithrudon c /i inch i I /aides." 1 
owe to the kindness of Prof. Trouessart tbe h)an again of tbe 
adult specimen 1 determined in 1890, and the transference 
by exchange of an immature example from tbe same 
locality. 

The original specimen was, imfortunately, ])ut in some 
])eeuliar preserving fluid, whicli has caused the skull, after 
extraction, to shrink in drying. Its size, however, before 
drying was quite tbe same as iu the French specimen, and its 
teeth are still unaflcctcd. 

The Obtzomts of the Extreme South of South America. 

When in 1881 I described '■'■ Hesperumys {Calomys) 
ro/jpiiigeri" no assertion as to the position of the type- 
localilies Cockle Cove and Tom Bay was made, but the 
stattnient on the labels that these places were in the Straits 
of Magellan was generally accepted, and influenced later 
determinations. Now, however, on finding that all other 
Oryzomys from the Straits region are referable to O. magel- 
hmicus, Benn,, including those from Orange Bay, Cape Horn, 
1 have thought it })robable that some mistake has been made. 
On examining Dr. II. W. Coppiuger's book, the "Cruise of 
the 'Alert/" 1883, it at once appears that Cockle Cove and 
Tom Bay arc not in Mhat is commonly called the Straits of 
^Magellan at all, but are in Trinidad Channel, at the north 
end of Madre de Dios Island, West Patagonia, in 50° S. lat. 

Since O. coppinyeri is so closely allied to O. vwyellanicus 
as practically to difl'er from it in nothing but its greater size, 
this location is far more natural than in the Straits, near the 
centre of the range of 0. mnyellanicus. 

The specimens obtained by tbe P'rench Transit of Venus 
Expedition of 1882—3, named bv me Hesperomys coppinycri, 
])r(;ve on re-examiiiation to be typical 0. mayetlanicus^ 
which is evidently common throughout this region. 

But a series from further north, in middle Patagonia, 
equally referable specifically to O. magellanicus, prove to have 
such uniformly longer tails as to deserve subspecific distinc- 
tion, as follows : — 

Oryzomys mayellunicus miztirus, subsp. n. 

Size and other characters quite as in true magellanicus^ 
bnt tbe tail averaging abfnit 130 mm. in length, in adults, as 
compared with about 110-115 in the more soutberii form. 



Atycnl'tne, PutaijoniaUj and Cape Horn Muritlje. 187 

Colour al)ove olivaceous lined with Ijlack, the rump with a 
(lull sull'iision of fulvous ; under surface dull greyish huH'y. 
In true magellunicus the colour is more rufous ; but as both 
of the only two availal)le skins have fornieriy been in sjiirit, 
I hclieve that they are discoloured, and that no real difterence 
exists. 

Dimensions of tlie type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 100 mm. : tail 131 ; hind foot 29 ; ear IG. 

Skull : greatest length 27*5 ; condylo-incisive length 2 1'5 ; 
iutcrorbital breadth 3 3 : upper molar s^eries 3'8. 

Hub. JSouthern Patagonia. Type from Koslowsky Vallev, 
46° S., 71° W., Central Patagonia. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 14.4.4.17. Collected 
17th October, 1903, by J. Koslowsky. Presented by the 
Buenos Ayres Museum. Other specimens received in 1903 
direct from Mr. Koslowski. 

Specimens from the Rio Chica, Upper Santa Cruz, 
measured by Dr. Allen, would appear to be intermediates 
between the two forms ; but I am inclined to think that, if 
only the fully adult specimens were included, the tail-length 
would be as in the Koslowsky form, which is but little 
further north in the same faunal area. 

On the other hand, aged specimens of true inagellanicus, 
from Orange Bay in the far south, have the tail at most 
115 mm. in length. 

The Cape Horn Akodon. 

As I have thus revised the determination of the Orange 
Bay Euneomys and Oryzomys, I have thought it worth while 
to re-examine the Akodon from the same locality, recorded as 
^'' Hesperumys {Habrothrix) olivaceus" in my paper of 1890*. 

As might be expected, this proves to be different from the 
Akodon olivaceus of Chili, and is clearly referable to 
A. xanihor/iimis, Waterh., of which it is, in fact, a topotype. 
Orange Bay being in the Hardy Peninsula, where Darwin 
caught the original example. A confusion in the labelling 
of Darwin's specimens, recently corrected by Dr. Allen, and 
a consequent misapprehension as to the size of adult xantho- 
rhinus, was a contributory cause of the wrong determination. 

* Thomas, in Milne-Edwards, Miss. Scieut. Cap Horn, vi., Zuol., 
Mamm. p. 28 (1890). The Murida; part of this work was written by lue, 
and nu'iely translated in Paris. Its niisdeterminations, some of whicli I 
lirtve now rectitied, are theref<ne not to be credited to my respcelt'd and 
i'rieudly ally, Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards. 



ISS ^Ii'. G. DoUman oh the African Shretos 



XV IT. — On the African Shrews helonffint/ to the Genus 
Crocidura. — VII. By Guv Dollman. 

[Concluded from vol. xvi. p. 514.] 



Group 19 (bicolor). 

Size very small. Colour above greyish, greyish brown, or cinnamon ; 
below silvery gi-ey or whitish. Skulls rather flattened. Fur very 
short. Second and third upper unicuspids about equal in size. 

(10 A) Crocidura bicolor, Boc. 
Crocidura bicolor, Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb. p. 29 (1889). 

A small, short-haired, greyish-brown species, with silvery- 
grey iindcrparts and a rather flat skull. 

General dimensions a trifle less than in allex. Fur, as in 
all tiie members of this group, very short; hairs of back 
only about 2-3 mm. in length. 

Colour above greyish brown (between " hair-brown " and 
" fuscous " speckled with pale greyish buff), greyer than in 
allex or alpina. Flanks a trifle paler, the colour passing 
i'airly abruptly into the silvery greyish white of the ventral 
surtace, the underparts being lighter ti)an in any of tlie 
preceding small species. Backs of hands and feet white. 
Tail fine ly haired, distinctly bicoloured, dark brown above, 
white below ; bristle-hairs numerous, greyish in colour. 

Skull small, equal in size to that of b. cuiiinghamei \ brain- 
case flatter than in alpina. Teetli small, especially the 
second and third upper unicuspids, which are about equal in 
size, the third slightly overlapping the second. 

Dimensions of the type (as given by Bocage) : — 

Head and body 53 mm. ; tail 42 ; hind foot 10 (s. u.). 

In the Museum Collection there is a series of specimens 
of bicolor from Caconda; the following are the flesh- 
dimensions of two of these individuals : — 





Head and body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


Ear. 




mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm, 


6. 


Caconda . . 65 


38 


10 


7 


2- 


. . 60 


42 


10 


7 



Skull-dimensions of ttvo Caconda specimens : — 
Condylo-incisive length 17-5, 17*2; greatest breadth 7*8, 7"8; 
least interorbital breadth 37, 3-6 ; length of palate 6*9, 6-7 ; 



belou(jinij tu the Genus Ciociilura. 189 

postpalutal length 8-.'2, 7*8 ; greatest maxillary breadth 5-1, 
o'.'J ; inediau depth of brain-case 42, .'V7 ; length of ui)per 
tooth-row 7'3, 7'3. 

Hah. Gambos, Mossamedes, Angola. 

Type in the Lisbon ^Museum. 

The short fur, greyer eolour, lighter nnderparts, and flatter 
skull distinguish this Angolan shrew from the East-Afi'iean 
a /lea' and ulp'ina. 

(105) Crocidura bicolor woosnami, subsp. n, 

A cinnamon-coloured race of bicolor. 

General proportions as in the Angolan form. Fur 
equally short. 

Colour of dorsal surface cinnamon-brown speckled with 
grey ; flanks cinnamon-brown, the transition to the light 
colour of the ventral surface quite sharp. Underparts slate- 
grey washed with -white. Backs of hands and feet white. 
Tail dull brown above, white below ; bristle-hairs white and 
ratlur incouspicnons. 

Skull of the same semi-flattened type as that of bicolor, 
but rather smaller. Teeth all a little smaller, but similar 
in shape ; second and third npper unicuspids about equal in 
size, cingula small. 

Dimensions of the type (preserved in spirit) : — 

Head and body 53 mni. ; tail 40; hind foot 10; 
ear G"o. 

Skull: condylo-incisive length 17; greatest breadth 7*8 ; 
least interorbital breadth 3'4 ; length of palate 7 ; post- 
j)alatal length 7'8 ; greatest maxillary breadth 5*3 ; median 
depth of brain-case 3*8 ; length of upper tooth-row 7'3. 

Hab. Lake Ngami. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 10. 6. 3. 80. Collected 
by K. B. AVoosnara, Esq. 

The rather lighter underparts, more sharply marked off 
from the cinnamon-brown flanks, and smaller skull distin- 
guish this Ngami race from true bicolor. 

(106) Crocidura bicolor hendersoni, subsp. n. 

Closely allied to bicolor, but rather larger in size and 
much richer in colour. 

Hind foot a little larger, measuring 11 mm. in length. 
Fur equally short. Colour of upper parts brownish butt" 
("sepia" mtxed with "fuscous," sprinkled with "neutral 



r.^0 Mr. G. Dollinan oi the African Sliretos 

grey"), very difTereut from the slaty colour of the Angolan 
species. Patches of the old worn coat^ which are still 
retained in this Nyasa specimen, are very much more orange 
in colour, about as in " tawny olive. ^' Undcrparts greyish 
white, as in biculur, not as white as in iroofinami. Backs of 
hands and feet rather darker, especially on their outer sides. 
Tail about equal in length and siniilar in colouring. 

bkuU badly broken, only the muzzle remaining intact. 
Upper unicuspids rather larger than in bicoloi; the third 
rather longer than the second. 

Dimensions of the type (taken from dry skin) : — 

Head ami body (stretclicd) 67 mm, ; tail 43 ; hmd foot 11. 

Skull : length from front of upper incisors to back of 
large premohir 5 mm. 

Hab. Nyasaland. Altitude 4010 feet. 

Type. Adult. B.M. no. 0. 7. 31. 1. Original number 4. 
Collected on ^lay 18th, 1900, by J. Henderson, Esq., and 
presented by him to the National Collection. 

(107) Crocidurn bicolor cuninghamei, Thos. 

CrociJura cuitlnyltmnei, Thomas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vol. xiv. 
!>. 240 (1904). 

A slate-brown coloured race of bicoloi', with duller undcr- 
parts and a rather Hatter skull. 

Size as in bicolor. Fur quite short, hairs on back 2-3 mm. 
in length. 

Colour dark slaty grey washed over with brown, the 
general efTect as in "sepia'' speckled with "neutral grey," 
considerably less brown than in allex or alpina. Belly 
dull grey, not sharply marked off from the browner upper 
parts. Backs of hands and feet whitish. Tail finely haired, 
brown above, dull white below ; bristle-hairs numerous, but 
very inconspicuous. 

Skull small, brain-case rather flatter than bicolor and con- 
siderably more so than in allex or alpina, and more parallel- 
sided. Teeth much as in bicolor, the third upper unicuspid 
overlapping the second to a rather greater extent. 

Dimensions of the type and tw o other specimens : — 



9 ( tvpt'i 


Head and body. 
Dim. 

m 


Tail. 

mm. 
40 
38 


Hind foot, 
mm. 
11 

icfs 


Ear. 
mm. 

7 


4- ^^J^l • ) 

r?. Kama I.. . . 
cJ. Kampala 


o5 

o<; 


5 
7-5 



helonjitKj to the Genus Croc'ulura. 191 

Skull of type: coiulylo-incisivc Iciif^th 17'Omni. ; greatest 
Lrcadth 7'H; least interorbital brcadtli t5'9 ; length of 
]»alate 7'4 ; postpalatal length 7*9 ; greatest maxillary 
breadth 54 ; median depth of brain-case 4 ; length of upper 
tooth-row 7'7. 

Hub. " Small uninhabited island one mile north of Sajitu 
Island, Vietoria Nyanza." 

7///^e. Adult female. B.^f. no. 2. 7. 5. 0. 

In addition to the type there are two further specimens 
of cuninyhamei in the collection, one from Kama Island, 
^'ictoria Xyauza, and the other from Kampala. 

(108) Crocidura bicolor elyonius, Osg. 

Crocidwn bicolor clgonius, Osgood, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) vol. v. 
p. 369 (1910)-. 

Rather smaller than cuninyhamei, greyer in colour and 
with smaller skull. 

Size rather less than in either hiculor or cuninyhamei, 
liind foot only 9 mm. in length. Fur as short as in the 
allied forms. Colour of dorsal surface much greyer, general 
effect between "fuscous'^ and " Chcetura drab," considerably 
less brown than cuninyhamei. Colour on sides gradually 
])aling and passing imperceptibly into the lighter grey of 
the belly. Lateral gland very small, marked by short white 
hairs. Backs of hands and feet darker, dirty brownish 
grey. Tail finely haired, dark sooty brown above, slightly 
paler below; bristle-hairs more conspicuous, grey throughout, 
not darker at their bases as in the Victoria Nyanza form. 

Skull smaller, e([ually flat, brain-case rather narrower. 
Teeth as in cuninyhamei, second and third upper unicuspids 
slightly smaller. 

Dimensions of type and topotype (J) (measured in the 
flesh) :— 

Head and body 52, 55 mm. ; tail 38, 44 ; hind foot 9, 9 ; 
car 8, 6. 

Skull of type : condylo-incisive length 16"7 ; greatest 
breadth 7"3.; least interorbital breadth 3'2 ; length of 
palate G'8 ; postpalatal length 8; greatest maxillary breadth 
4"8 ; deptii of brain-case 4 ; length of upper tooth-row 7'2. 

Hub. Kirui. Mt. Elgon. Altitude 6000 feet. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 10. 4. 1. 47. 

Tlie much more sooty coloration and smaller skull distin- 
guish this P^lgon race from the Lake form. 



192 Mr. G. Dolhuau on the African Shrews 



Group 20 (cinderelh). 

Size fairly small. Colour above cinnamon, below whitish. Skulls 
rather flat. Second and third upper unicuspids about equal iu size. 

(109) Crocidura Cinderella, Tlios. 

Crociditra Cinderella, Thomas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) vol. viii. 
p. 119 (1911). 

Size of body about as in flotceri described below, but tail 
sliorter aud hiud foot smaller. Fur rather sliort, but not as 
short as in the bicolor group, hairs of back 3-4 ram. in 
length. 

Colour above pale einuamon-grey, near " wood-brown " 
mixed with "drab" and speckled with "neutral grey/' the 
cinnamon tint passing rather abruptly into the light greyish 
white of the ventral surface; hairs of belly slate-grey, with 
■Nvhitish tips. Backs of hands and feet white. Tail of 
medium length, rather thick at base, thinly clad with short 
hairs, drab-grey above, paler below ; bristle-hairs numerous, 
evenly distributed throughout nearly the whole length of 
the tail. 

Skull rather larger than in jloweri and more heavily built, 
brain-case narrow and fairly flat. Teeth about as in the 
Egyptian species, the two small upper unicuspids equal in 
size. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 62 mm. ; tail -48 ; hind foot 11. 

Skull : condylo-incisive length 19' 7 ; greatest breadth 
82 ; least iuterorbital breadth 3'8 ; length of palate 8; 
postpalatal length 8*8 ; greatest maxillary breadth 5'9 ; 
median depth of brain-case 4*3 ; length of upper tooth- 
row 8-3. 

Hah. Gemenjulla, French Gambia. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 11. 6. 10. 13. 

The shorter and less hairy tail and smaller feet distinguish 
tills species from the Egyptian floweri, to which it would 
appear to be most nearly allied. 

(110) Crocidura floweri, sp. n. 

Larger than in the Incolor or nana groups, tail considerably 
longer, skull as flat as in bicolor. 

Size greater than iu bicolor or nana, the hind foot mea- 
suring from 12-13 mm. in length. Fur long, hairs of back 



belonging to the Genus CrociJura. 193 

from 4-5 mm, iu length, considerably longer than in 
bico/or. 

Colour (from spirit-specimens) of dorsal surface light 
cinnamon-brown, changing abruptly on the flanks into the 
white of the ventral surface ; hairs of belly with pale slate- 
grey bases and whitish tips. Backs of hands and feet dirty 
white. Tail very long, thinly clad with short hairs, cinnamon- 
colour above, white l)elow, distinctly bicolonred; bristle-hairs 
not numerous, entirely confined to the basal half, greyish 
white iu colour, and rather inconspicuous. 

Skull miich larger than in the other small Egyptian 
species, religiosa, but somewhat of the same flattened type, 
not so markedly however, the roof of the biain-case slightly 
convex, about as in bicolor. In size the skull is larger than 
iu any of the members of the bicolor or nana groups, nearly 
equalling in length that of Cinderella from the French 
Gambia. Teeth much larger than in religiosa, more as in 
the Gambia species ; second and third upper unicuspids 
almost equal in size, third slightly overlapping second. 

Dimensions of the type (in spirit) : — 

Head and body 57 mm. ; tail 58 ; hind foot 13 ; ear 8. 

Skulls of type and three topotypes : — 

c?(type). 6. 6. 2- 

mm. mm. mm. mm. 

Condylo-incisive length 19-2 18o 18 18 

Greatest breadth 84 8 78 7-8 

Least interorbital breadth 4 3-8 37 3-8 

Length of palate 7o 7-4 7-3 7-3 

Postpalatal length 8*9 84 8-3 8-3 

Greatest maxillary breadth .... o-6 6"3 6'2 5-4 

Median depth of brain-case. .. . 4"3 42 4'2 4'1 

Length of upper tooth-row .... 8'1 8 7-8 7-6 

Hab. Giza, Egypt. 

Tijpe. Adult male. B.M. no. 10.6.18.3. Collected by 
Captain S. S. Flower, and presented to the National Collec- 
tion by the Egyptian Government Zoological Service. 

This species would appear to be most nearly allied to 
Cinderella, from which it is distinguished by its longer and 
more bicolonred tail, larger hind feet, and rather shorter 
skull with larger brain-ease ; further, in Cinderella the 
bristle-hairs are distributed over nearly the entire length of 
the tail, while in floweri they are strictly confined to the 
basal half. All the members of the bicolor and nana groups 
are considerably smaller in size and have shorter fur. 



191 Mr. G. Dollman on (he Afrt'iun Shrews 



Group 2\ {jiana). 

Size small or very small. Colour above greyish or cinnamon, below 
jjrreyisli or white. Fur very short. Skulls exceptionally Mat. 
Second and third upper unicuspids about e:iual in size. 

(Ill) Crocidura nana, Dobs. 

Crotidura nana, Dobson, Ann. Sc Mag. Nat. Hist. ((3) vol. v. p. 225 
(1890). 

A very small slaty-browu coloured species, with a very 
flat skuli. 

Size considerably less than in the bicolor group. P\ir 
fairly short, hairs of back measuring 3-4 mm. in length. 

Colour of dorsal surface slaty brown (" neutral grey " 
washed with " Prout's brown"), flanks equally dark, the 
brownish-grey tint passing fairly abruptly into the greyish 
white of the veutral surface ; belly rather whiter than in the 
following race. Backs of hands and feet white. Tail finely 
haired, dull brown above, white below ; bristle-hairs nume- 
rous, whitish in colour. 

Skull very small and with the brain-case markedly flat- 
tened, mucii more so than in any of the bicolor group ; 
maxillary region rather narrow. Teeth A'cry small, third 
upper unicuspid a little broa^der than second. 

Dimensions of tiie type (from dried skin) : — 

Head and body 40 mm. ; tail 30; hind foot 85. 

Skull of specimen from Eyk, Somalilaud (the type-skull 
is too badly broken to be of any use for measuring pur- 
poses) : — 

Condylo-incisive length 16; greatest breadth 7; least 
interorbital breadth 3*2 ; length of palate G-J ; postpalatal 
length 7'4; greatest maxillary breadth 46; median depth 
of brain-case 3*2 ; length of upper tooth-row 6"8. 

Hah. Dollo, Somalilaud. 

Type. Adult. B.:\I. no. 90. 3. 6. 1. 

In the Collection there are two further specimens of this 
minute Somali shrew, both exactly like the type in general 
colour and dimensions. 

The small size, greyish-brown upper parts, whitish belly, 
and very small flat skull readily distinguish nana from all 
the preceding species. 



hp.Jonfjinn to the Genua Crocidiira. 195 



(112) Crocidnrii nunil/a, Thos. 

Crocidura n,viilla, Thomas, Ann. ^^c Mag. Nat. Hint. (8) vol. iv. p. 90 
(1909). 

Smaller and greyer than nana. 

Fur shorter, hairs of back only 2-3 ram. in length. Colour 
of dorsal surface slate-grey (rather paler than "Cluetura 
drab''); transition from slate-coloured flanks to whitish 
nndcrparts well defined ; belly rather greyer than in nana. 
Backs of hands and feet white. Tail finely haired, slaty 
brown above, white below ; bristle-hairs numerous, grey in 
colour. 

Skull smaller and with shorter brain-case than in nana, 
equally flat. Teeth rather smaller, second and third upper 
nnicuspids about equal in size. 

Dimensions of the type (taken from spirit-specimen) : — 

Head and body tl ram. ; tail 31 ; hind foot 8*2 ; ear G'3. 

Skull : eondylo-incisivc length 15'1 ; greatest breadth 6*8 ; 
least interorbital breadth 3; length of palate 6 1 ; post- 
palatal length 7; greatest maxillary breadth 46; median 
dei)th of brain-case 3'2 ; length of upper tooth-row 6'5. 

Ilab. Uganda (probably Entebbe). 

Type. Adult female (skinned from spirit). B.M. no. 
9. 7. 14. 1. 

This Uganda pygmy shrew is distinguished from the 
Somali nana by its smaller skull and more slaty colouring. 



(113) Crocidura pasha y sp. n. 

A very small cinnaraon-coloured species, with a smaller 
skull than either nana or nanilla. 

Size of iiead and body raeasured as rather larger than in 
nana ; hind foot 9 nira. in length. Fur quite short, hairs of 
back only about 2"5 ram. in length. 

Colour of upper parts pale cinnamon mottled with ^vcyy 
the resulting effect between "wood-brown" and "diab," 
much browner and less slate-coloured than in nana or 
nanilla, more as in the larger ivhitakeri from Maroeco. 
Flanks as brightly coloured as back, sharply contrasting 
with the pure white belly ; hairs of belly almost uniformly 
Mhite, only the extreme bases being grfyish, the general 
t'ff"cct much whiter than in ixana <jr /la/uila. Hacks of hands 
and feet whitish bufl'. Tail (inclv haired, cinnaiuun-browu 



l\)b Mr. G. Dollmun on the. African Shreios 

al)ovc. wliitish below ; bristle-hairs long and uumerous, 
white in colour. 

Skull smaller than in nanilla, of the same exeeptionally 
flattened type, sides of brain-case rather less parallel, more 
convex. Teeth smaller, second upper unicnspid a trifle 
smaller in horizontal section than the third, which slightly 
overlaps it. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 50 mm. ; tail 38; hind foot 9 ; ear 8. 

Skull of type and of a female specimen from Khartoum : — 
Condylo-incisive length 14* i, l-t'2 ; greatest breadth 6'6, 6*6 ; 
least interorbital breadth 3*1, 3 ; length of palate 5*7, 5"5 ; 
postpalatal length 6'7, 6'8 ; greatest maxillary breadth 4"3, 4 ; 
median depth of brain-case 2*9, 2*9; length of upper tooth- 
row 5*9. 5*9. 

Hnb. Atbara River, Sudan. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 8. 9. 22. 1. Collected on 
July 10th. 1908, by W. G. Percival, Esq., and presented by 
him to the British Museum. 

In the Collection there are two specimens, preserved in 
spirit, from Khartoum which undoubtedly represent this 
species ; the skull-dimensions of one of these individuals 
are given above. 

The pale cinnamon-coloured dorsal surface, sharply con- 
trasting with the almost pure white of the underparts, and 
smaller skull and teeth distinguish this handsome little 
shrew from nana, nanilla, and religiosa. 

(114) Crocidura glebula, sp. n. 

Closely allied to pasha, but rather darker in colour. 

Size about as in pasha ; fur equally short.. 

Colour of dorsal surface considerably darker and duller, 
between " hair-brown ^^ and "snuff-brown," speckled with 
"neutral grey''; flanks a little greyer, the brownish tint 
passing fairly abruptly into the greyish white of the ventral 
surface, but not nearly so sharply contrasted as in pasha. 
Underparts greyisli white, basal halves of hairs slate-grey, 
apicid portions whitish, the general effect much duller and 
greyer than in the Sudan species. Backs of hands and feet 
white. Tail finely haired, light drab-brown above, white 
below ; bristle-hairs slender and inconspicuous, but fairly 
numerous. 

Skull missing. 



helongiiifj to the Genus Crocitlura. 197 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 5(5 mm. ; tail 32 ; hind foot 1) ; ear 8, 

Hab. Zungeru, Northern Niireria. 

Tijpe. Female. B.M. no. 1. 7. 9. 1 L Original number 16. 
Collected and presented to the British Museum by Capt. II. 
Cock, R.A. 

In spite of the absence of tlic skull, there can be little 
douljt regarding the affinities of this shrew. The darker 
and duller-coloured upper parts and distinctly greyer belly 
distinguish it at once from pasha. The only other West- 
African species at all similar in general colour is Cinderella^ 
from the French Gambia, which may be easily distinguished 
by its larger size, longer tail, and much longer fur. 

(115) Crocidura religiosa, Is. GeoflT. 
Sorex religioaus, Is. Geoffroy, M^ni. Mas. xv. p. 128 (1827). 

In size about as in nana, but greyer in colour. 

Fur shorter than in nana, about like that of nanilla. 

Colour of upper parts dull drab-grey faintly washed with 
brownish, the general effect much as in " hair-brown, '^ 
considerably greyer than in nana, but not so slaty as in 
nanilla. Flanks rather paler, the tint gradually fading and 
passing imperceptibly into the light grey of the underparts ; 
hairs of belly with grey bases and greyish-white tips, on 
chin and throat rather lighter. Hacks of hands and feet 
white. Tail drab-colour above, whitish below ; bristle-hairs 
numerous, greyish in colour. 

Skull about equal in length to that of nana, quite as flat, 
the brain-case a trifle broader. Teeth similar. 

Dimensions (taken from spirit-specimens) : — 

Head and body. Tail. Hind foot, 

mm. mm. mm. 

Gizft 4o 36 9 

„ 49 40 y-r) 

Cairo 62 37 0-2 

„ 47 34 8-5 

„ 50 34 9 

„ 47 34 8-7 

Skulls of two adults: condylo-incisive length 158, 15'8; 
greatest breadth 7, 7; least interorbital breadth 3 2, 3*1 ; 
length of i)alate (/2, (V2 ; postpalalal length 7 4, 7 4 ; 
greatest maxillary breadth 4'9, 4*7 ; median depth of brain- 
case 3, 3 ; length of upper tooth-row 6*8, 68. 

Ann. ifc }fag. iV. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 14 



198 ^Ir. G. Dollman on the African Shrews 

llab. Egypt. 

This Egyptiau shrew is distinguished from nana by its 
shorter fur, rather duller and greyer dorsal surface, and 
niuch greyer iindcrpnrts. The Sudan species, pasha, is 
separated from reliyiosa by its much smaller skull, brighter 
colouring, and white ventral surface. The smaller size and 
more slaty colour at once distinguish nanilla from this species. 

(IIG) Crocidura lusitania, sp. n. 

Allied to nana, larger in size and with larger skull and 
teeth. 

Body and hind foot larger than in nana ; tail rather 
longer. Fur very short, hairs of back about 2'5 mm. in 
length. 

Colour (taken from spirit-specimens) of dorsal surface 
rather darker than in glehula, dull greyish cinnamon-brown, 
changing fairly abruptly on the flanks into the greyish 
white of the uuderparts. Chin and throat, backs of hands 
and feet, and lateral gland white. Tail long ; light brown 
above, whitish below ; bristle-hairs numerous and long, 
distributed over nearly the whole length of the tail, white in 
colour. 

Skull of the same flattened shape as in nana, brain-case 
broader, muzzle less slender. Teeth larger and heavier ; 
third upper unicuspid rather broader than second, but not 
markedly so. 

Dimensions of the type and topotype (spirit-speci- 
mens) : — 

Head and body 53, 53 mm. ; tail 43, 42; hind foot 10-6, 
10-5 ; ear 8, 7. 

Skulls : condylo-incisive length 16*9, 17 ; greatest breadth 
7'5, 7*4 ; least interorbital breadth 3"6, 3'2 ; length of 
palate 7, 7; postpalatal length 7'8, 8; greatest maxillary 
breadth 5*2, 5 ; median depth of brain-case 3*7, 3*6; length 
of upper tooth-row 72, 74. 

Hab. Trarza Country, Mauritania. 

Type. Adult male. * B.M. no. 13. 3. 7. 2. Collected by 
M. Audan. 

The larger size distinguishes this species from all the 
other members of the nana group. 

The Nigerian ylebula would appear to be its nearest 
relation ; it is probably also related to the Gambian 
Cinderella, which species possesses a larger and less flattened 
skull and more incrassated tail. 



I 



belonging to the Gemu Crocidura. 199 

Grounp 22 (dolichura). 

Size medium or very sraftU. Colour above dark brownish red, gi'eyi.sh, 
or blackish. Caudal bristle-hairs almost entirely absent. 

(117) Crocidura dolichura, Pet. 
Crocidura dolichura, Peters, MB. Akad. Berlin, p. -47.5 (1876). 

A fairly small species with very long tail^ caudal bristle- 
liairs almost entirely absent. 

Size of body small ; tail exceptionally long, about 80 mm. 
in length. 

Colour slate-grey above, gradually fading on the flanks to 
the greyish tint of the belly, which is only a shade lighter 
than on the back. Backs of hands and feet dirty white or 
brownish ; claws of fore and hind feet about equal. Tail 
very long, cylindrical, and appearing almost naked, but 
covered with very short brown hairs, rather darker above 
than below; caudal bristles almost absent, a few situated, at 
the extreme root of the tail. 

Dimensions of the type (as given by Peters) : — 

Head and body 63 mm. ; tail 80 ; hind foot 14 (c. u.) ; 
ear 9. 

Skull : length of upper tooth-row 7 9. 

Hab. Bonjongo, Cameroon s. 

In the ^Museum Collection there are two spirit-specimens 
from the Cameroons which may be referred to this species ; 
the following are the flesh-dimensions of these specimens : — 
Head and body 59, 60 mm. ; tail 84, 78 ; hind foot 13, 132 
(s. u.) ; ear 8, 8. 

The skull of one specimen having been taken out, it is 
possible to give the following dimensions : — 

Condylo-incisive length 20 ; greatest breadth 8*6 ; least 
interorbital breadth 4-2 ; length of palate 7*8 ; postpalatal 
iength 9*2 ; greatest width across maxillary region 5 7; 
median depth of brain-case 5 1 ; length of upper tooth- 
row 8-0. 

The skull is smaller than that of the following species; 
brain-case narrow and high, muzzle not tapering so suddenly. 
Teeth small, second and third u[)per unicuspids about equal 
in size and roughly circular in section, much broader than 
those oi muurisca ; cingula exceptionally prominent. 

Externally this shrew may be at once recognised by its 
extremely long and apparently hairless tail. The great 
length of the tail readily separates it from the other members 
of this group. 

14* 



200 INIr. G. Dolliuan on the African Shrews 

(118) Crocidura maurisca, Thos. 

Crocidura maunsca, Thomas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vol. xir. 
p. 239 (1904). 

A medium-sized species, chocolate-brown in colour, 
])Ossessing the cylindrical hairless tail so characteristic of 
this group ; skull small and tapering, uuicuspids very 
narrow. 

General body- pro portions much as in dollchura, tail 
markedly shorter. 

Colour above dull chocolate-brown, flanks slightly lighter, 
the brown tint gradually passing into the brownish of the 
ventral surface, which is slightly paler than the upper parts. 
Backs of hands and feet same colour as back ; the fore and 
hind claws subequal. Tail slender and cylindrical, long 
liairs present only at the extreme base ; brownish above and 
below. 

Skull small and narrow in front, tapering antei'iorly more 
markedly than in any other member of this group ; brain- 
case fairly broad and high, maxillary region narrow, muzzle 
slender and tapering to a sharp point. Teeth small, upper 
incisors very narrow, small uuicuspids longer than broad, 
oval in section, third slightly longer than second ; cingula 
prominent. 

Dimensions of the type (taken from spirit-specimen before 
skinning) : — 

Head and body 75 mm. ; tail GO ; hind foot 14*4 ; 
ear 10. 

Skull : condylo-incisive length 20*7 ; greatest breadth 9'2 ; 
least interorbital breadth 4"3 ; length of palate 8*.3 ; post- 
palatal length 9*2 ; greatest width across maxillary region 
(>'2 ; median depth of brain-case 5'4 ; length of upper tooth- 
row 91. 

Hab. Entebbe, Uganda. 

Type. Adult female. 13.M. no. 1 . 8. 9. 99. 

This species is known only from the type-specimen, and, as 
this was for a short period preserved in spirit, it is impossii)le 
to accept the general coloration of this individual as strictly 
normal. There can be no doubt, however, that it is a very 
dark-coloured species, both above and below. 

Tiie narrow tapering muzzle of the skull and small very 
narrow uuicuspids serve to separate maurisca from all tiie 
other members of this naked-tail group. 



hehnf/'nhj to the Genus Crocitlma. 2()1 

(119) Crocidura niobe, Tlios. 

Crocitlura niobe, Thomas, Ann. k Mng. Nat. Hist. (7) vol. .wiii. p. l.'JS 
(lyO(i). 

Sli;;]!!!)' smaller than maurisca', agrees in the almost entire 
absence ot" long bristles on the tail, but considerably greyer 
in colour, and possesses a shorter stouter sknll with broader 
uuicuspids. 

Size of body and hind feet rather less than in the Entebbe 
species. 

General colour dark slaty grey (varies from '* blackish 
brown (2) " to "blackish brown (2) ^' mixed with "clove- 
brown^'), indistinctly mottled with silvery grey. Under- 
jjarts slate-grey, rather lighter than in maurisca, only the 
extreme tips of the hairs tinted with light brown. Backs of 
hands and feet slate-brown, fore claws rather smaller than 
hind, lail long, slender, and cylindrical, long hairs present 
only on the basal portion ; uniformly blackish brown above 
and below. 

Skull less delicately built than that of maurisca^ stouter 
and slightly flatter ; muzzle blunter and less tapering, 
maxillary region rather broader. Teeth rather smaller, 
unicuspids broader, nearly circular in section, second rather 
smaller than and overlapped by third ; cingula well developed. 
The broad almost circular second and third unicuspids are 
very different from the narrow oval-shaped teeth oi maurisca. 
Cheek-teeth square-shaped. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 61 mm. ; tail 63 ; hind foot 13; ear 10. 

Skull : condylo-incisive length 20 ; greatest breadth 9*1 ; 
least interorbital breadth 4*5 ; length of palate 7'8; post- 
palatal length 9 ; greatest maxillary breadth 6*3 ; depth of 
brain-case 5*4 ; length of upper tooth-row 82. 

Hub. Ruwcuzori East. Altitude 6000 feet. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 6. 7. 1. 32. 

There are three specimens of this shrew in the collection, 
all from Ruwenzori, collected at altitudes between 6000 and 
7000 feet. 

The much broader and less tapering skull and broader 
unicuspids distiuguish this species from maurisca. 

(120) Crocidura bottegi, Thos. 

Crocidura botte</i, Thomas, Ann, Mas. St. Nat. Genova, (2) vol. xviii. 
(xxxviii.) p. 677 (1898). 

Much smaller than niobe, but possessing the same dumcd- 
shajjcd skull and bristlelcss tail. 



202 Mr. G. Dollman on the African Shreios 

In general dimensions more as in tlie nana group, body 
vcrv small. Fur long, hairs on back from 5 to 6 mm. in 
length. 

Colour (from spirit-speeimrn) dark brown above and 
below, the belly scarcely paler. Hands and feet equally 
dark. Tail long and slender, finely haired, dark brown 
above, a shade paler below ; bristle-hairs almost entirely 
absent, a few very short ones near the base. 

Skull in general build like that of niohe, but very much 
smaller; brain-case very high and rounded, the junction of 
ihe laml)doi(lal and sagittal sutures situated fairly far for- 
ward, as in niobe and the Hatter skull oifuniosa. luterorbital 
region very broad behind, narrowing in front rather abruptly. 
Maxillary region narrow. Teeth small, anterior upper 
incisors directed forwards in such a manner that they do 
not project dowuAvards below the level of the second incisors ; 
second and third upper unicuspids small, third a little 
broader than second. Cheek-teeth of the same square shape 
as in niobe, the last upper molar exhibiting the same 
characteristic form, the main grinding-area square-shaped, 
abruptly narrowing externally into a small lateral point. 
In length this skull is more as is found in the 7iana group, 
but its build is so different from the exceedingly flat skulls 
of nana and its allies that it is impossible to consider it in 
any way closely related. 

Dimensions of co-type (in spirit) : — 

Head and body 44 mm. ; tail 41 ; hind foot 10 7 ; 
car 7'3. 

Skull: condylo-incisive length 15"3 ; greatest breadth 7*3 ; 
least interorbital breadth 34 ; greatest posterior inter- 
orbital breadth 42 ; length of palate 6 ; postpalatal length 7 ; 
greatest maxillary breadth 4*3 ; depth of brain-case 4*4 j 
length of upper tooth-row G"3. 

Hub. BetAvcen Badditu and Dimb, near Lake Margharita, 
N.E. of Lake Kudolf. 

The co-type in the British Museum (B.M. no. 98. 2.5. 6) 
is an adult male. 

The minute size of this species immediately distinguishes 
it from all the other members of this group. The only 
])oiuts which it has in common with nana and its allies are 
the small size of the body and skull ; the high brain-case, 
square-shaped cheek-teeth, great posterior breadth of the 
interorbital region, and almost entire absence of caudal 
bristles show beyond doubt that it is most nearly related to 
niobe. 



helungdig to the Genus Ciocidura. 203 

(121) Crocidura monax, Thos. 

CroPiiliira mo7ui.i; Tboniae, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (^) vol. vi. p. 310 
(I'JIO;. 

Larger than maurisca with very much heavier and stouter 
skull. 

Size medium, hind foot between 15*5 and 17 mm. in 
length. 

General colour dark slaty, like that of niobe, hut rather 
darker and witiiout the mottled appearance (between 
"fuscous" and "fuscous black ^'). ilanks rather paler 
than back, the colour gradually passing into that of the 
ventral surface, which is a shade greyer and paler than the 
upper parts. Backs of hands and feet brownish, fore and 
hind claws about equal in size. Tail slender and cylindrical, 
long caudal bristles almost entirely absent, a few only at the 
base ; colour blackish brown above and below. 

Skull considerably larger than that of maurisca^ brain-case 
rather flat; maxillary region narrow, muzzle blunt. Teeth 
large, unicuspids with well-formed cingula, broad and 
rouglily circular in section, very difl*erent from the narrow 
oval-shaped teeth of maurisca ; third unicuspid slightly 
larger than and overlapping second. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 88 mm.; tail 66 ; hind foot 16"2 ; 
car 10. 

Skull : condylo-incisive length 24' 1 ; greatest breadth 
10'7 ; least interorbital breadth 5*3 ; length of palate 9'7 ; 
postpalatal length 10*8 ; greatest maxillary width 7'b ; 
median depth of brain-case 6'1 ; length of upper tooth- 
row 11. 

Hab. Rombo, Kilimanjaro. Altitude 5000 feet. 

Type. Old female. B.:\r. no. 10. 7. 2. 58. 

In addition to the type there are in the ^Museum Collection 
seven further specimens from Rombo, all remarkably 
uniform in general colour. The following are the collector's 
measurements of six of these specimens : — 

Head and body. Tail. Hind foot, 

mm. mm. nmi. 

6 . Rombo 87 62 16-2 

cJ. „ 88 61 lo-5 

<J. „ 91 65 17 

$. „ 81 62 16 

5 . „ 88 62 16o 

$. „ 83 64 15-5 

In general colour this species is slightly darker than 



204 ^Ii". G. DoUman oh the African Shreios 

n'lohe ; it may he distiiignislied at once by its larger size and 
very much iarircr and stouter skulL 



(132) Crocidura Uttorulis, IIclL 

Crocidunt liltora/is, Heller, Smith. Misc. Coll. vol. Iv. uo. 15, p; 5 
(1910). 

Allied to monax, darker and l:)rowner in colour. 

Size of hody and hind foot rather larger than in the 
Kilimanjaro species. 

Colour of dorsal surface rich sepia, considerably browner 
than the dark slaty pelage of monax ; underparts vaudyke- 
brown, the chin and throat suffused with grey. Hair every- 
where plumbeous at base. Backs of hands and feet rather 
lighter than back. Tail as in monax. 

Skull about equal to that of monax, rather narrower and 
with a slightly shorter tooth-row. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh, excepting 
the hind foot) : — 

Head and body 9G mm. ; tail 67 ; hind foot 17. 

Skull: condylo-incisivc length 2-1; greatest breadth 10; 
length of upper tooth-row 10. 

Hub. Butiaba, east shore of Albert Nyanza, Uganda. 

Type. Adult male. U.S. Nat. iMus. no. 1G4G42. 

This species is evidently very closely allied to monax, from 
which it may be distinguished by its browner and darker 
colour. 

(123) Crocidura ultima^ sp. n. 

Allied to monax, distinguished by its paler and browner 
colour and the large size of third upper unicuspid, as com- 
pared with the second. 

Size of body much as in monax. 

General colour reddish brown mottled with grey, effect 
very much as in " clove-brown " sprinkled with greyish 
buff, very different from the dark blackish-brown coloration 
of monax. Underparts rather greyer than upper, not dis- 
tinctly differentiated from the brownish tint of the flanks. 
Backs of hands and feet pale brownish buff ; claws of hind 
leet slightly larger than those of fore feet. Tail fairly long, 
covered with very sliort brownish hairs, the general effect as 
in monax ; colour reddish brown above and below, paler than 
in the other raemljers of this group ; caudal bristles almost 
entirely absent, a few near the base on the ventral surface. 

Skull slightly smaller than that of monax., of a very similar 



helon<ji)ig to the Genus Crocidiirn. 205 

build, broad with blunt muzzle. Teeth slijjhtly smaller ; 
sc(;()nd unicuspid con8J)icuou^^ly sniall'>r than and overlapped 
by third, circular in seetion with well-developed eingula. 

Dimensions of tlie type (measured in the tiesli) : — 

Head and body 90 mni. ; tail (VZ ; hind foot IG ; ear 13. 

Skull : eondylo-mcisive length 22"9 ; greatest breadth 
10'2 ; least interorbital breadth 5*3 ; length of palate 9'3; 
postpalatal length 10 ; greatest maxillary breadth G"8 ; 
leiiirth of U[)i)er tooth-row 10*2. 

Hub. Jombeni Range, Nyeri District, British East Africa. 
Altitude 5000 feet. 

7y/>e. Adult. B.M. no. 12. 7. 1. GO. Original number 
8G8. Collected and presented by A. Blayney Percival, Esq. 

This Jombeni form may be distinguished at once from 
monax by the great difference in size between the second 
and third upper unieuspids, the third being very much 
larger and considerably overlapping the second, while in 
mouax the third unicuspid is only slightly larger than the 
second. 

(124) Crocidura neavei, Wrought. 

Croculiira neavei, Wrougbton, Manchester Memoirs, vol. li. no. 5, p. 7 
(19U7). 

In size rather larger than maurisca, but much blacker in 
colour and possessing a flatter skull with rather broader 
teeth. 

Size of body and hind foot a little larger than in 
i7iaurisca. 

General colour very dark seal-brown (dark " fuscous 
black" finely speckled with "cinnamon-brown'^), fading 
gradually on the flanks into the brownish grey of the ventral 
surface. Backs of hands and feet brownish ; fore claws 
rather smaller than hind. Tail long and clothed with short 
blackish hairs above and below, general appearance as naked 
as in the foregoing species; long caudal bristles only present 
on the basal portion. 

Skull about equal in size to that of maurisca, with flatter 
brain-case ; maxillary region more expanded, muzzle not 
tapering so markedly. Tooth-row equal in size to that of 
maurisca, second and third upper unieuspids rather broader, 
but not so broad as in dolichura; einguia well developed. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 
Head and body 78 mm. ; tail 60; hind foot 16; ear 9. 

Skull: condylo-incisive length 20'7; greatest breadth 
8-8; least interorbital breadth t-7 : length of palate 8-2 ; 



20t) Mr. 0. Doll man on the Afri'cxn Shrews 

postpalatal length 9*5 ; greatest maxillary brcadtli CrA- ; 
median depth of brain-case 4*9 ; length of upper tooth- 
row 91. 

Hab. Kafue River, Northern Rhodesia. Altitude 4000 
feet. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. B.M. iio. 7. 1. 11. 12. 

Since this species was described Mr. Ncave has collected 
a second specimen of this interesting shrew on the Kalung- 
wisi River, east of Lake Mweru. It agrees very closely with 
the type in the general colour and the caudal characters 
described above. 

The very dark blackish colour readily sejiaratcs this form 
from all the more northern species ; it would seem to be 
more nearly allied to the folli)wing species than to any of 
the other members of this group. 



(125) Crocidura sylvia, Thos. & Schw. 
Crocidura sylvia, Thomas & Schwann, P. Z. S. xxxix. p. 687 (190G). 

A very dark-coloured species with rather more long hairs 
on the basal portion of the tail than in the other members 
of this group. 

Size of body and hind foot as in maurisca ; tail usually 
rather shorter. 

General colour dark seal-browu ("fuscous black" and 
" black " sprinkled with golden buff), as dark as in neavei ; 
underparts slightly paler. Backs of hands and feet brownish ; 
claws of fore and hind feet about equal in size. Tail 
shorter than in neavei or mowW^cfl and more hairy, the entire 
tail covered with fairly conspicuous black hairs, not, as in 
the other members of this group, appearing almost naked; 
caudal bristles very slender, but fairly numerous on the 
ba>sal portion of the tail, more conspicuous than in any of 
the allied species. As regards the length of the tail it will 
be seen from the figures given below that, while the usual 
length is between 53 and GO mm., there is one rather larger 
specimen from Inhambaue in which the tail is fully Q7 mm. 
in length ; it is interesting to note that in this individual 
the tail is less hairy than in the Zoutpansberg series and the 
caudal bristles less numerous — the general effect much more 
that of neavei. 

Skull rather longer than that of maurisca^ with broader 
muzzle, the nasal region about as in neavei; brain-case 
proportionally narrower and rather high, the general shape 



belonging to the Oenus CrociJura. 207 

of tlie skull rather like a larger edition of dolichura. 
ISFaxilhiry breadth as {^rcat as in neavei. Teeth larj^cr and 
broader than in maurisca, iinieuspids roughly cireular in 
shape, slightly broader than those of neavei; ciugula fairly 
prominent. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 
Head and body 81 mm. ; tail 53 ; hind foot 15; ear 8'5. 
The following arc the skin-dimeusions of the other 
specimens of sylvia in the collection : — 

Head and body. Tail. Hind foot. Ear. 

mm. mm. mm. mm. 

$. Zoutpansborg 84 50 14-5 8 

$. „ .... 78 61 14-7 8 

6. „ .... 76 49 14 8 

6- „ .... 74 64 14-7 8 

6- „ .... 82 60 15 9 

cf. „ .... 81 60 17 8 

d . „ 78 54 15 8 

$. Zululnnd..: 91 58 14 

J . luhambaue 90 07 16 9 

Skull-dimensions of the type and two other specimens 
from the type-locality : — 

cJ (type). d- 6- 

mm. mm. mm. 

Condylo-incisive length 21-5 22 21-3 

Greatest breadth 91 9-2 9-2 

Least interorbital breadth 43 45 4'6 

Lenirtli of palate SO 9 87 

Postpalatal length 9-9 9'9 9-5 

Greatest maxillary breadth 67 67 63 

Length of upper tooth-row 9-1 9'4 9*2 

Hub. Woodbush, Zoutpansberg District, N.E. Transvaal. 
Altitude 4500 feet. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 6. 4. 3. 10. 

This species may be distinguished from the other members 
of this group by its more hairy and rather shorter tail ; 
its very dark colour separates it from all the equatorial 
forms, neavei from the Kafuc River being the only species 
as dark as sylvia. 

The following forms I have been unable to determine : — 



(a) Crocidura feiTuginea, Ileug. 

Crocidura fen'uginea, Heuglin, Nov. Act. Ac. Goes. Leop.-Carol. 
part i. p. 36 (1865). 

Length of head and body 5" 3'" ; tail 2^". 



208 On (he African Shrexos helonglng to Croclduia. 

Hah. '' Laiulc dcr Ridj-Xcj^cr," Baliv-cl-Gliazal. 

The description is extremely vague, the author not being 
quite eertain as to uhether tlierc are three or more u|)[)er 
unieuspids. If tlic specimen was really a Crocidura it is 
l)ossible i\\&t feiruginea is a member of the nyansce or doriana 
groups. 

(b) Crocidura fitsco-niurinci, Heug. 

Sorex fitsco-nm7-mus, Heuglin, Nov. Act. Ac. Cses. Leop.-Carol. part i. 
p. 36 (1865). 

Smaller than sericea, but not as small as in the nana 
group; length of head and body 2" 2'" ; tail 1" 9^'". 

" Supra nitide fusco-muriuus, subtus pallidior, magis 
cinerasccus ; mento labiisque obsolete albis ; auriculis 
majuseulis, latis^ rotundatis . . ." 

Hub. ]\Icslira el Req, 13ahr-el-Ghazal. 

This species is probably allied to butleri, from which it is 
easily distinguished by its general dimensions. 

(c) Crocidura viarius, Is. Geoff. 
Sorex viarius, Is. Geoffroy, Voj. Bt5l.,Zoul. p. 127 (1834). 

A small species ; the only Senegalese shrew of similar 
size in the Museum Collection is a L'achijura. 

" Pelage d'un roux giisatre en dessus, d'un cendre clair 
en dessous. Oreilles grandes, non cachees dans les poils. 
Queue un peu comprimde dans sa premiere portion, arrondie 
vers son extremite, garnie de longues soies elair-semees, 
dirigees en arriere. Longueur du corps et de la tete, un 
pen plus de 3 pouces; longueur de la queue, 2 pouces." 

Hab. Senegal. 

(d) Crocidura infumata^ Wag. 

Sorex infumatus, Wagner, Schreb. Saug. Suppl. ii. p. 76 (1841). 

From the dimensions and colour it seems most probable 
that infumata is related to the hirta group, possibly to 
Jlavidula or pondoensis. 

Length of head and body 3" 1'" ; tail 1" 9^'". 

Hab. Cape. 

(e) Crocidura fulvaster, Sund. 

S'jrex fulvaster, Sundevall, Vet. Akad. Handl. Stock, pp. 172 & 178 
(1842). 

This form is described as " palide griseo-f ulvescens, subtus 
cinereo-albus, dentibus intermediis supra 3 ; secuudo tertio- 
que aqualibus.'^ 



Bibliographical Notice. 209 

Dimru'^ions of the tyj)C (as pjiven by Suiulcvall) : — 

Head aiul body 90 mm. ; tail ti ; luiul foot (c. u.) 13. 

Hah. Balir el Abia<l. 

Tt seems probable that fulvaster is only a colour-phase of 
Sundevairs sericea ; if this should be the case, the name 
fulvnster must stand owing to page priority, sericea and 
strauchii then being placed as synonyms o( fulvaster. 

(f) Crocidura macrodun, Dobs. 

Crocidiira macrodon, Dobson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Ilist. (G) vol. v. p. 226 
(18iH)). 

A medium-sized species. 

Colour not described. 

Skull with long anterior incisors, third upper uiiicuspid 
broader than second. 

Dimensions of the type (as given by Dobson) : — 

Head and body 08 mm. ; tail 10 ; hind foot 11 ; car 8*5. 

Skull : '• distance of the tip of first incisor from apex of 
principal cusp of the last premolar 5^." 

Hab. "Sudan?'' 

Type (in spirit). No. 1908. Zoological Museum, Petro- 

It is probable that this shrew is allied to i\\e fumosa group, 
but from the description alone it is impossible to arrive at 
any true idea of the affinities of the species. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

Manual of the New Zealand Molhisca. Atlas of Plates. By H. 
ScrER. Published by the Authority of the Government of Now 
Zealand. 72 Plates, with Explanations. 

When reviewing the text of this work in our number for July 1914 
we expressed the hope that the plates, when they arrived, would 
prove superior to the text in "get up." 

This we are now glad to be able to state is the case. Not that 
the whole of the seventy-two plates composing tliis Atlas are of 
equal merit — some are decidedly poor, and the figures based on 
photographs leave much to be desired. On the other hand, the 
reproductions of the author's own careful drawings of the Endo- 
donts are excellent. In all cases, however — and this is tho 
important point, — the species delineated are clearly recognizable, 
■which, alas I is often not the case in some quite beautifully executed 
plates whore artistic licence has been taken witli the subjects. 



210 Oeologtcal Sociefy. 

With this Atlas before lis wc are more thau ever sure, as wo 
eaid, that the work will be of immense value, not onlj- to students 
of the Xew Zealand MoUusea, but to all raalacologists. Would that 
other governing bodies, including some not far removed from home, 
could be induced to undertake similar works of scientitic utility ! 



niOCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

November 17th, 1915.— Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

Mr. Jony Paekinson gave an account (illustrated by specimens 
and lantern-slides) of some observations on the Structure of 
the Northern Frontier District and Jubaland Provinces 
of the East Africa Protectorate, made by liim while 
conducting a water-supply survey for the Government of the 
Protectorate. A floor of gneisses and schists, among which the 
Turoka Series of metamorphosed sediments was found at several 
places, is overlain on the western side by lavas, including those 
aiising from the volcanoes Kulal, Assi (' Esie ' of the maps), Hurri, 
Marsabit, etc., and by probably older lava-fields which together 
extend as far as long. 39^ E. On the south, it was found that 
the lavas north of Kenya reached the Guaso N}di-o, leaving 
' inselberge ' of the crystalline rocks in their midst, but that a 
high gneiss country extended north-westwards from lat. 1° N. 
and long. 38° E. to within a short distance of Lake Rudolf. 
Eastwards the Coastal Belt of sediments jn-oved to be of L^pper 
Oxfordian age and to extend to long. 40|° E. (west of Eil Wak), 
and these were lost southwards under the great alluvial plain of 
Jubaland. 

At inten-als throughout the alluvial plain and lying in hollows 
in the Jm-assic rocks, disconnected exposures were found of soft 
calcareous sandstones or limestones (Wajhir, Eil Wak), the age of 
which cannot now be definitely fixed. 

Evidences of the desiccation of the country were, it was thought, 
shown (1) by the Laks or water-channels chai-acteristic of Juba- 
land, which contained surface-water only during the rainy season 
and then extremely rarely, if ever, tliroughout their length ; 
(2) by the presence of freshwater molluscs in the scarcely con- 
solidated beds of such Laks and at other places where now no 
surface-water is present (Buna and near the Abyssinian frontier) ; 
and (3) by the presence of wells along fault-lines and in other 
places where, but for the previous presence of springs, it appears 
improbable that the natives would have begun sinking. 

The region between Lake Rudolf and Marsabit was pointed out 



Geological Society. 211 

as one of exceptional interest, which the speaker luid so far not 
been able to investigate. 

The Jej)ression between the Mathews and associated ranges and 
the Abyssinian frontier on which the Marsabit and Hurri volcanoes 
were situated, and the origin of the Kuroli Desert (Elgess), were 
the outstanding features of the district that recpiired further 
elucidation. 



^Ir. G. C. Crick stated that the Cephah)poda submitted to him 
by the Lecturer consisted chiefly of crushed ammonites from dark- 
grey shales at Kukatta on the Juba Kiver (hit. 2° 8' N.), there 
l)eing also a belemnite preserved in a yellowish-brown rock-fragment 
from Serenli on the same river and somewhat north of Kukatta. 
He reg-arded all the ammonites as referable to Perisjyhinctes and 
its section Vir(jatosphinctes, and to species which had previously 
been described from the neighbourhood of Mombasa. From this 
assemblage of fonus he concluded tliat the shales at Kukatta were 
of Upper Oxfordian (Sequanian) age. He stated that the belemnite 
from Serenli indicated the presence there of a slender suleate form, 
similar to those previously recorded from British Somaliland on the 
north and from the neighbourhood of Mombasa on the south ; but, 
although of Jui-assic age, it was too imperfectly shown in the 
rock-fragment for accurate determination. 



Mr. R. BuLLEiT NEWTOJf said that he had examined a small 
series of non-marine Kainozoic moUuscan remains belonging to 
recent species, and associated with hard and soft limestones, 
calcareous sandstones, and conglomerates, which had been collected, 
by the Lecturer, and had determined them as follows : — 

Ampullakijl otata (?) Olivier. Locality. — Lak Buna. 
Distribution. — Recent: Victoria Nyanza, Tanganyika, Nile; 
Post-Pliocene: Egypt; Miocene: Victoria Nyanza. 

Melama TUBERCULATA (Miiller) (= atrvieosfa Deshayes). 
Localities. — Ai'cher's Post; Lak Buna ; Chikali Khofu. 

Distribution. — Recent: Nile, Rudolf, Nyasa, Tanganyika, 
India, etc.; Post-Pliocene: Egypt and Sahara; Pliocene: 
•Ij;ike Assal, French Somaliland (formerly regarded as Abyssinia) ; 
Miocene : Rudolf (Omo River), Greece, North Italy, etc. 

Cleopatra bulixioides (Olivier). Localities. — Lak Buna; 
Chikali Khofu. 

Distribution. — Recent: Nile, Rudolf, French Somaliland, 
Zanzibar; Post-Pliocene: Egypt; Pliocene: French Somali- 
land; Miocene: Victoria Nyanza. 

Bytui>'IA and Plaxorbis spp. Locality. — AVaihir. 



, 



212 Oeological Society. 

LiMicoLABiA BECTISTKIGATA E.A.Smith. Lociilitv. — Archer's 
Post. 

Distributio n . — R e c e n t : Rudolf and Tanganyika regions. 

RuACiris KiiODOT.EXiA Martcns. Locality. — Chukali Ghofu. 
Distribution. — Recent : Victoria Nyanza and Mount Kenya 
plateau. 

Leptospatha spathulifoemis (Bourguignat). Loc alities. — 
Turbi and Lak Buna. 

Distribution. — Recent: Rudolf and Zanzibar. 

CoRBicULA FLUMiXALis (Miiller) (= saharica Fischer). 
Localities. — Turbi; Lak Buna and Chukali Ghofu. 

Distribution. — Recent: Nile, Rudolf, Marguerite, and 
Abyssinia; Post- Pliocene : Egypt and Sahara; Pliocene: 
French Somaliland ; Miocene: Rudolf (Omo-River beds). 

CoRBicuLA EADiATA {=pusilla?) Philippi. Locality. — 
Chukali Ghofu. 

Distribution. — Recent: Nile, Rudolf, Victoria N^'^anza, 
Albert Edward, Nyasa, Tanganyika; Post-Pliocene: Egypt; 
Pliocene: French Somaliland; Miocene: Rudolf (Omo-River 
beds). 

No vertebrates occurred with these shells, hence their age would 
probably be younger than the Omo-River deposits north of Lake 
Rudolf, that have yielded a somewhat similar molluscan fauna, 
but with the addition of Dlnotherium and other vertebrate remains. 
The presence of that genus, as pointed out by Dr. Haug (' Traite 
de Geologic' 1908-11, vol. ii, p. 1727), was indicative of the 
Pontian or L'pper Miocene Period. There are, however, some 
lacustrine beds near Lake Assal, in French Somaliland (formerly 
regarded as Abyssinia), which contain shells also bearing a resem- 
blance to those collected by Mr. Parkinson in British East Africa, 
especially Melania tnherculata, Cleopatra bulimoides, Corhicula 
Jluminalis, and C. radiata, which are common to both sets of 
deposits. These Lake Assal beds, which are also without vertebrate 
remains, have been identified b}- Aubiy (Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 
sen 3, vol. xiv, 188-5, pp. 206-209/, and Pantanelli (Atti Soc. 
Toscana Sci. Nat. Proc.-verb. vol. v, 1887, pp. 204-206, and ihid. 
vol. vi, 1888, p. 169) as of Pliocene age. If, from these facts, such 
widely distant beds can be recognized as contemporaneous, then 
the suggestion may be made tliat the northern half of British East 
Africa was probably an extensive freshwater region during Pliocene 
times, limited on the north by Lake Assal, on the east by Suddidima, 
on the south by Archer's Post and the Mount Kenya plateau, and 
on the west by Lakes Rudolf, Stefanie, and Marguerite. 

Assistance in the determination of these shells had been kindly 
rendered bv Mr. E. A. Smith. I.S.O. 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF iNATUlUL IIISTORV. 

[KIGHTH SI<:RIES.] 
No. 99. MARCH 1916. 



XVIII. — Brief Descriptions of new Thysanoptera. — VII. 
By Richard S. Bagnall, F.L.8. 

Suborder T t: H E B K A N T i A. 

Family Thripidae. 
Ileliothrips frontalis, sp. n. 

H. hcemorrhoidalis groiij). 
? . — Length about 1"15 mm. 

Head, prothorax. pteiothorax, and apex of abdomen golden- 
brown, shaded to brown laterally; frons brown; legs yellow, 
femora slightly deeper in coloration than the tibiae, especially 
the intermediate pair. Body, excepting apex, chestnut- 
brown, with a sublateral pair of black rings or " eye-spots" 
on tergites 3 to 7. Antennas broken in the unique specimpn 
except the first two joints, which are light yellow. Foro-wing 
clouded with yellowish-brown at base and with the veins in 
the third sixth (or more) and the fifth sixth dark brown ; 
veins otherwise except at extreme apex (distal sixth), where 
they are colourless, yellowish to light yellowish-brown. 

Head subquadrate, strongly reticulated, about 0"8 as long 
as broad across eyes ; cheeks very slightly arched behind 
eyes, and then as faintly sinuate or convergent posteriorly. 
Eyes small, only occupying about one-tliiid the length of 
the head, and the space between them at least 2'5 times the 
width of one of them. Antennas .... Vertex produced 
Ann. d' Mag. X. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 15 



214 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thijsanoptera. 

into an exceptionally prominent iiunip, witli anterior ocellus 
facing forwards at sununit and the posterior pair evidently 
flanking the sides. 

Prothorax only about 0*7 the lengtli of the head, transverse, 
with angles rounded ; widest near posterior angles, where it 
is twice as wide as long ; surface with network reticulation 
as in head, except a belt across disc. Pterothorax widest at 
junction of nieso- and nietathorax. Legs much as in allies, 
iiind-tibite long, slender basally. Wings reaching to sixth 
abdominal segment, fore-wings slightly upturned distally, 
with veins (including marginal) strong ; upper vein fused 
with costa ; lower vein joining the hind-margin at or just 
before the distal sixth. Costal fringe o£ about fifteen curved 
setfe; lower cilia also sparse, fuinate, rather long, slender, 
and wavy. 

Abdomen comparatively heavy, elongate-ovate, and about 
1*4 times as broad as the pterothorax at broadest. Tenth 
abdominal segment long, more than twice as long as broad 
near base, divided above. Apical setaj vestigial, a pair on i), 
at hind angles, only about 0'3 the length of segment 10. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Hah. Australia, Healesville, Victoria ; on Senecio du- 
i/ardeus, 1 ? only (i?. Kelly) . 

Genus AUSTRALOTHRIPS, nov. 

Strong network reticulation. Antennae 8-segraented, style 
normal, not setiform ; joint 2 quadrate, cup-shaped, hollow 
at apex for reception of 3. Head transverse, hind-angles 
prominent ; eyes prominent ; maxillary and labial palpi 
3- (?) and 2-jointed respectively. 

Prothorax without any prominent sette, transverse, with 
lateral, explanate, wing-like margins. Wings straight, not 
reticulated ; fore-wing with strong ring-vein, upper vein 
merged in costa, and lower vein appearing as a median vein ; 
no cilia or setai on costa, no seta3 on veins, and lower margin 
with cilia fine. Hind-wing with strong median vein ; a 
series of slender setfe or cilia on upper margin and a long 
slightly wavy fringe on lower margin. 

Tenth abdominal segment short, broad, cylindrical. 

Pterothorax and abdomen much as in Rhipiphorothrips. 

Type. Australothrips bicolor, mihi. 

Differs from Dinwothr'ips, the only other genus with 



Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thysanoptera. 215 

explaiiate lateral margins of tlie protliorax, in the simple 
iinteiiiial style aud the structure ot" tbre-wiiigH, which are 
without seta9 aud cilia on the costa. 



Australothrips bicolor, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 1*1 mm. 

Orange-yellow ; head, protliorax, mesothorax, scutular 
area, and sides of metathorax dark chestnut-brown ; tore and 
intermediate femora dark brown ; hind-femora and fore and 
intermediate tibia3 lightly tinged with brown. Antennce with 
joint G apically and style brown; first joint lightly tinged 
with brown. Scale ot" tore-wing, small patch ailjoining, and 
mid- vein and cilia of hind-wing brown. 

Head about 1"8 times as broad as long, cheeks slightly 
converging, and hind angles prominent ; network reticulation 
of surface strong, especially below an arcuate raised line 
behind eyes. Eyes prominent, space between them about 
twice the width of an eye. Vertex sinuate on each side of 
raised part, having the antennto, which are twice as long as 
the head, seated in the sinuations. First aiitennal joint 
short; second quadrate, with distal cup-shaped hollow for 
reception of 3 ; 3 long, claviform, constricted at apex ; 4 and 
5 cylindrical, with minute stem, and 4 also narrowly con- 
stricted at apex ; 6 broadest basally ; 7 and 8 together styli- 
lorm, aud the relative lengths and breadths as follows : — 

16 •■ 34 : 48 : 28 : 24 : 22 : 8 : 13 

20 : 30 : 16 : 17 : 17 : 14 : 7 : 5 ' 

Prothorax as long as or only slightly longer than the head, 
and (excluding the lateral explanate margins) as broad as 
the head. Legs comparatively short and stout. 

Posterior margins of abdominal tergites with more or less 
regularly placed, minute, blunt projections ; setae on segment U 
short and those on 10 very short, colourless. 

(^ . — Smaller, more slender. Lemon-yellow where orange- 
yellow in ? . Tergite 8 set with four long and rather stout 
spines set on an arcuate series of tubercles. 

Ti/pe. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Hub. Australia, Healesville, Victoria; on Eucalijplas 
vuninulis (U. Kelly). 

lo* 



21G IMr. R. S. Bagnall on neio Thysanoptera. 

Tceniothrips major y sp. n. 

? . — Leripjth about 2*0 mm. 

Colour dark cbestuut-browu ; fore-tibise, hind-tibife basallj, 
all tarsi, and third autennal joint not quite so dark. Fore- 
wings brown, slightly lighter distally. 

General form as in T. inconsequens (Uz.). 

Head almost as long as broad ; eyes bulging, coarsely 
facetted, pilose ; cheeks swelling out from behind eyes as in 
T. priniulce and inconsequens. A series of dorsal and lateral 
setje on a line behind eyes. Ocelli large ; a pair of very long 
and strong inter-ocellar bristles situated between the posterior 
ocelli ; a shorter pair on vertex close to inner margins of 
eyes and beyond the anterior ocellus, which is directed 
forwards. Dorsal surface transversely striate in basal half 
or thereabouts. Anttmnje long and slender, about 2'3 times 
the length of head ; joints 3 and 4 fusiform ; relative lengths 
of joints:— 16 : 22 : 40 (with stem) : 36 : 25 : 32 : 4 : 5 ; 
forked trichomes on 3 and 4 long and slender. 

Prothorax transverse, not quite as long as the head ; 
broadest at posterior angles ; bristles at posterior angles long 
and slender; a line demarcating posterior margin ; a pair of 
longish mid-dorso-lateral setre, and several short setae, curved 
and chiefly lateral. Pterothorax large. Wings long, strong, 
pointed at apex, reaching to ninth abdominal segment ; setae 
slender. Fore-wings with three or four setie on distal half 
of upper vein, namely, one just within the distal half and 
1-fO + l or 1 + 1 + 1 in the distal fifth or thereabouts. 

Abdomen elongate, pointed at apex from base of segment 8 ; 
apical bristles long, especially those on 9, which is also 
furnished with a pair of shorter dorsal bristles. 

This is a true Tceniothrips, coming nearest inconsequens 
{pyri), from which it differs chiefly in the much larger size 
and darker coloration, the chaetotaxy, and in the slender 
antennae. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Hah. India, Kulhara, Garhwal, 11,700 feet altitude ; in 
flowers of rhododendron, 5. vi. 10, together with Physothrips 
longiceps, sp. n. {A. D. Imms). 

Tceniothrips inconsequens, Uzel. 

1895. Physopus inconseqtiens, Uzel (and others). 
1904. Euthrips ptjri, Daniels (and others). 

For some time I have considered that the well-known 



Mr. R. S. BagmiU on new Thysanoptera. 217 

pear-tlirips, P. pj/)'i, was synonymous witli the earlier- 
described 1\ inconsequens of Uzel, a conclusion that Mr. C. B. 
Williams had also come to. On going into the question 
together recently, comparing material from North America, 
Central Europe, ajul England, we confirmed this opinion. 

It is interesting to note that in the Czech account of the 
habitat of P. inconsequens in Uzel's monograph the food- 
plant Prunus cerasus is mentioned. 

For a pest of such importance the trivial uSimQ. inconsequens 
is unfortunate. 



Odontothrips fasciatipennis, sp. n. 

? . — Length 1'3 mm. 

Daik brown, pterothorax rather lighter ; fore-tibise light 
yellow, shaded to grey-brown basally ; apices of inter- 
mediate and hind tibise and all tarsi light yellow ; antennal 
joints 3 and 4 yellow. 

Fore-wing with basal third clear, then a band or patch of 
browji, and the distal two-liftlis with but the slightest tinge 
of grey ; cilia grey-brown. Posterior ocelli on a line drawn 
behind eyes and contiguous to their inner angles. Fore- 
tibial teeth small, sharp, the larger sharply bent ; fore-tarsus 
apparently without tooth. 

This species differs from both phaleratus (Hal.) and inter- 
medius (Uz.) in the coloration of the wings. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Hab. S. Australia, Outer Harbour, Adelaide ; collecled 
by Prof. Poulton in the flowers of Mesonhryanthemum, 
Aug. 28th, 1914. 

Grenus Physothrips. 

a. Sjostedti-usitatus group. 

Physothrips xisitatus, Bagn., var. cinctipennisj nov. 

Fore-wings with the middle third and extreme tip greyish- 
brown. Relative lengths of antennal joints as follows : — 
12 : 16 : 25 : 25 : 16 : 23 : 7 : 8. 

Distinguished from the type-form (only known from 
India) by the distinct clear band near distal end of fore-wing. 
This baud is weakly suggested in the Indian specimens. 



218 Mr. U. S. Bagnall on new Tliysanoptera. 

Tf/pe. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Ihib. N. Queensland, Brandon; on small flowers (pea), 
16. X. U (7?. Kell>/). 

P/{i/sotJi)'ij)s hrunneicornis, sp. n. 

? . — Length I'-i to 1-5 mm. 

Colour brown, the antenna^, head, prothorax, intermediate 
and hind femora and tibia?, and ai)ical abdominal segments 
inclined to be darker. Autennse unicolorous, fore-tibiae 
yellow, shaded with greyish brown along margins ; all tarsi 
yellow. Fore-wings faintly clouded with light grey-brown 
near base ; basal third or thereabouts clear, thence smoky- 
brown to tip excepting for an ill-defined clear patch at about 
the commencement of the distal fifth ; setae and cilia dark. 

Head about 0*7 as long as broad and not quite as long as 
the prothorax ; a defined area of the dorsal surface behind 
transversely striated. Eyes coarsely facetted, minutely 
pilose ; cheeks not arched, tending to widen posteriorly ; 
ocelli large, posterior pair above a line drawn across hind 
margins of eyes ; interocellar bristles long and strong, placed 
bet\Yeen the anterior ocellus and the posterior pair. Antennae 
seated bilow vertex, about 2*5 times as long as the head ; 
relative lengths of joints 3 to 8 as follows : — 22 : 22 : 14 : 
20 : 5 : 6. Joints 5 and 6 somewhat broadly united and 
distinctly more slender than the preceding ; forked trichomes 
on 'is and 4 long and stout. 

Prothorax n)uch as in P. usitatus. 

Fore-wing and arrangement of setae as in P. usitatus. 

Abdomen about 1*15 times as broad as the pterothorax, 
segments 9 and 10 obconical ; apical bristles long and stout ; 
y with a rather short dorsal pair widely separated. 

This species very closely approaches P. usitatus, Bagn., 
but is at once separated from it (as w^ell as from sjostedli^ 
Trybom, and variabilis, Bagn.) by the unicolorous antennae. 
The antennal joints 3 and 4 would appear to be stouter and 6 
shorter than in usitatus, whilst the fore-femora are concolorous 
with the prothorax. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

TIa.h. Japan, Kobe, April 1914 (/, E. A. Lewix). Reg. 
no. 144. 



» 



Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thynanoptera. 219 

PhysotJirips seticollis (Bagnall). 

Teentofhrips seticollis, Bagnall, 1915, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Iliat. ser. 8, xv. 
p. 591. 

This species cannot l)e referred to the genu.s Ticniot/n-ips 
as exemplified by inconseqiiens, primul(je, and major, sp. n. 

b. Funtumi(v group. 

Pht/fiothrips kelli/anus, sp. n. 

? .—Length I'G to 1-8 mm. 

Very like P.funtumicB, Bagn. 

Dark chestnut-brown, anteinue with the distal constricted 
parts of joints '?> and 4 colourless; fore-tiI)iae and all tarsi 
yellow. Fore-wings yellowish-brown, basally lighter ; hind- 
wings also fumate, with cilia" and median vein dark. 

Head a little broader than long, eyes setose ; interocellar 
setaj long. Relative lengths of antennal joints 3 to 8 as 
follows :— 27 : 27 : 17 : 26 : 4 : 6. 

Prothorax as long as or very slightly longer than head ; 
sefaj at hind angles long, but not stout, and one rather long 
pair in the postero-marginal series. Setje on fore-wing long, 
npper vein with two in distal half near extreme end and 
3 + 3 near base. 

Apical abdominal bristles long. 

(^ . — Length about 1"2 mm., slender. 

Each of the sternites 3 to 7 with numerous minute, 
roundish, irregular, pale depressions, those at angles, espe- 
cially the anterior, slightly larger. Tergite 9 with a series 
of short spines in a line near posterior margin. 

Colour of antennae as in ? ; joint 6 abnormally long; 
relative lengths of joints 3 to 8 as follows : — 26 : 25 : 13 : 
30 : 3 : 4'0. 

Type. Hope Department §^ Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

IJah. N. Queensland, Brandon, ,$ and ? on a compo- 
site flower {? Ilelianthiis sp.), 16. x. 14; Brisbane, numerous 
? ? and 1 (J on Acokeanthera spectahilis (a South-African 
])lant), in the Botanic Gardens, 23. x. 14. 

Victoria, Ballarat, 1 (^ on Ilypochceris radicata, 18. i. 15. 

One o£ the many interesting species discovered by 
Mr. Reg. Kelly, alter whon\ 1 tind pleasure in naming it. 



I 



220 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on vew Thysanoptera, 

The S is easily separated from ^ Ph. funtumicB by the 
ratnve of tlie depressions in steniites 3 to 7, the line of spines 
in ninth tergite, the unicolorous antennae, and the excep- 
tionally long sixth joint. 

c. Palhpennis group. 

Physothrips hrevicornis, sp. n. 

2 . — Lengtli 1-2 to 1-3 mm. 

Colour dark brown, fore-tibise, apices of fore-femora and 
of hind and intermediate tibise and all tarsi yellowish ; fore- 
wings wholly greyish 3'ellow-brown, hind-wings greyish at 
base. Antennw with firsr joint and style giey to grey-brown, 
second dark brown, 3 to 5 yellowish, the latter very lightly 
tinted with grey ; 6 yellow, with distal half grey-brown. 

Head transverse, about 0*65 as long as broad, cheeks appa- 
rently converging posteriorly ; eyes large, not bulging, 
coarsely facetted and very minutely setose ; interocellar 
bristles moderately long. Antennas short and rather stout, 
a little more than twice as long as the head; relative lengths 
and breadths of joints 3 to 8 as follows : — 

.32 : 29 : 20 : 36 : 6 : 11 
18 : 18 : 14 : 15 : 6 : 4 ' 

3 to 4 broadly claviform. 

Prothorax transverse, about 1*25 times longer than the 
head ; bristles at posterior angles rather short, the inner one 
of each pair longer than the outer, and about 0*4 as long as 
the prothorax. Upper vein of fore-wing with 3 or 4 setse 
(l-f (or 1) + 1 + 1) in the distal half; in one specimen 4 
are placed in the dist;il third ; lower vein with 11 to 15 setse. 

Al)domen only slightly broader than the pterothorax, 
elongate-ovate. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. • 

IJah. AUSTUALIA, Ballarat, Victoria ; 3 ? ? on Hypo- 
clue ris rddicata, 28. i. 15 (7?. Kelly). 

Physothrips lonfficeps, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 1'5 mm. 

Colour chestnut-brown; fore tibife yellowish distally, 
margins dark ; tar.si yellowish. Antennge brown, joint 2 



Mr. W. S. Bagiiall on new Thysanoptera, 221 

distally and 3 ratlier ligliter, the latter inclined to yellowish 
basally. Fore-wings and cilia yellowish-hrown. 

Head long, about 0'85 as long as hroad and as long as the 
prothoriix ; widened just behind eyes, cheeks subparallel ; 
surface transversely striate, and vertex sinjilarly striate. 
Eyes occup}ing about 0*5 the length of the head, coarsely 
facetted ; postocular bristles absent ; interocellar setaj situated 
just behind anterior ocellus, minute. Antennpe twice as long 
as the head ; joints 3 and 4 fusiform, 5 and G broadly united, 
and -4 and 5 shortly constricted near base ; style short ; 
relative lengths of joints as follows : — 11 : 17 : 26 (in- 
cluding stem) : 22 : 18 : 23 : 3 : 3. Forked trichomes on 
3 and 4 moderately long. 

Prothorax about 0*7 as long as broad ; bristles at hind 
angles about 0'4 the length of prothorax. 

Pterothorax large. Legs somewhat stout. Wings reaching 
to ninth al)dominal segment, pointed ; seta? moderately long, 
slender. Fore-wing with three set?e in distal half, viz., one 
just beyond the second third, and two in distal fifth; lower 
vein with 14-17 setae. 

Abdomen elongate-ovate, pointed at apex. Bristles on 
segments 9 and 10 long, slender ; 9 with a pair of widely 
separated dorsal bristles. 

(^ . — Smaller and more slender. 

Tergite 9 with a series of four closely set long setse dis- 
posed practically in a straight line. Sternites 3-7 each with 
a small depression, gradually diminishing in size; 3 and 4 
the largest, elliptical, 5-7 rounded, and 7 the smallest, 
minute. 

Separated from palli'pennis, Uz., by the long head, riie 
coloration of antennae and wings, the small depressions in 
sternites, and the length and disposition of seta on the ninth 
tergite in the c?. 

Ti/pe. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Bab. India, Kulhara, Garhwal, 11,700 feet altitude ; in 
flowers of rhododendron, .'). vi. 10 {A. D. Lnms). 

Physothrips caharatus, sp. n. 

$ . — Size and form much as in P. vulgatissimus (palli- 
pennis). Colour evidently dark brown, with the fore-tibite 
and ends of the intermediate and hind-tibiie lighter, and all 



222 ^Ir. R. S. Bagnall on neio Thysanopiera. 

tarsi yellowisli. Antennre brown, end of joint 2 and whole 
of 3 yello\Yisli. 

Head transverse, ratlicr lonsj ; eyes coarsely facetted, 
sparsely and minutely setose ; ocelli large, interocellar bristles 
long, placed between the posterior ocelli. Antennce about 
2'3 times as long as the head ; joints 1 and 2 broader than 
any of the succeeding ; relative lengths of joints as follows : — 
10 : 12 : 19 (inclnding stem, which is rather long) : 16 : 12 : 
17 : 2'5 : 3. 3 (excluding stem) and 4 subequal, fusiform; 
5 narrower than 4 or 6, apex truncate. 

Protliorax about 1*4 times as broad as long, and scarcely 
noticeably longer than head ; bristles at hind angles very 
long, about 0"7 the length of the protliorax, slender. Legs 
somewhat stout ; fore tarsus with a sharp stout tooth near 
ape.v. Wings longish, pointed apically ; fore-wings uniform 
grey-brown ; setfe long and slender, 3 to 5 in distal half of 
upper vein, namely, 1 just beyond middle of wing and 2 to 4 
(1 + 1, l + l-t-l, 2-l-],'or 2 + 2) in the distal fifth. Costa 
with about 25 and lower vein 17 longish setae. 

Abdomen elongate-ovate ; apical bristles fairly long, a 
dorsal pair on 9; tergite 8 with a moderately long close 
fringe. 

At once recognized by the fore-tarsal claw (analogous with 
Thrips calcaratus, Uz.) and the setai of the upper vein of the 
fore- wing. 

Hah. Bohemia ; in coll. Uzel mixed with Odontothrips 
phaleratus, 

Pseudothrtps parvusy sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 1*0 mm. 

General colour yellow-brown to brown, abdominal seg- 
ments 9 and 10 darker. Antenna with first joint greyish, 
second and fifth to eighth grey-brown, 3, 4, and extreme base 
of 5 yellow, 4 tinged lightly with grey. Fore-wings wholly 
light yellowish-brown. Legs yellowish, more or less shaded 
with grey to brown, especially the femora and outer margins. 

Head transverse, about 1*3 times as broad as long, and 
nearly as long as the protliorax; eyes coarsely facetted. 
Sixth antennal joint not divided. One prominent piothoracic 
bristle at each posterior angle and a shorter one just above. 
Both veins of fore-wing regularly set with setae, 11 or 12 in 
each. 

Abdomen elongate-ovate, sharply narrowed at apex ; pos- 
terior margin of eighth tergite sparsely fringed. Apical 



1 



On the Nematode Genus Tanqun, R. Blanchard. 223 

bristles of both ninth and tentli segments long ; a dor.^al 
series of minor setje on 9 and a dorsal pair on 10 ; the latter 
segment divided above. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Ilah. N. Queensland, Brandon ; on a composite Hower 
{7neUanthus sp.), 16. x. 14 (i?. Kelhj). 

Near P. glancus, Bagn. (a South-African species), from 
which it may be separated, apart from coloration, by the 
fewer setfie on veins of fore-wings and the chajtotaxy of the 
apical abdominal segments. 



XIX. — The Nematode, Genus Tanqiia, R. Blanchard. 
By H. A. Baylis, B.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Up to the present time only a single species of this remark- 
able genus appears to have been recognized, viz. the interesting 
form Tanqua ^iara (v. Linst.). This is a nematode of medium 
size, somewliat resembling an Ascaris in general build, and 
inhabiting the stomach and intestines of reptiles of more or 
less aquatic habits. It was first recorded, under the name 
of Ascaris tiara, by von Linstow (1879), from ''Varanus 
ornatus^^ (? V. alhigidaris*) in Natal. The otlier hosts and 
localities from which it has been recorded in publisiied papers 
are : — Varanus salvator, Sumatra (Parona, 189b) ; V. gouldii, 
Australia or New Guinea — precise locality unknown (Parona, 
1898) ; T'. hengalensis, Ceylon (von Linstow, 1904) ; and 

V. nilottcuft. White Nile (Leiper, 1908). Leiper also men- 
tions the occurrence of a very similar form in Ilydrosaurus 
hivittalus from the Federated Malay States. 

I have now to add that I have examined specimens, which 
I believe to belong to this species, (1) from a lizard (probably 

Varanus niloticus, though I have no information regarding 
its determination), from Accra, Gold Coast Colony ; (2) from 

Tropidonotus qxi'ncunciatus (7\ asperrimus, Blgr.f), from 

Ceylon ; and (3) from Varanus e.ranthemati'cus, Northern 

* Dr. G. A. Boulenf^er informs me that V. alhigidaris is the form most 
uearly related to V. orvntus, occurring in Natal. 

t J)r. lioulenger regards the Ceylon form of T. (/td/icuncialus as a 
di.stiuct species. 



224: Mr. 11. A. Bay lis on the 

Nigeria. Tlie last-mentioned specimens were kinJly given 
to nie, for tlie purpose of comparison, by Dr. J. H. Ash- 
worth, of Edinbnrgl), who informed me tl)at they had been 
determined as T. tiara by Dr. R. T. Leiper*. 

It would appear, from this list of hosts, that T. tiara is 
not confined to the monitors {Va7'a7tus), but may also infect 
snakes of semi-aquatic habits. That the genus, at all events, 
certainl}- does so is shown by some specimens which recently 
came to light in the British Museum collection. Having occa- 
sion to examine the types of Baird's species Ascaris ohconica, 
from the Brazilian fresh- water snake Uelicops \_Uranops] angu- 
latus, I was struck by the fact that some of the specimens so 
labelled were distinctly smaller than others, and of a different 
shape, especially in the region of the tail. A closer examina- 
tion soon showed that these smaller specimens undoubtedly 
represented a species of Tanqua. They have a very close 
resemblance in all respects to the t3'pe-species, but differ 
sufficiently from it, especially when the geograpiiical distribu- 
tion is taken into account, to be regarded as representing a 
distinct species. 

The genus Tanqua, as has been pointed out by Leiper 
(1908), possesses certain features which indicate a close 
relationship with Gnathostoma, Owen. He places it pro- 
visionally in the family Gnathostomidse, and there seems to 
be no objection at present to this classification. 

1. Tanqua tiara'\ (v. Linst.). 

Ascaris tiara, von Linstow, 1879, p. 320; Parona, 1898, p. 114. 
Ctenocephalus tiara, von Linstow, 1904, p. 102 ; PI. ii. figs. 23-27. 
Tanqua tiara, R. Blanchard, 1904, p. 478 ; Leiper, 1908, p. 189. 

Von Linstow has given (1904) a fairly complete and 
accurate account of this species ; his figures, however, are 
somewhat too diagrammatic, and calculated to be misleading. 
There are one or two points in which, after examining a 
number of specimens, I must differ from him. He states 
(1904, p. 102) that the dorsal lip has three rounded projec- 
tions, while the ventral lip has four similar processes, inter- 
digitating. Li a cleared specimen, viewed in horizontal 
optical section, it might quite easily be imagined that this 
was a correct interpretation of the structure. By rolling the 
specimen over, however, under a cover-glass, in such a way 
that first one lip and then the other can be focussed separately, 

* Since writing this paper, 1 have received several further examples of 
T. tiara from a species of Varanus in Zanzibar. 
+ For generic and specific diagnoses see below (p. 230). 



Nematode Genus Tanqua, R. Dlanchard. 



225 



it becomes apparent that each lip has in reality only three 
" teeth " on its anterior border. The anterior lobe of each 
lip (fig. 1, Z>.), which carries the teeth, is twisted slightly to 
one side, in siicli a way that its teeth can interlock with those 
of the other lip. The teeth of each lip are, in fact, asym- 
metrically disposed with regard to the longitudinal axis of 
the animal. The " teeth " are, in reality, folds of thickened 
cuticle, and are shown in optical section in fig. 1. 

Von Linstow is, I think, in error in statiug that the two 

Fig. 1. 




Tanqua Ham. Head of an example from Varaniis exanthematicus. 
C.G.y cervical {jland: L., lip. 

cervical glands on either side unite anteriorly to form a 
common duct ; the duct of each gland appears to open sepa- 
rately upon the anterior surface of one of the four striated 
swellings at the base of the lips. 

Another point in which von Linstow's account seems 
inaccurate is the number of papillae on the tail of the male. 
He mentions and figures (1904) two preanal, one large 
paranal, and three postanal pairs of papillai. In the speci- 
mens which 1 have examined there are two additional pairs 



22G 



Mr. H. A. Baylis on the 



of smaller papilla) — one (fig. 2, /) just in front of, and 
slightly ventral to, the large paranal pair, and another 
(lig. 2, 4) in a similar position on the body, between the 
paraiiais and the most anterior of the large postanals. There 
are thus, in all, eight pairs of papilh\3, four pairs being post- 
anal, one paranal, and three preanal. The first postanal 
papilUe (nearest to the tip of the tail) are very small, laterally 



Fig. 2. 




Ventral view of posterior end of a male from 
Tropidonotus asperrimus. 



Tatiqua tiara 
1-4, postanal papillae ; 5, paranal ; I-III, preanal papillae. 



placed, and simple in structure. The second and third post- 
anal, the paranal, and the second and third preanal papillse 
on each side are very laterally placed, and are of a peculiar 
and characteristic shape. They are elongate, finger-like 
papilla, having a large swelling at about the middle of their 
length, beyond which they again suddenly become narrow 
and tapering, before coming to the surface of the cuticle. 



Nematode Genus Taiiqiia, /?. Dlanchard, 



227 



TIio spicules of tlie inalo are cliaructeriiied by a peculiar 
ra.sp-liko covering of minute points or spinelets tlirougljout 
their length — a fact which the previous observers have 
omitted to mention. 

Ill other respects the specimens which I assign to this 
species agree well with von Linstow^s account (190-1). A 
table, showing in parallel series the measurements of certain 
jiarts of the body in the various sets of specimens studied 
andj for comj)ari.son, the measurements given by von Linstow, 
will be found on p. 231. 

Fijr. 3. 




Tanqua diadema. Head of an example from Helicops angulatus. 
The right half is shown partly in optical section. 

C. G., cervical gland ; Cu., fold of cuticle ; L., lip ; R.M., retractor 
muscles of head. 



2. Tanqua diadema, sp, n. 

The following is an account of the second form^ which, as 
mentioned above, was discovered among the type-specimens 
of Ascaris ohconica, Baird, from the intestii\es of the South- 
American fresh-water snake Helicops angulatus. 

The male measures about 20 mm. in length and 0"G mm. 
in thickness. The female is lari^er. 28-30 mm. \o\\'X and 



1 



228 



IMi-. II. A. Baylis on the 



8-1 nun. thick. The head (fig. 3) is similar in shape to 
that of T. tiara, but appears to be retractile within a pro- 
tective sheath of loose cuticle, and to be provided with special 
retractor muscles for that purpose. The swollen basal 
portions of the head are transversely striated, as in the type- 
species, and the two lips {L.) are closely similar to those of 
7. ti'at'a, each being provided with three blunt teeth, and 
twisted sideways in such a way that the teeth of the opposite 
lips interlock. The head measures in length (from base of 

Fig:. 4. 




Tanqua diadema. Ventral view of posterior end of a male from 
Helicops angulatus. 

Papillae numbered as in fig. 2. 



striated portion to end of middle tooth) 0'22 mm.; the 
maximum width of the basal portion is 0'25 mm,, and that of 
the lips 0"18 mm. 

Four elongate cervical glands (fig. 3, C.G.) are present, 
opening on to the basal portion of the head, as in T. tiara. 
Tiie length of the oesophagus is only 2*2 mm. (male)-2'4 mm. 
(female). It thus varies between about ^^ ^"^ i of the total 
length. This is an important point of difference from the 



Xeinalocie Genus T;iiii|:i;i, /\. Bl in 'liar<l. 22'l 

ty[)e-spccies, in which the oesophagus is about twice iis Ion;;, 
bi'iiiu^ soinetiuies as much as \ (or even more, acconling to 
voii Liiistow), and never less tiian }, of the total length. 

Tlie tail of the male (fig. -l) is 0"G mm. long, or about ^^ of 
the total length. Tiiere is a considerable lateral ex|)ansion 
of the cuticle, forming a bursal ala on either side, so tiiat the 
outline of the tail is somewhat like an arrow-head with 
rounded barbs. The two 3|jiculcs measui-e I'i mm. in length 
(or I'l mm. in a straight line from base to ti|)). Tiiey are 
covered with minute spinelets, as in t!ie preceding species. 
The papilhe are arranged i)recisely as in T. tiara., and are 
present to the same number (eight pcdrs). The only im- 
portant dilFerence observed is that the second [)ostanal pair 
(/. e., the second from the extremity of the tail) lack the large 
swelling, or exhibit it in a much less cons[)icuous degree. 

In the female the tail measures 0"G5 mm. in length, or 
about 2^ of the total length. It tapers rapidly from the 
anus, and ends in a sharp point. The vulva is situated con- 
siderably further forward than in the type-species, and is 
within the middle third of the body ; in a mature example it 
opens at 11'5 mm. from the posterior end, thus dividing the 
body in the proportion of 33 : 23. The vagina is short. 
One branch of the uterus, with its ovary, lies anteriorly to it, 
the other posteriorly. The eggs are similar to those of 
T. tiaru in shape, measuring 60 /x in length and •J:2'5 fi in 
breadth. 

3. Tanqua anom.ila (v. Linst.). 
HeteraJcis anomala, \on Linstow, 1904, p. 97 ; PI. i. figs. 10, 11. 

Under this name, in the same paper with T. [Cteno. 
cephalufi] tiara, von Linstow has described a form from the 
stomach of Tropidonotus piscator in Ceylon, which appears 
almost certainly to belong to the genus under consideration, 
and not to lleterakis. There are certain a[)parent dis- 
crepancies, which might, perhaps, be removed or explained 
by a re-examination of the material. Tlius the li[)s are 
described as being three, instead of two, in number, and there 
is said to be a peculiar preanal sucker-like organ in the male, 
" beset with eigiit roundish projections, of wiiich the cuticle 
shows pore canals." But in all other respects the species 
seems to agree very well with the two forms already con- 
sidered in this paper. The tigiires given by von Linstow at 
once suggest Tanqua, on account of (1) the general shape of 
the head, and the ()resonce of striated cuticular swellings at 
its base; (2) the characteristic shape of some of the caudal 
papilhe uf the male; and (3) the equal length and ^i>iny or 

Ann. tO Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. Iti 



230 Mr. H. A. Baylis on the 

granulated appearance of the spicules. These points are all 
borne out by the description ; from its larger size, however, 
and certain differences in the arrangement of the papillpe, and 
in the proportions of various parts of the body, it is evident 
that the species is distinct from both 2\ tiara and 2\ diadema. 

From the features of the type-species, T. tiara, and that 
now described as T, diadema, it is possible to extract some 
characters which may be regarded as being of generic value, 
and a revised definition of the genus may be given, somewhat 
as follows : — 

Tanqua, R. Blanchard, 1904. 
\_= Ctenocephalus, v. Linst., 1904.J 

Gnathostomidaj : of medium size, moderately stout in 
proportion to the length of the body. Head provided with 
two lips, dorsal and ventral, each bearing on its inner side 
three rounded tooth-like projections. At the base of the 
head there are four rounded submedian cuticular swellings, 
marked with distinct transverse striations. Anteriorly the 
lips are twisted slightly out of the middle line, towards oppo- 
site sides, in such a way that the teeth of one lip can be 
interlocked with those of the other lip. Cuticle thick, with 
irregular transverse wrinkles and exceednigly fine transverse 
striations. The cuticle of the anterior end may be loose and 
form a protective sheath, within which the head can be 
retracted. (Esophagus rather long, simple in structure, 
increasing gradually in diameter from before backwards. 
No oesophageal bulb, oesophageal or intestinal diverticula. 
Four eh:)ngate cervical glands jnesent, opening to the exterior 
on the basal portion of the head. Tail of male provided 
with more or less pronounced lateral al^e near the tip, giving 
it a lancet-shaped outline, and having eight pairs of elongate 
papillae of different sizes, some of which have a characteristic 
swelling near the middle. Copulatory spicules curved, 
cylindrical, and armed throughout with minute spines. Pos- 
terior end of the body, in the male, provided witii a series of 
oblique muscle-bands on either side of the ventral surface, 
extending for some distance in front of the anus. Tail of 
female siiort, tapering and pointed. Vulva in the posterior 
half of the body. Vagina rather short, with a coat of circular 
muscles ; giving off two wide uterine branches, one of which, 
with its ovary, lies anteriorly, the other posteriorly, to the 
vagina. Fggs oval, with thin shells, ornamented with fine 
granulations. 

Type-species, T. tiara (v. Linst.), 1879. 



Nematode Genus Tanqun, /?. Blanchard. 



231 



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232 Miss Jane Stephens on 

Tlie two species which can at present be assigned definitely 
to this genus may be distinguished thus : — 

1. Head not retractile within a cuticular sheath. 

CEsophagu8 long (one-seventh to one-fourth 
of the total lenfjfth). Vulva situated within 
the last quarter of the total length. Parasitic 
in Vannnts and other senii-aquatic reptiles in 
Africa, tlie East Indies, and Australasia .... T. tiara (v. I.inst.). 

2. Head retractile within a loose cuticular sheath. 

Oesophagus comparatively short (about one- 
eleventh of the total length). Vulva in the 
middle third of the body. Parasitic in semi- 
aquatic reptiles in South America T. diadema. 

A table of measurements is given on p. 231, including, for 
the sake of completeness, these two species and tlie more 
doubtful T.anoinala. The measurements given by von Lin- 
stow (1904) tor T. tiara are placed beside my own for com- 
parison. A certain amount of variation was found to exist, 
and for this reason measurements derived from the tlir<.e 
sets of specimens studied are given side by side. 

Keferences. 

Bl.\nchabd, E. 1904. " Tanqua, n. g., rempla^ant Ctenocephalus 

Ton Liustow." Arch. Parasitol. viii. p. 478. 
Leipeii, K. T. 1908. "Ileliuiuthes contained in l")r. C. M. Wenyon's 

Collection from the Sudan." Kep. Wellcome lies. Lab. Khartoum, 

iii. p. 187 (published 1909). 
LiNSTOW, O. VON. 1879. " Ilelminthologische Untersuchuugen." 

Wiirttenib. Naturw. Jahresh. xxxv. p. 313. 
. 1904. " Nematoda in the Collection of the Colombo Museum." 

Spolia Zeylanica, i. p. 91. 
Paroxa, C. 1898. " Elminti raccolti dal Dott. Elio Modigliani alle 

isole Mentawei, Engauo e Sumatra." Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) xix. 

p. 102. 



XX. — Preliminary Notice of some Irish Sponges. — 2 lie 
Monaxonellida (^Suborder Sigmatomonaxonellida) obtained 
by the Fisheries Branch of the Department of Agriculture 
and Technical Instruction, Ireland. By Jane fcJTEPiiENS, 
B.A., B.Sc, Irish National Museum. 

The following list of sponges belonging to the suborder 
Sigmatomonaxonellida, Dendy, contains ninety-five species. 
Fifty-one of the species are now recorded for the fiast time 
within the Irish area, and of these thirty-one have not been 
taken previously off any part of tlie British Isles. 
Thirteen species are fh'scribed as new. 



wme Irish Sponfjcs. 



■2X\ 



Nonrly all tlie s))oii;res in tliis colloction which are new to 
the British Isles were dredtred in deep water o(f the west and 
south-west coasts ot' Ireh\nd. 

A report on the collection is in preparation for publication 
in th(! " Scientific Investigations " of the Irish Fi.siierics 
Branch. 

List of Species. 

Grade MONAXONELLIDA. 

Suborder Siqmatomon axon ellida. 

Family Haploscleridae. 

Subfamily GEUJiy^. 

Gelliiis tlnf^ellifer, R. ^- D. | Oceanapia robusta {Botcerbanic). 



Subfamily Hexierix.'e. 



IJfnir'ra cinerea (Grant). 

peachi (Boicerbank). 

simulans [Johnston). 

li.-tiilosa {Boirerhank). 

indistincta (Boicerbank). 



Metschnikowia spinispiculum 

(Carter). 
Halichondria panicea (Pal/as). 

tibrosa (Fristedt). 

Phlceodictyonelongatum ( roywen^) . 



Subfamily Ciulixix.^. 
Pachyclialina liuibata {Montagu). \ Cbalina oculata {Fallas). 



Subfamily Desjiacellix^. 



Biemna inornata (Boicerbank). 
Tylodesma annexa (Schmidt). 
iuformis, sp. n. 



Haraacantha johnsoni (Boicer- 
bank). 
falcula (Borcerbank). 



Family Desmacidonidae. 



Subfamily 

Esperiopsis fucoruui (Johnston). 

villosa (Carter). 

incoprnita, sp. n. 

macrosij^ma, sp. n. 

Mjcale a^gagropila (Johnston). 

macilenta (Botcerbank). 

placoide.s (C«r^v), Lundbeck. 

Totalis (Boicerbank). 

fa.scitibula (Top^ent). 

littorali-s (Topsent). 

Rhupliidotheca raavshall-Iialli, 

Kent. 
Asbestoplumapennatula{'S'c/(WjjV/0- 



Mi 



Cladorhiza abys.sicola, Sarx. 
Myxilla rosacea (Lieberkiihn). 

incrustans (Johnston). 

fimbriata (Boicerbank). 

Lissodendoryx diversicliela, Lund- 
beck. 
lophon nigricans (Boicerbank). 
lotrochota acauthostylifera, sp. n. 
Force pia forcipis (Boicerbank). 
Tlistoderma physa [Sihinidt). 
IlUtoderniella inirolfi. Lnndheck. 
("I'avolla pvnil'i i<'iii-/,r\ 



2:u 



Miss Jane Stepliens on 



Subfamilv Ecnoxi.wn. 



IJvmedesniia zetlandica, Boxcer- 

buuk. 

tiiincata, Lundhcck. 

Ivoehleri ( Topstnt). 

cnrvicliela, Linidbeck. 

paiipertas (liorverbaiih). 

paiisa, Jiowitbank. 

occulta, Boxcerbank. 

baculifera ( Topsent). 

uiutabilis (Topsent). 

crux {Scfuniflt). 

digitata, lAunlbeck. 

nuicroiiata [Topsent). 

tenui.'ipruia, Luivlbeck. 

dujardini [Bowerbank). 

lielga?, sp. n. 

spinosa, sp. n. 

hiberiiica, sp. n. 

Ectyodoryx atlanticus, pp. n. 
AncbiDoe fictitius (Bowerbank). 
Stylo.«ticbon plumosum (Mon- 

tayii). 

deudyi, Topsent. 

Pocillon byndiaani (Bouerhank). 



l*]urypou clavatutn (Bowerbank). 

bispiduUnn (Topsent). 

aibue ('Topsent). 

acantbotoxa, sp. n. 

ditoxa, sp. n. 

tenuissiinum, sp. n. 

niicrocbela, sp. n. 

Licazei (Topsent). 

viride {Topsent). 

!Microciona arniata, Bowerhank. 
Clatbria dicbotoma (Esper). 

(?) ancborata (Carter). 

Ecbinoclathria foliata (Botver- 

ba?ik). 
Oplilitasponpia seriata (Grant). 
Plocaniia microcioiiides (Carter). 
Suberotelites denionstrans, Topsent, 
Easpailia piiniila (Bowerbank). 

bowsfu (Boxcerbank). 

Cyanion spinispinosum ( Topsent). 
Iibabdereniia puernei, Topsent. 
Spauioplon arinaturum (Botcer- 

bank). 
Leptosastra constellata, Topsent. 



Family Axinellidae. 



Axinella pyraniidata, sp. ii. 
Pbakellia ventilabruui (Johnston). 

robusta, Boiverbunk. 

rugbsa (Borocrhank). 

Bubaris vemiiculata (Boicerbank). 
Ti-flgosia infundibuliformis {John- 
ston). 



Tiagosia arclica ( l^osinaei). 
Iligginsia tbielei, Topsent. 
Hymeniacidon caruncula, Boicer- 

hank. 
Halicnemia verticillata {Boiver- 

bank). 



Preliminary Description of the New Species. 

I'ylodesma informis, sp. \\. 

Tlie sponge is growing in a tliick encrustation on coral. 

Tlie main skeleton is an irregular reticulation of tylostyli. 
In places the spicules are collected into burulles or short 
fibres. The dermal skeleton consists of broad strands of" 
tylostyli closely packed together and lying tangentially to 
the surface. 

Spicules. — (1) Tylostyli. The shaft is slightly curved and 
fusiform ; the head is well-defined, oval or rounded. The 
size varies from about 37 mm. by 0*008 mm. to 1*3 mm. 
by 0*027 mm. (2) Sig-mata. These are contort and their 
lonjjer axis is 0'035-0'045 mm. in length. 



some Irish S/wnr^PS. 2H5 

The species was dre(l<^('{l ut three stations off the south- 
west coast of Ireland, at dej)tlis varying from 250 to 
5tiO fathoms. 

Ei>periopsis incognita, sp. n. 

The sponge is growing in a very thin encrustation on 
coral. 

The skeleton consists of short fibres made up of multi- 
scrially arranged styli, which run obliquely through tiie 
sponge from base to surface. In addition to these fibres there 
are thick, well-defined, branching fibres running more or le.«3 
parallel to the surface of the s|)onge. 

Spicules. — (1) iStyli, straight and slender, 0'-l-0'45 mm. 
in length by 0-006-00().S mm. (2) Isochelce palmataj of 
two forms — {a) straight isocheh'o with rather long, narrow 
alaj leaving only a short part of the shaft free. Length 
0"035-007 mm.; {h) very small, slender isochelse, with 
slightly curved shaft, 0*013 mm, in length. (3) Sigmata of 
two forms — (u) sigmata lying in one plane and varying a 
good deal in size. The longer axis is from 0*l-0'32 mm. in 
length. The maximum thickness of the spicule is about 
0"013 mm. ; (h) slender, contort sigmata with a longer axis 
of 0-04-0075 mm. 

This sponge is identical with the specimen referred to by 
Carter as " an unknown sponge,^' and partly descriljed and 
figured by him under that name (Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc. ii. 
Ib79). 

The sponge was dredged oflf the west coast of Ireland in 
388 fathoms. 

Esperiopsis macrosigma, sp. n. 

The sponge is growing in a very thin encrustation on 
coral. 

The skeleton consists of bundles of spicules, or of short 
fibres containing mnltiserially arranged spicules. In places 
lunger, rather ill-defined fibres run more or less parallel to 
the surface. There are also single spicules or groups of two 
or three spicules scattered through tlie s[)onge. 

Spicules. — (1) iStyli slender, straight, tapering to a rather 
short point. Length 0-37-0-42 mm. by 00(3-0-008 mm. 
(2) IsochelsG palmatae of three forms — («) the largest are 
0'11-0125 mm. in length, the shaft is straight and is about 
0006 mm. in thickness. The tooth measures 024 mm. 
across ; (6) isochelae with rather long narrow ala3 leaving 
only a short part of the shaft free. Length 06 mm.; 



23G Miss Jane Stepbens on 

(c) isoclieltB with a sliglitly curved sliaft, 0-015-0024 mm. 
in leng-tli. (3) Sigmata of two forms — (a) sigmata lying in 
one plane and of very different sizes. The longer axis varies 
from about 0-1-0-4 mm. in length. The maximum tliickness 
of the spicule is 0"02 mm. ; [h) slender, contort sigmata with 
a longer axis of 0"04:-0"075 mm. 

Specimens of this species were obtained at two stations off" 
the south-west coast of Ireland at depths varying from 250 to 
728 fathoms. 

lotrochota acantlwstiiUfera, sp. n. 

The sponge is coating a piece of coral ; it is a good deal 
injured. 

As far as can be seen, the main skeleton is an irregular 
reticulation of acanthostyli. Here and there ill-defitied fibres 
are formed. The dermal skeleton consists of flat bundles of 
spicules, or, in places, of longer fibre?. 

Spicules. — (1) Acanthostyli, which are straight or slightly 
curved. The head is a little swollen and is thickly set with 
strong blunt spines. A few small spines are scattered along 
the shaft. Length 0-32-0-35 mm. by 0-008 mm. (2) The 
dermal spicules are tylota. The shaft is straight and the 
ends are unequal, one end being more rounded than the 
other. Length 03-0-33 mm. by 0005 mm. (3) Isan- 
chorae, 0'0-i5-0'O mm. in length, with about 8-10 teeth at 
either end. (4) Birotulpe, 0'015 mm. in length. 

The species was dredged off the south-west coast of Ireland 
at a depth of 627-728 fathoms. 

Hyniddesmia helgoe, sp. n. 

The S])onge is growing in a thin encrustation on coral and 
on a piece of R- tejiora. 

The main skeleton consists of acanthostyli, set vertically 
with their heads on the substratum. The dermal skeleton is 
made up of thick bundles of spicules, which are arranged 
more or less vertically in the sponge. Beneath the suiface 
they spread out, and are continued as strong fibres running 
parallel to the surface of the sponge. The dermal membrane 
is crowded with isochelse arcuataj. 

Spicules. — (1) The longer acanthostyli have a slightly 
curved shaft and a head which is, at the most, very slightly 
marked. The lower part of the shaft is thickly covered with 
rather small spines; the remainder of the shaft is set with 
very small spines, so small that the shaft looks merely 
roughened. Length 0'25-0*35 mm. by 01 mm. The 



some I I'lsli Sponges^. 237 

small acanthostyli liavc a sliglitly curved shaft, wliicli is 
covered with small recurved spines along its whole h'iiij,th. 
These spicules are about 0'125-0'15 mm. in Icnj^th by O'OOo- 
0-008 mm. (2) The dermal spicules are strongyla, which 
are straight and polytylote. They measure 0-35-O-5 mm. in 
length by O-O06-0-6o8 mm. (ii) The i.sochclai arcuate have 
a strongly curved shaft which is very ])road in front view. 
'J'hey are O-035-0-04 mm. in length. 

This species was dredgrd off the west and south-west 
coasts of Ireland at depths of 388 and 468 fathoms. 

Hi/medesmia spinosa, sp. n. 

The sponge is growing in a very thin encrustation on coral. 

I'he main skeleton consists of acanthostyli Avhich are 
placed very close together and are set vertically with their 
lieads on the substratum. The dermal spicules are in 
bundles which lie more or less horizontally to the surface. 

Spicules. — (1) The acanthostyli measure from 0'09 to 
0*22 mm. in length, with a maximum diameter of 0*013 mm. 
above the head. They cannot be separated into two group?<. 
The shaft is straight or very slightly curved. The head is 
fairly well marked and is thickly covered with long, stout, 
blunt spines ; the remainder of the shaft is set with recurved 
spines. The longer spicules are more sparingly spined along 
the shaft than are the shorter ones, and the spines are smaller. 
(2) The dermal spicules are straight, slightly fusiform 
tornota, measuring 0"18-0-26 mm. by 0*005 mm. (3) The 
isochelse arcuataj are very numerous. They have a thick, 
usually very strongly curved shaft, with short teeth. They 
measure 0"03-0038 mm. in length. The species is nearly 
allied to Hjjmedesmia procumbcns, Lundbeck. 

The sponge was dredged at two stations off the south-west 
coast of Ireland at depths varying from 500 to 728 fathoms. 

Hymedesmia hibernica, sp. n. 

The sponge forms a thin encrustation on two specimens ot 
Carijophyllia davits. 

The main skeleton consists of acanthostyli which stand 
vertically with their heads on the substratum. The slender 
dermal spicules are united into bundles which are placed 
more or less vertically in the sponge; they bend round 
beneath the dermis and are continued as fibres running 
parallel to the surface. 

Spicn/es. — (Ij Tlie acanlhostyli fall into two groups ; the 
longer measure from 0'25 to 0*325 mm. in length by 0*008 mm. 



238 Miss Jane Stephens on 

Tliey lijive a sliglitly curved sliaft and a liead wliich is 
thickly covered witli short blunt spines. A few small re- 
curved spines are scattered alons; the shaft, soniotitnes to 
nearly halt' its length. The shorter acantliostyli are 0"11- 
0"13 mm. in length by O'OOG mm. The shaft is straight, and 
the head is, at the most, very slightly marked, and is covered 
with rather long blunt s{)ines. The shaft is s[)ined throughout 
its length. (2) The dermal spicules are slender strongyla 
measuring 0'22-0'25 mm. in length by 0*0025 mm. 

Microscleres are absent from the sponge. 

The species was dredged in 37 fathoms off lieenacry Head, 
Co. Kerry. 

Ectyodoryx atlanticus, sp. n. 

Tiie sponge is coating a piece of coral. 

The main skeleton consists of a network of large acantlio- 
styli, lying usually three or four together, sparingly echinated 
by small acanthostyli. A small quantity of spongin is 
present. The dermal spicules form thick fibres, but the 
exact arrangement cannot be made out owing to the injured 
surface of the only specimen available. 

Spicule-^. — (1) The large acanthostyli have a slightly 
curved shaft. The head is swollen and is covered with short 
blunt spines. A few spines are sometimes scattered along 
the shaft for a short distance. On the other hand, some of 
the spicules are almos;t quite smooth. These spicules measure 
about 0'66-0'95 mm. in length by 0"015-002 mm. in dia- 
meter above the head. (2) The echinating acanthostyli are 
small and few in number. The shaft is straight; the head 
is a little swollen and is covered with rather long spines. 
Tlie shaft is thickly set with small recurved spines. The 
length is 0*1-0'14 mm. by 0*01 mm. above the head. 
(2) The dermal spicules are strongyla with rather unequal 
ends, one end being slightly thicker than the other. The 
shaft is often a little crooked. Length O'-ir-O'b mm. by 
0006 mm. (3) Isochelae arcuatoe. The shaft is rather 
strongly curved. Length 0045-0'06 mm. 

Tlie species was dredged off the soath-west coast of Ireland 
in 468 fathoms. 

Eurypon acantkotoxa, sp. n. 

The sponge is growing in a small, thin encrustation on 
coral. 

The main skeleton consists of acanthostyli which stand 
vertically with their heads on the substratum. Tiie dermal 



some Ii i^h Spoy'.</rs. 239 

spicules aic in buiullcs wliicli apparently V\o inoro or less 
(il)Iiqiiely to the surface, the ends of the spici;les projecting 
beyond the dermis. 

Spt'cnles. — (1) Acanfhoptyli. The.=e vary in size from 
about O-lG-0-9 mm. in length by 0-00,s-()-025 mm. The 
lonrjer of tiiese spicules have a slightly curved shaft. The 
liead is thickly covered with short, stout, blunt spines, the 
remaining part of the spicule being smooth. The shorter 
acanthostyli have a curved shaft. The head is covered wilh 
short, stout, blunt spines. Similar sj,i>i(s extend a little way 
along the shaft. The rest of the shaft is set with recurved 
spines. These two extremes in the acanthostyli are linked 
together by other acanthostyli of varying lengths and of 
varying degrees of spination, so that it is not possible to 
divide the spicules into two gioups. (2) The dermal spicules 
are long straight styli, minutely spined on the head. Length 
U-5-0-75 mm. by OMJ08 mm. '(3) Jsoehfloi ijalmatrp, 0-019 
mm. in length. (4) Toxa. These have a well-rounded 
bend in the middle of the shaft and very slightly recurved 
ends, which are spined. The size varies from very miuute 
to about 0"35 mm. in length, with a maximum thickness of 
0-003 mm. 

The sponge was dredged off the south-west coast of Ireland 
in 250-542 fathoms. 

Eurypon ditox'y, sp. n. 

The sponge is growing in a very thin encrustation on a 
piece of Retepora. 

The main skeleton consists of acantlio^-tyli, whicli are 
placed veitically with their heads on the substiatum. The 
dermal spicules are in bundles set more or less obliquely to 
the surface. 

Spicules. — (1) Acanthostyb'. The largest of these spicules 
are slightly curved. The shaft is smooth except at the base, 
which is thickly covered with short blunt spines. Length 
al)out 0'3-0-6 mm., with a maximum diameter of 0*02 mm. 
The small acanthostyli are straight or slightly curved ; the 
head is covered with rather strong blunt spines and the shaft 
is thickly set along its whole length with small recurved 
spines. Length 0-125—0-2 mm., with a maximum diameter 
of 0*01 mm. (2) The dermal spicules are styli which are 
often a, little crooked. The head is very minutely spined. 
Length 0-4:-0-5 mm, by 0"005 mm. (3) LsocIkIeb palmatae, 
0-015 mm. in length. (4) Toxa of two kinds — (a) with a 
wide even curve and short arms ending in sharp, slightly 



240 jMiss Jane Stepliens on 

reourvetl point?. Lenath 0'0y-0"13 mm., with a maximum 
thickness of about 0"0025 mm. ; (//) with very long and very- 
slender straight arms, and with rather an abrui)t curve in 
the middle of the spicule. The maximum length is about 
O'S mm. 

The sponge was dredged ofT the west coast of Ireland in 
388 fathoms. 

Eury}wn tenuissirmim, sp. n. 

The sponge is growing in a small, very thin encrustatiou on 
coral . 

The main skeleton consists of acanthostyli which are set 
vertically with their heads on the substratum. The dermal 
skeleton consists of styli, apparently arranged in bundles, 
set vertically to, and projecting above, the surface, but their 
exact arrangement could not be made out owing to the scanty 
material available for examination. 

Spicules. — (1) Acanthostyli. The largest of these spicules 
are from 1 to 1*5 mm. in length, with a maximum diameter 
of 0"021 mm. The slightly curved shaft tapers to a rather 
short point at the apex. The base is covered, sometimes 
very sparingly, with rather short blunt spines. Smaller 
acanthostyli, spined to some distance along the shaft, are 
intermediate both in size and in amount of spination between 
the foregoing and the smallest acanthostyli, which are about 
0'12-0"14 mm. in length. These latter are thickly spined 
along their whole length. The head is covered with short 
blunt spines, the shaft with recurved spines. (2) The 
dermal styli are minutely spined on the head ; tiiey are 
0-45-0-7 mm. by O'OOG mm. (3) Isochelae palmatse, 0-021 
mm. in length. (4) Toxa, very slender, with long straight 
arms. Maximum length about 0*55 mm. 

The sponge was dredged off the west coast of Ireland in 
388 fathoms. 

Eurypon mierochela, sp. n. 

The sponge is growing in a very thin encrustation on 
coral. 

The main skeleton consists of acanthostyli, which are 
placed very close together and are set vertically with their 
heads on the substratum. The long acanthostyli project far 
above the surface of the sponge. The dermal spicules are 
in small bundles and project more or less obliquely above the 
surface. 



so)ne Irish Sponges. 241 

Spicules. — (1) Acantliostyli. The long acanthostyli are 
very slightly curved and taper to a rather long point. The 
head i.s well marked and is rounded ; it is thickly covered 
Avith short, stout, blunt spines. A few small spines are 
scattered along the shaft. These spicules measure about 
0'5-0'8 mm. in length by 0"013 mm. above the head. The 
short acanthostyli are straight ami taper to a long fine point. 
The head is fairly well marked and is covered with rather 
strong blunt spines. The shaft is thickly set with small 
recurved spines. The length varies from 0"12-0*17 mm. by 
OOOSmm. (2) The dermal spicules are slender subtylostyli, 
very minutely spined on the head. The shaft is often rather 
curved. The length is about 0"3-0'4: mm. by 0003 mm. 
(3) Isochelas palmatae, very minute, measuring only 0*008 
mm. in length. 

The species was dredged off the south-west coast of Ireland 
in 250-542 fathoms. 

Axinella pyraniidata, sp. u. 

The sponge, which is cut off from its support, is 15 mm. in 
height and 17 mm. in diameter at its summit. In shape it is 
somewhat like a three-sided pyramid standing on its apex, 
except that the sides are deeply cut vertically into a series 
of flattened lobes. The upper surface is flat, but here and 
there it rises into small knob-like elevations. 

The skeleton consists of closely-set plumose columns of 
spicules which run upwards through the sponge, and then 
bend out towards the surface, where they end in brushes of 
styli which project for part of their length beyond the dermis. 
A considerable amount of spongin is present, cementing the 
sjjicules together. 

Spicules. — (1) Styli varying from about 0*23 mm. to 1 mm. 
in length by 0"01-0"01(j mm. In the shorter styli the 
sliaft is rather sharply bent at a little distance above the 
head. The longer styli are usually slightly curved. Tliere 
is sometimes a slight swelling on the shaft a little distance 
above the head. (2) Oxea about 0'3-0"G muj. in length by 
001-0"013 mm. They are sharply and irregularly bent, and 
taper at either end to a rather short point. Many of the 
oxea have a slight swelling about tiie middle of the spicule. 

The only specimen in the collection was dredged off the 
Kerry coast in 37 fathoms. 



212 On some Irish Sponges. 

Notfs on some of the Species. 

Hamacaiitha johnsoni (Bawerbaiik) and fl. fulcula 
(Bowerbank). 

A great deal of confusion exists witli regard to these two 
species. An exaniinaLion of the type-slides showed that 
Hamacantha johnnoni possesses tiie following kinds of 
s|)icules — oxea, diancistia of two forms, and signiata, — while 
Hamacantha falcuta possesses styli, diancistra of three forms, 
and toxa. The toiiner species, in fact, has in recent years 
been called llumacaatha schinidti (Carter) and the latter has 
usually been ref-n-red to as Hamacantha johnsoni (Bower- 
bank)'. 

Rhaphidotheca mar shall -halli, Kent. 

Two specimens of Rhaphidotheca are in the collection — one 
with exotyles of the shape characteristic of R. marshall- 
halli, Kent, and the other with exotyles shaped like those of 
R. ajffinis^ Carter. From an examination of the two speci- 
mens it has been decided to regard the latter name as a 
synonym of R. marshall-halli. Tiie union of these two 
species has been suggested trom time to time by various 
authors. 

(?) Clathria anchorata (Carter). 

Tiiis sponge, which is doubtfully referred to the genus 
Clathria, was described by Carter under the name Dictyo- 
ci/lindrus anchorata. 

Anchinoe Jictitius (Bowerbank) . 

The sponge called by Bowerbank Microciona fictitia was 
found to have the same arrangement of the skeleton and the 
same kinds of spicules as Hymeniacidon perarmatus, Bower- 
bank, wliich is tiie type-species of Gray^s genus Anchitioe. 
This genus may be detined as follows : — Ectyonina3 with a 
skeleton composed of brauchiiig fibres which consist of 
multiserially arranged smooth diactinals echinated by 
acaiithostyli. No special dermal skeleton. Microscleres 
isochelai arcuatai solely, or perhaps with other forms. 

Plumohalickondriaj Carter, must be regarded as a synonym 
of Anchinoe, Gray. 



On a new Snake from Xorthern China. 243 



XXT. — DeacrijAwn of a new Snake of the Genus Coluber 
from yorthern China. By G. A. BOULENGER, F.K.S. . 

(Published by permissioo of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Two years ago I described in these ' Annals ' (xiii. 1914, 
}', 57Gj a new and very distinct species of Coluber discovered 
by Mr. A. L. Hall at Chilifeng, N.E. Cliilili Province, which 
I named (.'. halli. Mr. Hall has since been so kind as to 
send a second series of snakes from the same locality, and 
this includes, in addition to five further specimens of C. halli, 
a single specimen of another species which I regard as new 
and of which I here offer a description. 

The uddiiiunal specimens of C. halli show the following 
vaiiaiion in the nunjber of scales and shields : — 

S 23 scales. 172 ventrals. 69 subcaudals. 

$ 25 „ 181 „ 63 „ 

V 23 „ 179 „ 64 „ 

"^'g 23 „ 171 „ 05 „ 

„ 23 „ 171 „ 69 

The formula for the seven known specimens is therefore — 

Sc. 23-25. V. 171-181. A. 2. C. 58-69. 

Coluber a no mains. 

Snout rounded, scarcely prominent ; canthus rostralis very 
obtuse, loreal region slightly concave ; eye rather small, one- 
third length of snout, llostral much broader than deep, just 
visible from above ; internasals as long as broad, as long as 
the praifrontals ; frontal as long as broad, two-thirds its 
distance from the end of the snout, three-tifths the length of 
the parietals ; lureal longer than deep; piaeociilar single, 
no subocular below it ; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 3 or 4 ; 
scv en upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; four 
luwer labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which 
aie a little longer than the posterior. Scales in 22 rows, 
dorsals feebly but very distinctly keeled, laterals smooth. 
Ventrals not angulate laterally, 212; anal divided; sub- 
caudals mostly single, G5. Dark brown above; a large 
blotcii on the neck and a streak behind the eye black ; hinder 
part of body and tail with rather irregular black cross-bars; 
lower parts white, with greyish spots anteriorly ; subcaudals 
eiliied with blown. 



244 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on neio 

Total length 1770 mm. ; tail 250. 

A single male specimen. 

Tliis snake can only be compared with C. schrenchii, 
Strauch, from Corea and Eastern (Siberia, but it differs in the 
number of upper labial shields, tlie mostly single subcaudals, 
and in other points of minor im[)ortance. 



XXII. — Descriptions of Three new Cyprinid FisJtes from 
East Africa. Qy G. A. Boulenger, F.R.iS. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Laheo (jracilis. 

Body strongly compressed, its depth 4^ to 4| times in 
total length. Head ik times in total length ; snout rounded, 
as long as postocular part of head ; eye perfectly lateral, 
3^ times in length of head ; interorbital width ^ length of 
head ; width of mouth, with lips, 3^ times in length of head ; 
lips rather feebly developed, without transverse plica3, with a 
fringe of conical papillse ; edge of rostral flap entire ; a small 
barbel. Dorsal III 10-11, equally distant from nostril and 
from caudal, upper edge concave^ longest ray as long as head. 
Anal 111 5, not reaching caudal. Pectoral slightly shorter 
than head, not reaching ventral, which is inserted below 
middle of dorsal. Caudal deeply notched, crescentic. 
Caudal peduncle once and a half as long as deep. Scales 
40-42 ^;!, 4 between lateral line and ventral, 16 round caudal 
peduncle. Dark brown above, whitish beneath. 

Total length 120 mm. 

Three specimens from the Juba River near Gob wen, 
collected by Mr. A. Blayney Percival. Types in the British 
Museum and in the Nairobi Museum. 

Allied to L. inesops, Gthr., but body more elongate, eye 
larger, and mouth smaller. 

Burhus procatopus. 

Depth of body equal to length of head, 3_^ to 4 times in 
total length. JSnout rounded, 3 to 3^ times in length of 
head ; eye 3^ to 3^ times in length of head, interorbital width 
3^ times; mouth inferior, its width 4 times in length of head j 
lips moderately developed, lower uninterrupted ; two barbels 
on each side, posterior a little longer than anterior and as 



Ctfpyrini'd Fishes from East Africa. 245 

lonp: n<? oye or a litflo shorter. Dorsal III 8, equally distant 
from crill-opening and from caudal, border slightly concave ; 
last simple ray very stronfr, bonv, not srrratt'd, as long as 
head or a little shorter. Anal III 5, reaching caudal or not 
quite so far. Pectoral f to 4 K'nL,^th of head, not reaching 
ventral, the base of which is cntiioiy in front of the vertical 
of the dorsal. Caudal pedunch; twice as long as deep. 
Scales longitudinally striateil, 31-31: r't 2^ between lateral 
line and ventral, 12 round ciudal peduncle. Brown above, 
silvery white beneath, scales darker at the base. 

Total length 115 mm. 

Three specimens from the Amala River, entering the east 
side of Lake Baringo ; collected bv Mr. A. Blayney Percival. 
Types in British Mineum and in Nairobi Museum. 

Distinguished from B. gregorii, Gthr., which occur=? also in 
the B iringo watersheil, by the shorter baibels and the more 
posterior position of the dorsal tin, which originates bjlund 
the vertical of the base of the ventral. 

Barhtis loveridgit. 

Depth of bolv 3^ to -4 times in total length, length o£ 
head 4 times. Snout rounded, as long as or slightly shorter 
than eye, which is 3:^ to 3^ times in length of head ; inter- 
orbital width 2^ to 3 times in length of head ; mouth small, 
subinferior; lips feeble, two barbels on ench side, anterior 
very short, sometimes rudimentary, posterior ?- to | diameter 
of eye. Dorsal III 7, equally distant from occiput and from 
caudal, border straight ; last simple ray strong, bony, very 
stronglv serrated, the stitT part | to ^ length of head. 
Anal III 5, not reaching caudal. Pectoral as long as head, 
reaching or nearly reaching ventral ; base of latter entirely 
in front of vertical of dorsal, (^audal peduncle twice as long 
as deep. Scales radiately striated, 26-30 ^\^., 2\ between 
lateral line and ventral, 12 round caudal peduncle. Brownisli 
above, silvery wiiite beneath, some of the scales black at the 
base ; a narrow black lateral streak. 

Total length 70 mm. 

Several specimens from the Amala River, entering the 
east side of Lake Baringo ; collected by ^Ir. A. Blayney 
Percival. Types in British Museum and in Nairobi ^luseum. 

This species, named aftiu- IVIr. A, Loveridge, Curator of 
the Nairobi Museum, is most nearly related to B. litmiensisy 
BIgr., also found in the Amala River, differing chiefly in the 
larger eye and the shorter barbels. 

Aiui. il- Mag. X. Hint. Ser. S. I'o/. xvii. 17 



246 Ml"- R. K. Turner on Two neic Species of 



XXIII. — Twy new Speci'es of the Ilipnennpterous Genust 

Rowland E. Tukner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 



Migalyra, Weatio. By 



Family Megalyridae. 

Megalyra testaceipes, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; pedibus testaceis, palpis pallide testaceis ; antennis 
torebraque bruaneo-testaceis ; alls hyalinis, iridesceutibus, area 
cubitali leviter infumata. 

]jong. 3 mm. ; terebrae, long. 9 mm. 

S . Feminae similis, alis omnino hyalinis. 

Long. 2'5 mm. 

? . Antennse 14-jointed, second joint of tlie flagellnm 
twice as long as the first, the third joint a little shorter than 
the second and scarcely longer than the fourth. A strons: 
transverse carina reaching to the eyes just above the base o£ 
the antennfe. Head and thorax coarsely and evenly punc- 
tured-reticulate. Anterior ocellus separated from the eyes by 
a distance slightly greater tiian that separating tlie posterior 
ocelli from each other ; the posterior ocelli farther from each 
other than from the eyes. Olypeus riigulose, rounded at 
the apex. Anterior angles of the mesonotum produced into 
blunt tubercles; scutellum large, as long as the mesonotum ; 
pleurai more finely punctured than the mesonotum ; median 
segment coarsely reticulate on the dorsal surface, finely 
rugulose on the sides, shorter than the scutellum. Abdomen 
shining, almost smooth, the punctures microscopic. The 
whole insect without any patches of pubescence. Legs, 
especially the tibiae, with sparse whitish hairs; wholly testa- 
ceous, except the coxse, which are fusco-ferruginous. 

The male is similar to the female in all points of sculpture, 
but the faint fuscous cloud on the cubital area of the fore 
win<2: is absent in the male. 

Ifab. Kuranda, N- Queensland, June 29-July 16, 1913. 
Two females and one male. Taken on dead Eucalyplus- 
wood, in whicii small beetle-holes were numerous. 

Easily distinguished from other species of the genus by 
the straight transverse carina above the antennse, by the 
much shorter third joint of the flagellum, and by the very 
small size. Even M, minuta, Frogg., is considerably larger. 



the Ilijmenopterous (J onus Mei^alyra, Wtstw. 247 

Megalyra Hl/lputiaria, sp. n. 

2' Xipra ; tibiis nnticis apice tarsiaquo testaceis; terebra an- 
tenni.squo dimidio basali fiisco-ferrugiiieis ; alig hyaliiiis, irides- 
centibus, areis cubitali discoidalicjue iiifuscatis. 

Long. 2-4 mm. ; terebrae, long. 7-14 ram. 

? . Third joint of the fliigellum a little longer than the 
second and equal in length to the fourth. Eyes converging 
towards the clypeus, very narrowly separated from the poste- 
rior margin of the head; anterior ocellus separated tVom the 
eyes by a distance distinctly greater than that separating the 
p )sterior ocelli from each otiier, the posterior pair a little 
farther from each otiioi- than from the eyes. Head and thorax 
coarsely punctured-reticulate ; pleurae rugose, less coarsely 
scidptured than the mesonotum. Anterior angles of the 
mesonotum profluced into short acute tubercles ; scutellum 
large, nearly as long as the mesonotum and distinctly longer 
than the median segment, the latter rugose-reticulate. First 
abdominal segment smooth and shining ; the remaining 
segments very finely and closely punctured, subopaque. 
Legs and pleurae very sparsely clothed with whitish hairs, 
the whole insect without any patches of white pubescence. 

JIah. Kuranda, N. Queensland, June 9-24, 1913. Four 
females. On dead Eacali/ptus-wood. 

The third joint of the flagellum, though somewhat longer 
than in testaceipes, is much less elongate than in fasciipennis. 
In both this species and in testaceipes the eyes are more 
elongate and reach much nearer to the posterior margin of 
the head, and also converge more towards the clypeus than 
in the larger Sjiecies of genus which I have seen {fascii- 
pennis, shuckardi, melanoplera, mutilis) ; the terebra is 
three-and-a-half times as long as the insect, not four times 
as long, as in minuta, which also differs ni the colour of 
the legs. 

In Megalyra mutilis, Westw., tiie second joint of the 
flagellum is nearly twice as long as the third, which is only 
twice as long as the first. The only specimen I have seen is 
a male. 

Both tesfaceipes and lilUputiana were taken by me on a 
recent expedition to Australia, The types are in the British 
Museum. 



17* 



248 3Ir. H. E. Turner on Foi^sorial Hymenoptera. 



XXTV. — Notes on Fossm'i'dl Hi/menoptera. — XX. On nome 
Larriiije in the British Museum. By lioWLAN D E. TURNEK, 
F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Key to the Australian S/iecies of Liris. 

Wings yellow, with a pale fuscous margin ; 

legs feiTuginons ; the whole dorsal sur- [subsp. magnifica, Kohl. 

face clothed with golden pubescence . . L. hcemoii-hoidalis, Fabr., 
Wings pale fuscous; legs black; without 

golden pubescence L. nielania, Turn. 

Liris melania, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, subopaca ; segmento mediano opaco, delicatissirae trans- 
verge striate ; area pygidiali setosa, aureo-pilosa ; alls fusco- 
hyalinis, venis fuscis. 
Long. 17 mm. 

$ . Clypeus finely and closely punctured, with a deep 
depression in the middle of the apical margin. Second joint 
of the flagelliim equal to the third, twice as long as tlie first. 
Eyes toucliing the posterior margin of the head, separated on 
the vertex by a distance not quite equal to the length of the 
second joint of ti»e flagellum. Cheeks and the base of the 
mandibles clothed with fine silver pubescence. Pronotum 
not reaching the level of the mesonotum, higher in tlie 
middle than at the sides. Thorax subopaque, minutely punc- 
tured ; median segment about equal in length to the meso- 
Tiotum, very finely and closely transversely striated, with a 
longitudinal sulcus from the base to the apex, the sides of 
the dorsal surface and of the posterior truncation more coarsely 
striated. Abdomen subopaque, microscopically punctured ; 
obscure apical bands of fine whitish pubescence, broadly 
interrupted in the middle on the tiiree basal dorsal segments. 
Pvgidial area subtriangu'ar, narrowly rounded at the apex, 
shaped as in L. gibhom, Kohl, clothed with fine golden 
pubescence, and with numerous black setae. Second ventral 
segnient swollen near the base as in Notogonia, with a carina 
from the base to the middle. Second abscissa of the radius 
as long as the third, the two recurrent nervures received very 
close to each other. 

I-lah. (!airns district, Q. [collected hy F. P. Dodd and 
presented hy .T)r. Perkins). 

Tliis wa.s recorded by me as L, ducalis, Sm. (Trans. Ent. 



Mr. H. E. Turner on Fvs.<ori((l flymenoptera. 219 

Soc. London, j). 425, 11)10), to which it is nearly allied ; but 
ill that species the eyes are very distinctly 8e(>arated from 
the hind marf^in of the head, as in all the other species of the 
group known to me, the median segment is longer and has 
the median sulcus much more obscure, and the pubescence 
on the head is golden. 

Liris coioani, Kirby. 
Lmrada cowani, W. F. Kirby, Trans. Eut. Soc. Loudon, p. 200 (188.3). 

.2. 

Litis pedextrig, Saussure, Grandidier, iJist. Madagascar, xx. p. ol7 
(1S92). 2 6- 

A'e// to the Austi-alian Species o/Larra. 

22- 

1. Fore tibife with a row of spines on the outer 

niarpiu L, melanocnemis, Turn. 

Fore tibiae without spines on the outer 
margin 2. 

2. Legs ferruginous L. femorata, Sauas. 

Lfgs black, shading into fusco-ferruginous 

on the tibiie and tarsi in some specimens. L. scelesta, Turn. 

1. Eyes separated on the vertex by a distance 

at least equal to the length of the three 

basal joints of the tlagellum Z. melanocnemis, Turn. 

Eyes separated on the vertex by a distance 
equal to the length of the two basal 
joints of the flagellum 2. 

2. Legs ferruginous L. femorata, Sauss. 

Legs black, the apical half of the tarsi fusco- 
ferruginous L. scelesta, Turn. 

Larra melanocnemis, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, opaca, abdomine nitido, segraentis dorsalibus 1-5 fascia 
interrupta, albo-pilosa ; tegulis pallide testaceis ; alis fusco- 
hyalinis, venis fuscis. 

Long. 15-17 mm. 

$ . Clypeus opaque, very finely and closely punctured, 
the extreme apex smooth and shining, the apical margin 
transverse. Head subopaque, tinely and closely punctured, 
the front above the base ot the antenuaj shining and very 
sparsely punctured. Second joint of the flagellum twice as 
long as the first and halt as long again as the third, the 
antennte quite as stout in proportion as in L. anathema. 
Eyes separated on the vertex by a distance equal to the 



250 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossortal Ilymenoptera. 

combined length of the second and tliird joints of the 
llaLTcllnm. Pronotum sunk a little bdow the mesonotum, no 
liigher iii the middle than at the sides, the dorsal surface 
almost linear, very sharply sloped anteriorly. Thorax very 
closely punctured, the pleurte covered with short silver- white 
])ubescence. Median segment longer than the mesonotum, 
granulate, without any distinct median sulcus or carina, the 
apical slope finely and closely punctured. Abdomen smooth 
and shining, the first to fifth dorsal segments with a broadly 
interrupted apical band of wliite pubescence ; pygidial area 
elongate, pointed at the apex, finely and very sparsely punc- 
tured. Anterior tibife with a row of spines on the outer 
margin. Third abscissa of the radius equal to the second, 
the recurrent nervures separated from each other on the 
cubitus by a distance equal to nearly two-thirds of the 
distance between the first recurrent uervure and the first 
transverse cubital nervure. 

Hah. Mackav, Q., November to May [ex coll. G. Turner) ; 
Adelaide Kive/, N.T. {J. J. Walker) ; Adelaide, S.A. 

This is tlie Australian representative of L. mansueta^ Sm., 
a New Guinea species. 

In a former paper (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 473, 1908) 
I identified tiiis species erroneously as Larrada nigripes, 
Sauss., ;ind treated Larra psilocera, Kohl, as a synonym. 
Scliulz (Zool. Ann. p. 191, 1911), having consulted Saussure's 
collection, applies the name tiigripes to quite a different 
insect, which now bears the type-label. Saussure's descrip- 
tion, however, seems to have been taken from a headless 
female, whereas the specimen mentioned by Schuiz is a male 
and not headless. But Saussure's description is insufficient 
for any certainty. With regard to L. psilocera^ Kohl, the 
description of tiie antennge does not agree either in colour or 
form with the present species, the clypeus also is more 
polished. The locality given is Australia, but I suspect that 
the specimen may have come from one of the Austro- 
Malayan or Melanesiau islands. 

Larra femorata, Sauss. 

Tachyten femoratm, Sauss. M6m. soc. phys. & hist. nat. Geneve, xiv, 

p. -20 (1854). 
Larrada femorata, Sauss. M^lang. Hymen, i. p. 69 (1854). 
Larrn femorata, Kohl, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxxiv. p. 243 

(1884). 

B(th. Sydney {Froggatt) ; Mackay, Q, November to April 
{ex coll. G. Turtter) ; Kuranda, Q., Januaiy to June 
(Tu/Hcr). 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoplera. 251 

Lurra sceleslOj Turn. 
Lana scfleda, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 474 (1908). $ . 

I doubt if this is more than a variety of L. femorata. I 
can find no irooil structural disiiiiction, and the colour of the 
legs seems to vary, intermediate forms occurring. 

Larra erythropyga, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; scg^entis abdominalibus lateribus albo-pilosis ; seg- 
mento sexto, plerumque etiam in parte quinto, rufis ; tegulis 
testactjis ; aUs fuscis. 

Long. 17-20 mm. 

? . Clypeus opaque, finely and closely punctured, the 
apical marjiin tran.sverse; front above the base of the an- 
tennfe shining and concave, the marginal grooves very 
distinct, the upper part of the front and the vertex opaque, 
finely and closely punctured. Second joint of the flagellum 
twice as long as the first and about half as long again as the 
third; eyes separated on the vertex by a distance slightly 
exceeding the. combined length of the two basal joints of the 
flagellum. Tliorax Hnely and closely punctured, opaque, the 
niesopleurpe shining and less closely punctured. Median 
segment longer tlian the mesonotum, granulate, with a low 
median carina not reaching the apex, the posterior slope 
finely rugulose and divided liy a longitudinal sulcus. Abdo- 
men shining, almost smooth : pygidial area triangular, 
almost smooth, the sides nearly half as long again as the 
basal breadth. Fore tibiae with a row of spines on the outer 
margin. Third abscissa of the radius a little longer than the 
second, which is equal to the first ; the second recurrent 
nervure received close to the middle of the cubital margin of 
the second cubital cell, very narrowly separated from the 
first recurrent nervure. 

ilab. Nyasaland, S. W. of Lake Chilwa ; January 191J: 
(^S. A. Neave). 

Superficially this species strongly resembles the North- 
American L. nwUs, Fabr., but has the pronotum raised 
much higher than in that insect. 

Notogonia aiistralis, Sauss. 

Tachytes anstralis, Sauss. M6m. soc. phvs. & hist. nat. Geneve, xiv. 

p. 19 (1854). 
Ldi-rada auatralis, Sauss. M^lang. Hymen, i. p. 69 (1854). 
Larra australis, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 474 (1908). 

This species should be placed in Notogon'm, having the 



2r>2 Mr. R. E. Turner on FossoriaJ Ilyynenoptera. 

second ventral segment lornied as in that genus; tlie pro- 
iiotiini sunk below tlie mesonotuni, distinctly higher in the 
middle than on the sides; and a small tooth on the inner side 
of the mandibles at about one-third from the base. On the 
other hand, it approaches Larra in the short tarsal ungues 
and in the very sparse pubescence ot the pygidial area. 

Ilah. Adelaide, S.A.; Eagh-hawk Neck, S.E. Tasmania. 

Tachytes australis, ISauss., iieise d. Novara, Zool. ii. p. (38 
(1867), is quite a different insect, but has been confused iu 
Dalla Torre's catalogue. It is probably a 'rachysphex. 

Notogonia pilosifrotis, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, fronte aureo-pilosa, segmeutis dorsaUbus 1-3 fascia 

apicali obscura albida ; alis fuscis. 
Long. 17 mm, 

? . Clypeus subopaque, very minutely and closely punc- 
tured, with a transverse row of large punctures near the apex, 
the apical margin straight. iSecond joint of the flagellum 
equal to the third, twice as long as the first. Eyes separated 
on the vertex by a distance eqiuil to nearly two-thirds of the 
length of the second joint of the flagellum. Front clothed 
with bright golden pubescence. Pronolum sunk much 
below the mesonotum, much higher in the middle than at the 
sides; mesonotum strongly depressed in the n)iddle of the 
anterior nuirgin, subopaque. Median segment opaque, longer 
than bioad, obscurely transversely striated, the striae more 
distinct on the apical angles and on the posterior truncation ; 
a very obscure median carina from the base not reaching the 
apex. Abdomen subopaque ; the pygidial area triangular, 
the sides a little longer than the base, covered densely with 
coarse l)lack seta?. First ventral segment finely obliquely 
striated at the apex ; second ventral segment swollen towards 
the base, as is usual in the genus, and with a carina from the 
base not reaching the middle. Basal joint of the fore tarsus 
with four spines on the outer margin. Second abscissa of 
the radius a little shorter than the third, in some specimens 
equal to the third ; the two recurrent nervures very near 
together on the cubitus. 

Hab. Mlanje, Nyasaland, from 2300 ft. ; May to January 
[S. A. h^eave). 

The wings are paler than in N. gowdeyi, Turn., and have 
no blue effulgence. It is also distinguished from that species 
by the golden pubescence on the front, the sculpture of the 
median segment, the lesser distance between the eyes on the 
vertex, and other . etails. 



Mr. R. F. Turner on Fosson'a! lli/menoptera. 253 
Key to the African Species of Motes. 

1. Winps hyaline, clouded with fuscuiia 2. 

Wiiiirs gulden yellow, with a broiid fuscous 

nnxrgin 3. 

2. Abdomen wholly red M. cyphononyx, Kohl. 

Two or three upical segments of the abdomeu 

only red M. odoniophora, Kohl, 

3. Abdominal segments with a broad reddish- 

brown ajiical band above and beneath . . M. deceptor, Turn, 
Abdoniinal segments without a reddish 

apical baud M. liroides, Turn. 

Motes cyphononyx, Kolil. 

The type is from West Africa. S})ecimeiis in the British 
Museiuu are from Mwera, Ugamia, Au<>;u8t {0. G. Gowdey) ; 
Cliagwe, Mabira Forest, LIgaiida, 3600 feet, July {S. A. 
Ae(tve) ; Mh>iije, Nya-^alaiid, January (6'. A. Sheave) ; Upper 
Li ' ... 



Luiiscuiii rtic Liuiii m.»cirt, ugHuuii, .t\.ui^u»i \^' ^' Lrou'uei 
Uliagwe, Mabira Forest, LIgaiida, 3600 feet, July [S. 
Ne(tve) ; Mlaiije, Nya-^alaiid, January (6'. A. Sheave) ; [][>[ 
Luaugwa lliver, iS.E. Rhodesia, August {S. A. JXeave). 



Motes deceptor^ sp. n. 

$ . Xigra ; capita, pronoto, mesonoto, scutello, eegmento mediano 
supra, abdoruine supra tibiisque anticis intermediisque subtus 
dense aureo-pilosis ; scapo subtus, tegulis, segmentis dorsalibus et 
ventralibus 2-5 fascia lata apicali, segmeiito dorsali sexto, 
femoribus apice, tibiis tarsisque brunneo-ferrugiueis ; alls auran- 
tiacis, fascia lata apicali lusca. 

Long. 20 mm. 

? . The wliole dorsal surface of the insect covered with 
dense golden |»ubescence, concealing the sculpture. Mandibles 
incised on the outer njargin ; clypeus narrowly and slialluwly 
eniarginate on the middle of the apical margin ; second joint 
of the llagelluni equal to the third, rather more than twice 
as long as tiie hrst. Eyes separated on the vertex by a 
distance equal to the length of the second joint of the 
Hagellum. Pronotum sunk below the level of the nieso- 
notun:, higher in the middle than at the sides; pleurse 
smooth, opaque. Sides of the median segment smooth, 
o[)aque, with a few strise near the apex; dorsal surface and 
posterior slope strongly transversely striated at the sides, the 
strife very short. First ventral segment with irregular 
oblique striae on the apical third, second ventral segment 
shaped as in Notogonlt. Fygidial area in the fornj of a 
triangle rather bioadly truncaied at the apex, clothed with 
shyrt sclfB, a row of very stout setie forming a comb at tlie 



254 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

apex. The basal joint of the fore tarsi has four long spines 
on tiie outer margin ; the tooth near tlie middle of the tarsal 
ungues is small. The dark apical border of the fore wing 
roaelies the first transverse cubital nervure. First abscissa 
of the radius as long as the second and third combined, the 
two recurrent nervures very near to each other on the cubitus.^ 

Hah. Offi, N. Nigeria {Uiscock). 

Tliis species is very near lirotdes, Turn., and may prove 
to be a western subspecies of that insect. It differs in tlie 
broader pygidial area, in the shape of the anterior margin of 
the clypeus, in the reddisli-brown margins of the abdominal 
segments, and in the darker and somewhat broader marginal 
band of the fore wing. 

The superficial resemblance to Liris hcemorrhoidalis is 
very striking. 

Key to the Australian Species of Tachysphex. 

2$. 

1. Two basal segments of abdomen red .... T. truncatifrons, Turn. 
Abdomen whullj black 2. 

2. Tibiaj, tarsi, and apex at least of the 

femora ferruginous or testaceous brown. 3. 
Tibiae and femora wholly black, tarsi 
usually black, sometimes testaceous 
brown towards the apex 4. 

3. Legs ferruginous, liind and intermediate 

femora wholly ferruginous T. adelaida;, Turn. 

Legs testaceous brown, hind and interme- 
diate femora black except at the apex . T. imbellis, Turn. 

4. Wings fuscous or dark fusco-byaline .... 5. 
"VN'inijs hyaline 7. 

5. Pygidial area distinctly though not very 

closely punctured ; comb of the fore 

tarsi black and long T. stimulator, Turn. 

Pygidial area smooth and shining ; comb 
of the fore tarsi shorter and fusco- 
ferruginous 6. 

6. Wings dark fuscous ; mesonotum, scu- 

tellum,and abdomen highly polished. . T. persistans, Tom. 
Wings dark f usco-hyaline ; mesonotum, 

scutellum, and abdomen subopaque . . T. hypoleius, Sm. 

7. Dorsal surface of median segment rugose- 

reticulate or longitudinally striated . . 8. 
Dorsal surface of median segment smooth 
or minutely punctured 9. 

8. Median segment longitudinally striated; 

third abscissa of the radius longer than 

the second T. icalkei-i, Tarn. 

Median segment rugose-reticulate ; second 
abscissa of the radius at least twice as 
long as the third T. rut/ilorsatHx, Turn. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ifi/menoplera. 255 

9. Thorax and median segment covered with 
long pubescence ; abdominal fasciie 

tinned with pale gold T pSontlus, Turn. 

Thorax and median segment not strongly 
pubescent; abiiomiual fasciae white or 
absent 10. 

10. The whole insect, especially the abdomen, 

mucli flattened, dorsal surface of abdo- 
men flat T. depretsiventrU, Turn. 

Normal, not flattened 11. 

11. Mesonotum and scutellum shining, highly 

polished 12. 

Me?onotum and scutellum opaqne or sub- 
opaque 14. 

12. Second joint of the flagellum longer than 

the third T. pacificus, Turn. 

Second joint of the flagellum equal to or 
shorter than the third 13. 

13. Second joint of the flagellum equal to the 

third, pygidium compressed laterally, 

the pygidial area long and narrow .... T. piignator, Turn. 
Second joint of the flagellum shorter than 
the third, pygidium not ompressed, 
the pygidial area fairly broad T. discrepans, Turn. 

14. M.'dian segment a little longer than the 

mesonotum 15. 

Median segment distinctly shorter than 
the mesonotum 16. 

15. Mesonotum distinctly and very closely 

punctured ; apical joints of the an- 
tennae black ; second abscissa of the 

radius fully as lontr as the first or third. T. mackayensis, Turn. 
Mesonotum only microscopically punc- 
tured : apical joints of the antennae 
fusco-ferruginous ; second abscissa of 
the radius shorter than the first or 
third T. tenuis, Turn. 

16. Apical tarsal joint light ferruginous ; pos- 

terior slope of the median segment 

fin-ly punctured T.fortior, Turn. 

Apical tarsal joint black ; posterior slope 
of the median segment transversely 

striated T. tuhopncux. Turn. 

\X=-T. debiiig, Turn., nee Perez). 

Tadiytes australis, Saus?., 1S67 (nee Saussure, 1854), is 
almost certainly a Tachyspliex, but I am unable to identify 
it. In dealing with Australian Tachysj'hex in a former paper 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 491, 1908), I mentioned a doubtful 
record of the Xew Zealand .species T. nigprrimus, Sm., from 
Victoria ; this is certainly a case of mi.^taken locality. I 
have seen no specimens of T.Jruncatifrovs in recent collec- 
tions, and it is possible that the locality on the type at 
Oxford is erroneous. 



256 Mr. R. E. Turner on Foi^sorial Uymenoptera. 

Tachysphex depressiventris, sp. n. 

2 . Xigra ; mandibulis apice ferriigineis ; tarsia anticis spinis 
albifiis ; alis hyalinis, vonis iiigris ; mesouoto scutelloque nitidis ; 
abdomine depresso, nilido. 

Long. 9-1 U mm. 

? . Clypeus shining and sparsely punctured, convex, tlie 
a|)ical margin strongly depressed, transverse. Front finely 
and closely j)unctured, an oblique undulating carina on eacli 
side from above tlie base of the antennae not quite reaching 
the eyes. Second joint of the flagellum equal to the third, a 
little more than twice as long as the first. The front is not 
strongly convex, and the convex area o.i which the posterior 
octlli are placed is less developed than is usual in the genus. 
Ej'es separated on the vertex by a distance not quite equal to 
twice the length of the second joint of the flagellum. Pro- 
iiotum depressed much below tiie mesonotum, the middle a 
little higher than the sides ; mesonotum and scutellnm 
shining, microscopically punctured; pleurse opaque, minutely 
punctured. Median segment broader than long, a little 
narrowed to the apex, opaque, shagreened, with a distinct 
impressed line from the base to the apex, tlie surface of the 
apical truncation very finely transversely striated. Abdomen 
strongly depressed, the dorsal surface flat, shining, with a 
broadly interrupted apical band of white pubescence on 
segments 1— o ; pygidial area lanceolate, very narrow, shining, 
with a iew small punctures. Second abscissa of the radius 
distinctly longer than the third; the flrst recurrent nervure 
nearer to the first transverse cubital nervure than to the 
second recurrent nervure. Comb of the fore tarsus well 
developed, the spines whitish, tinged with ferruginous. 

IJab. Yallingnp, S.W. Australia, January; Muadaring 
Weir, S.W. Australia, March 18, 1914 {Turner). 

This species may be distinguished by the strongly flattened 
abdomen. 

Tachysphex persistans, sp, n. 

2 . Nigra, nitida, segmento mediano opaco ; segmentis dorsalibus- 

1-3 macula transversa laterali albo-pilosa ; alis fuscis. 
Long. 18 mm. 

? . Clypeus shining, sparsely punctured, transverse at the 
apex ; labrum bilobed. Front finely and closely punctured, 
not convex, depressed and convex round the base of liie 



Mr. R. Vl. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera, 'I'tl 

antennaR. Second joint of the fljii^tilliini equal to the thinl, at 
least three times as long as the tir.st. Eyes separated on the 
vertex by a distance sli:^htly greater than the length of the 
second joint of the Hagelinm. Pronotnm depressed below 
the niesonotuni, a little higher in the middle than at the sides, 
very sharply sloped. Mesoiiotuni and scutelliun shining and 
smooth ; pleurie opaque, ahno.st smooth. Median segment 
smooth, opaque, without a median line, as long as bioad, t!iO 
posterior slope transversely striated. Abdomen smooth and 
shining ; pygidial area very long and narrow, with a few 
minute punctures, the sixth segment as long as the fourth 
and tifth combined. Fore tarsi stout, the comb short as 
compared with most species of the genus. The three 
abscissa? of the radius about equal in length ; first recurrent 
nervure di.«tinctly nearer to the second than to the first 
transverse cubital nervure. The tegulse are brown at the 
apex. 

Ilah. Yallingup, S.W. Australia, December {Turner). 

This may be distinguished from other Australian species 
by the larger size and highly polished appearance. The eyes 
are closer to each other on the vertex than in hypoleius^ Siu. 

Tachysphex stimulator ^ sp. n. 

2 , Xigra ; segmentis dorsalibus 1-4 fascia apicali argenteo-pilosa ; 

segmeuto mediano trausverse ruguIo30-striato ; alls fuscis. 
cJ . Femiuae eimilis. 
Long., $ 17 mm., <£ 15 mm. 

? . Clypeus shining, irregularly and rather coarsely punc- 
tured, convex at the base, the apical half depressed and 
flattened; apical margin transverse, with two indistinct teeth 
on each side close to the angles. Front subopaquf, minutely 
punctured, with an indistinct longitudinal sulcus reaching 
the anterior ocellus. Eyes separated on the vertex by a 
distance slightly exceeding the combined length of the two 
basal joints of the flagellum ; the second joint of the flngellum 
equal to the third and nearly three times as long as the first. 
Pronotnm oblique, depressed below the mesonotum, some- 
what higher in the middle than at the side?. Pleurae and 
mesonotum subopaque, microscopically punctured ; median 
segment opaque, as long as the mesonotum, transversely 
ruguiose-striate, wit^h a shallow longitudinal sulcus from base 
to apex, the face of the posterior truncal ion more strongly 
transversely striated, with a deep sulcus from the base not 
reaching the apex. Abdomen 3uboi)aque above, smooth and 



258 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hi/menoptera. 

sliinino; beneath, the four basal dorsal segments with an 
apical band of silver pubescence. Pygiclial area shining, 
strongly and rather closely punctured, without pubescence, 
elongate, pointed at the apex. Comb of the fore tarsi long 
and well developed; tarsal ungues long as in the genus 
Noiogonia. Third abscissa of the radius distinctly longer 
than the second, the distance between the two recurrent 
nervures on the cubitus scarcely more than half as great as 
that between the first recurrent and the first transverse 
cubital nervures. 

The male has the seventh dorsal segment closely but not 
coarsely punctured, the punctures more or less confluent 
longitudinally, and the median segment is granulate on the 
dorsal surface. 

Hah. Yallingup, S.W. Australia, December [Tamer). 

May be distinguished from hypoleius, Sm., by the scul|)ture 
of the median segment and pygidial area, the longer tarsal 
ungues, and the lesser distance between the recurrent 
nervures. But there seems to be considerable variation in 
the development of the sculpture of the median segment, 
which in some specimens is almost as smooth as in hypAeius. 

Genus Paralellopsis, Maidl. 

Paralellopsis, Maidl, Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, ix. p. 147 (1914). 

To this genus must be assigned Gastrosericus neavei, Turn, 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1912 [1913]), which, however, is 
quite distinct from the typical species P. africana. The 
generic distinctions given seem to me rather slight in view of 
the aberrant structure of some species of Gastrosericus. 



Gastrosericus swalei, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra, pallide aureo-pilosa ; tegulis macula basali, femoribus 
apice tibiisque extus flavis ; tegulis apice testaceis; tarsis fuscis ; 
mandibulis fusco-ferrugineis ; alis h3'alinis, venis fuscis ; pro- 
sterno utrinque acute cornuto. 

Long. 7 mm. 

? . Eyes moderately convergent towards the vertex* 
separated on the vertex by a distance equal to about twice 
the length of the scape ; front very broad, clypeus and lower 
part of the face covered with short silver pubescence. Eyes 
separated from the posterior margin of the head by a distance 



On a new Speries and Subspecies (»/' Ennea. 259 

equal to about half the length of the scape. Prosternuin 
produced on each side into a stout, acute, curved horn, plainly 
visible from above. Median segment shorter than the meso- 
notuni, strongly narrowed to the a|)ex. The whole insect 
opaque, with pale goklon |)ubescence thinly distributed, 
becoming denser on the jironotum, median segment, and 
behind the eyes, and forming apical bands on the dorsal 
segments of the abdomen. Pygidiul area triangular, punc- 
tured and bare. Second abscissa of the radius very short ; 
the two recurrent nervures meeting before joining the cubitus. 

Ilab. Lonrdy i\line, Rhodesia (//. Swale) ; January. 

Easily distinguished by the extraordinary horns of tho 
prosternum ; otherwdse it superficially resembles tlie West- 
African 6^. atfenuatus, Turn., but has the median segment 
si)orter and the eyes much farther apart on the vertex, in the 
latter feature resembling G. lamellatus, Turn., and forming 
a liidv between tiie usual stronglv convergent ejes of Gastro- 
serious aud the parallel eyes of Paralellopsis. 



XXV. — Descriptions of a new Species and Subspecies of 
Ennea from Xorthtrn Nvjeria, and a Correction in the 
Original Description of E. reesi, Preston. ]^y H. 13. 
Preston, F.Z.8. 

The species and subspecies described below were received 
through the kindness of Colonel A. Gr. Peilo, and were 
obtained by Mr. H. Cadman, of tiie Colonial Civil Service, 
at Idah vilhige, at an altitude of 1300 feet, 25 miles north of 
Abuja, Zaria Province, Northern Provinces, Nigeria. The 
author has much pleasure in dedicating the new species, a 
most interesting form, to the collector. 

It may, perhaps, not be out of place to here make a small 
correction in a former paper by the autlior, also dealing with 
Enneidse from Nigeria *. In this paper the words placed in 
square brackets in the quotation below should be added to the 
last lines of the diagnosis of Ennea reesi, thus : — " Aperture 
obliquely subtriangular, armed wnth a projecting, parietal, 
lamella-like tooth, two denticles on the inner margin of the 
[labrum and two on the inner margin of the] columella lip, 
tlie lower in each case being the stronger." 

* Proc. Make. Soc. xi. 1914, pp. 134-136. 



2()0 On a new Species and Subspecies of Eiinea. 

Ennea [Gulelhi) cadmani, sp. n. 

Shell cylinrirical, yellowish wliite, polished, shining; 
whorls 6, the tirst three ret^ularly incrcasiiior, the last three 
increasinf^ in length but not in breadth ; suture rather slip;htly 
impressed, narrowly margined billow, the margin minutely 
crenulated ; perforation narrow, deep ; labruni thick, wiiite, 
retlexed, the margins joined by an opaque, white, parietal 
callus ; aperture irregularly subquadrate, armed with a coarse, 
erect, vertical, parietal lamella which is slightly twisted 




Ennea [Gitlella) cadmani, x 4. 

below, a protuberance on the upper portion of the outer 
lip which partly fills the space between it and the parietal 
lamella, while below this occurs a coarse downwardly curved 
lamella ; at the base of the aperture and very interiorly 
situate is an oblique nodular denticle, while in additi tn, 
projecting from the broad columella margin, occurs a hori- 
zontal lamella-like tooth. 

Alt. 5*7o, diam. maj. 2 mm. 

Aperture : alt. 1*25, diam. 1 mm. 

Hah. Idah, at an altitude of about 1300 feet, Zaria Pro- 
vince, Northern Nigeria (//. Cadman). 

Ennea (Paucidentata) monodon zariaensis, Rubsp. n. 

Shell differing from the typical form from Gaboon* in its 
larger sizf, much more cylindrical shape, and more oblique 
columella lip. 

Alt. 10, diam. maj. 4 mm. 

Aperture: alt. 2*75, diam. I'O diam. 

Hub. Idali, at an altitude of about 11^00 feet, Zaria Pro- 
vince, Nortiiern Nigeria {II. Cadman). 



* J. de Conchyliol. 1873, p. 330. 



(hi ihc Skulls of the Fclidio and V'ivcnidie. 2GI 



XXVr. — On the Course of Ike Internal Carotid Artery and 
the Foramina connected therewith in the Skntls of the 
Fclidio and Vivcrriihe. By K. 1. Pocock, K.R.S., JSii[)ei- 
iiiteudciit of tlie Zoological Society's Gardens. 

[Plates X. & XI.] 

The skulls upon which the observatious made in this paper 
arc based belong mainly to the Zoological Society's collec- 
tion ; but 1 aui indebted to Mr. II. C. Beck, F.Z.S,, for the 
kind loan of the skull of the rare Ma.lagascan genus Crypto- 
procta, aud to Mr. E. Gerrard for that of a species of 
Gaitdictis. The facts recorded have been checked as far as 
possible upon the skulls in the Br.tish Museum placed at 
my disposal by Mr. Oldlicld Thomas ; but in these examples 
I «as unable to lift the bullie or cut away the parts con- 
ci.-rued for the purpose of laying bare the foramina. 

For classifying the /Eluroid Caruivora both Flower and 
Mivart made use of the foramina in the base of the skull 
connected with the course of the internal carotid artery. 
The former* wrote: — "In the Felidte the carotid canal is 
vc'.y minute. In the Vivcrridse it is distinct as a groove oa 
the side of the bulla." According to ^livartf, " iu the 
Felida; there is no carotid foramen anywhere visible on the 
surface of the basis cranii, and no carotid foramen perforates 
or notches the sphenoid, whereas in the Viverridic there is a 
carotid foramen, or two carotid foramina, visible on each 
side of the basis cranii, and there may be a conspicuous, 
carotid foramen (deeply notching the splienoid) in the basis 
cranii for the entrance of the carotid into the cranial cavity." 

No excuse need be sought for restating the facts^ since 
neither of the quoted authors, who have inspired subsequent 
writers on the subject, seems to have investigated them very 
carefully, judging from certain inaccuracies and defects 
contained in their statements. 

The VivcrridcC, as understood by Flower and Mivart, are 
a heterogeneous group including all the aEluroids which 
are not obviously cats or hyaiuas. They may be considered 
first. 

It may be recalled that in Canis the canal for the internal 
carotid begins by an oritice on the inner side and in front of 
the space that leads to the foramen laceruui posticuni — the 

• ' Mammalia,' pp. 002 & oi'o (1^91 ). 
t P. Z. S. 18a-', pp. 144-145, 197-ll)s. 

Ann. d; Ma<j. N. llist. Ser. 8. Vol. x\\\. 18 



2G2 Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 

posterior orifice between the pcriotic aud the basioccipital. 
Posteriorly the canal lies between the tympanic bulla and 
tlie pcriotic. Anteriorly it is a tube iu the tympanic itself, 
and its anterior orifice opens at the autcro-iuternal angle of 
the bulla on the admedian side of the adjacent orifice of the 
eustachian tube, and just above the foramen lacerum medium, 
the anterior space between the perioticand the basisphenoid, 
through which the artei-y, after leaving the canal, enters the 
cranium. 

Except that the posterior orifice of the canal is always 
situatetl further forwards and that the anterior orifice, even 
uheu the canal is complete, opens into a space beneath the 
bulla common to it and the eustachian tube, the arrangement 
found in the Viverridse does not differ much from that of 
the Canidse. But within the Viverridae there are some 
interesting variations in detail worth putting on record. 

The facts observed in most of the dominant types may be 
described before a general summary is attempted. 

In an example of the African civet {Civettictis civetta) 
the posterior orifice of the carotid canal is situated about 
halfway along the inner wall of the bulla further in advance 
of the foramen lacerum posticum than in the Felidae and 
Canidie. Throaghout its length it is an open channel, and 
not a closed tube. It passes nearly vertically between the 
tympanic and the adjacent edge of the basioccipital. It 
then turns, and ceases at the edge of the inturned tympanic. 
Thence the artery runs forwards beneatii the anterior part 
of the tympanic, aud enters the foramen lacerum medium, 
which forms a small semicircular notch in the basisphenoid 
and is just visible at the antero-internal angle of the bulla 
■when the skull is viewed from below, although it is partially 
overlapped by a small bridge of bone jutting inwards from 
the bulla to the antero-lateral angle of the basioccipital. 
Behind this bridge the pcriotic appears for a small space on 
the surface of the skull between the bulla and the basi- 
occipital. 

In examples of the Oriental civets {Viverra zibetha, V. 
tanyulungu, and Viverricula malaccensis) the arrangement is 
similar in all essential respects, except that the pcriotic does 
not reach the surface of the basis crauii, the foramen lacerum 
jjosticum is usually narrow, and the foramen lacerum medium 
much deeper and more apparent on the base of the skull *. 

* III properly cleaned skulls a bristle can be passed tlirough the carotid 
canal from back to front when the canal is tolerably straight ; but where 
it makes a sharp bend, as iu the African civet examined, this cannot be 
done. 



I 



Skiil/a of the Fclidie and Vivenichc. 20.'? 

Til examples of (jeneita pardina and j'elinn^ on the con- 
trary, tlie posterior orifice of tlie canal lies much further in 
advance of the furainen lacenaii jjos/iciim — tliat is to sav, 
about one-Fourth of the distance from the anterior eiul of 
the posterior chamber of the bulla. It is formed by two 
juxtaposed grooves, one on the bulla, the other on the peri- 
otic, a narrow strip of which reaches the surface at this point 
between the basioccipital and the bulla ; but the deeper, 
anterior half of the groove is a complete bony tube formed 
by the bulla alone. The anterior end of this tnl)e opens 
just above the fora men (ticerum mediain, which deeply notches 
the sphenoid and is almost concealed from view superHeially. 

In an adult skull o( Payunia larvata the caual begins as a 
groove on the anterior half of the inner side of the bulla, 
and becomes a definite tube (juite at the anterior end of the 
posterior chamber of the bulla up against the basiocc.'ipital ; 
and as in Genetta felina the concealed anterior part of the 
canal is a short but completely bony tulje formed l)y the bulla 
alone. The foramen laceriun medium, notching the basi- 
s|)hen()id, is just visible at the aute o-internal angle of the 
bulla. The two bones forming the bulla are not fused 
together. 

In an adult skull of Paradoxurusniger the canal resembles 
that of Paguma larvata, except that the concealed anterior 
portion is not a complete bony tube in the tympanic. Here 
also the two bones of the bulla are not co-ossified. 

In an example of Arctictis binturong the posterior orifice 
of the canal is about halfway along the wall of the bulla, and 
therefore much closer to \\\e foramen laceruni pusticum i\nn\ 
to the foramen lacerum medium. The canal is a deep groove 
oa the tympanic. It descends nearly vertically at first, 
where it passes alongside the basioccipital. The artery 
thereafter turns forwards and completes its course on the 
underside of the tympanic. In the specimen examined the 
canal is nowhere a complete tube, although just above the 
j)<)iut where it ceases the bones of the tympanic almost meet 
and close it in. Since this specimen is immature, as shown 
by the persistence of the occipito-spheuoidal fissure, although 
the permanent dentition is just in place, it is possible that 
in the adult the tube is closed at the place above indicated. 
The foramen lacerum medium deeply notches the sphenoid, 
the anterior part of the notch being almost cut off from the 
posterior by bony growths. 

In a skull of Hose^s palm-civet (Diplogale liosei) the 
carotid canal is set close to ihc foramen lacerum medium, and 
is a verv short and simple passage Iving between adjacent 



2G-4 Mr. R. I. Pocock on the 

portions of the tympanic, periotic, and basioccipital ; and 
the foramen lacerum inedium is a rather short constricted 
notch in the basisplicnoid, and is visible to a ji^reat extent 
upon the surface ol" the skull. It may be added that the 
two bones composinj? the tympanic bulla are comj)letely 
separated in the adult skull, as they are in the examples of 
Paguma larvata and Paradoxurus niger examined. 

In a subadult skull of Arctogalidia with the tooth-change 
just completed, but with the basisphenoidal suture still 
visible, the posterior orifice of the carotid canal lies approxi- 
mately midway between the foramen lacerum posticum and 
the foramen lacerum medium. It leads into a groove in the 
tympanic, which is bordered on the admedian side by the 
basioccipital ; but anteriorly it is continued by a complete 
bony lube formed by the tympanic, as in Genet ta felina and 
Paguma larvata. But, unlike the other species hitherto 
discussed, the orifice by which the carotid artery enters 
the skull is entirely cut off from the periotic, and pierces the 
sphenoid as a round hole, which is exposed on the base of 
the skull just in front of the antero-internal angle of the 
tympanic bulla. The two bones of the bulla are completely 
fused together, as in Arctictis, Genetta, Virerra, Viver- 
ricula^ and Civettictis. 

In Ci/Hogale the course of the carotid canal is peculiar. 
It runs from a notch-like orifice in the wall of the bulla 
obliquely across the posterior chamber as a very distinct 
crest to the septum and periotic, and itself forms a low 
partition to that chamber. The foramen lacerum^ medium 
simply notches the basisphenoid. 

In Cryiitoprocta ferox the features presented by the carotid 
canal combine those of Genetta and Arctogalidia. The canal 
Slants as a groove on the tympanic near the middle of the 
inner wall of the bulla ; but where it dips beneath the surface 
it is converted into a complete cylindrical tube formed by 
the tympanic alone, and is thus cut off from the basioccipital 
and the periotic. It terminates in front beside the eustachian 
aperture. The artery enters the brain by a hole, not a 
notch, in the basisphenoid, and this hole, as in Arctogalidia, 
is visible on the base of the skull in front of the antero- 
internal angle of the bulla, and is completely severed from 
all connection with the periotic. 

Approximately the same condition appears to obtain in 
Eupleres and Fossa — at all events, so far as the distinctness of 
the carotid foramen in the sphenoid is concerned. 

In the skulls of mongooses (Mungos) the posterior orifice 
of the canal is a small round hole, not a long groove, perfo- 



I 



Skuf/s of (lie Felidaj cnuf ViviMiidie. 2^5 

ratine; tlio wall of tlip bulla above tlio basioccipital bone. 
'rUc. canal itsflC tlirou^^lioiit its Icnj^th is a narrow cylimlriual 
bony tube formed by tlie tympanic, so that the artery is 
iiowjiere in contact witli the basioccipital or the periotic. 
The artery issues from this tube alongside the eustachian 
aperture, and enters the skull by a conspicuous foramen on 
the base of the skull, piercing the basisphenoid in advance of 
the antero-intcrnal angle of the bulla, as in Crtj])tuprocta. 

Within the limits of the genus Miiuyos the j)osition of the 
posterior orifice of the canal varies. In a skull of Mnnyos 
ichiieio/ion it lies about midway between the foramen lar.erum 
posticuin and the anterior termination of the canal ; but in 
a skull of Mungos sm'ithii the posterior orifice is only a short 
distance in front of the foramen lucerum posticuin, so that 
the canal iu this example is relatively much longer than 
in the other. 

Judging from a superficial examination of tiie skulls of 
mongooses of other genera, the structure of the carotid canal 
is the same as that described above. The position of the 
posterior orifice, which always apparently pierces the bulla 
juNt behind the inner portion of the partition of the bulla, 
varies in accordance with the length of the two chambers. 
In Cynictis, for example, where the posterior ehamioer is 
very short and the anterior very long, the orifice in question 
is only a little way in front of the foramen lacerum posticuni 
and the canal is long, whereas in Ichneumia albicauda, where 
the anterior chamber is small and the posterior large, the 
posterior onficeof the canal is set far forwards, and the canal 
itself is short. 

In Galidictis and related genera the structure of the 
carotid canal appears to be the same as in the mongooses. 

The condition of the canal in the mongooses and Galidic- 
tina3 may be derived from that seen in Cryptoprocta by the 
growth and subsequent union of the upper and lower 
margins of the carotid groove on the bulla, to form a cylin- 
drical tube continuous with the osseous tube, which forms 
the anterior portion of the canal in that animal. 

In the African palm-civet (Nandinia binotata) the bulla, 
as is well known, has the wall of the posterior chainl)cr 
permanently cartilaginous. In a fresh example of this 
species I found the carotid artery entering the cartilaginous 
bulla a little way in front of the foramen lacerum pusticuni, 
and running over a groove on the periotic close to the basi- 
orcipital and entering the small foramen lacerum medium^ 
which lies deep down and is entirely concealed by the bony 
tympanic bone, when the latter is left in [)lace. This 



•2(^C^ ]Mr. K. I. Pocoek on the 

foramen, moreover, is cut off from the periotic by bone, a 
short straifjht suture ah)nc iiulicatiii<:; its orifi;inal contiiniity 
with the space l)et\veeu the periotic and the ))asispheiioid. 

In her paper upon Nandinia Miss Albertina Carlsson 
marks the carotid proove as running betwecu the autero- 
iiitcrnal portion of the tympanic bone and the basioccipital. 
This must, I think, be a mistaken inference. At all events, 
tlic artery did not take that course in the fresh example of 
Nandinia that I examined (see Zool. Jahrb. Svst. xiii. 
pp. 509-5:28, pi. xxxvi. fig. 1, 1900). 

It may •)e added that there is no partition, either carti- 
laginous, membranons, or osseous, in the bulla of Nandinia. 
When the tympanic membrane is cut away, a probe can 
be passed in the uncleaned skull through theexternal auditory 
meatus to the posterior wall of the cartilaginous portion of 
tiie bulla. 

In the Felida?, in conformity with the homogeneity of the 
family, the carotid canal is much less variable than in the 
Vivcrridae'^. The canal is almost always apparent as a short 
shallow groove notching the tympanic bulla close to the 
basioccipital, and not infrequently set so far back that it 
lies within the depression which leads to the foramen lacerum 
posticuni. Occasionally, however, the notch or groove lies 
just in front of that depression, as in a skull of Felis jagua- 
rondi 1 possess ; but it is never set nearly so far forward as 
the middle of the inner surface of the bulla. Only quite 
exceptionally, and as an individual peculiarity, is the notch 
converted into a bony tube, with a rounded orifice, by the 
extension and fusion of its edges, so that the basioccipital 
forms no part of the carotid canal. This is the case on one 
side, but not on the other, in a skull of Felis uncia, in which 
the posterior orifice of the canal is, as in Mungos, a round 
hole in the bulla. In this skull, as in that of F.jayuarondi, 
the canal is placed in front oit\\e foramen lacerum posticum. 

In all cases the canal descends f to the edge of the con- 
cealed iuturned portion of the tympanic above the periotic, 
where it ceases. From that point the artery apparently 
runs along the periotic close to the basioccipital and the 
adjacent portion of the tympanic, and in some cases this 
portion of the tympanic is longitudinally grooved J ; but I 

* In this paper the significance applied to the term Viverridae by 
Mivart and Flower is, without prejudice, adopted. 

t From the point of view of the spectator, when the skull is examined 
with its base u})perinost. 

. t I have not, however, traced the course of the artery within the 
bulla of any of the Felidie. 



Skulls of the Felicia? and Vivfrri(l;<'. 2<'7 

do not know wlictlicr or not this f;roovc marks tlio oourso of 
the artery, althoui^h the similarity of this groove to that 
of the Viverrida; supgcsts that it does so. The canal fre- 
quently shows on the inside of the hnlla as an upstanding 
ridge resembling, but relatively smaller than, that of 
Cyno(f(ile. 

The artery enters the skull by a small narrow foramen, 
notching the basisphcnoid where it touelies the periotic. 
This orifice, visible in all the skulls of Felidai examined, is 
i\\e foramen lacerum medium, and it corresponds exactly with 
that of Viverra and Genetta ; but to discover it the bulla 
has to be removed, because it lies deep beneath the anterior 
end of the bulla, which at that point is immovably fused to 
the basisphcnoid, and the only orifice at the antero-internal 
angle of the bulla is the internal orifice of the eustachian 
tube. 

In this connection it may be recalled that Mivart ('The 
Cat,' p. 208, 1881) said that the minute internal carotid 
artery enters i\\e foramen lacerum posticiim, and passes along 
a slender canal between the basioccipital, basisphcnoid, and 
the periotic, and enters the cranial cavity at the inner side 
of tlie anterior end of tlie ])eriotic. This appears to be per- 
fectly correct, but it is difficult to reconcile with his subse- 
quent statement (P. Z. S. 1882, p. 145) that it is distinctive 
of the Felidte as compared with the Yiverridie to have no 
carotid foramen perforating or notching the sphenoid. 
Nevertheless, as has been shown above, the basisphenoid is 
penetrated by a notch by which the carotid enters the skull 
close to the periotic in the Felidse and all the typical 
Yiverridaj. In fact, there does not appear to be any material 
difference between Felis and Nandinia with respect to the 
course of this artery and the foramina connected therewith. 

Conclusion. 

The above-mentioned facts have been described in some 
detail to show, first, the variation in the structure of the 
carotid canal and in the situation of the foramina connected 
with the artery in the genera referred by Mivart, Flower, 
and others to the Viverridye, and, second, the impossibility 
of logically drawing a line, based upon the characters under 
notice, between the Viverridse, as understood by those 
authors, and the Felidae. The facts may be briefly sum- 
marized as follows : — 

(1) In the Viverridje the posterior orifice of the canal 
may be far forwards and C)iily a short distance behind the 
foramen lacerum uirdium (Paf/uiaa, Diplogale), or near the 



2(i{S Mr. H. I. r.,cock on the 

middle of the inner wall of the bulla (most of the genera), or 
set far back only a little way in advance of tbe foramen 
locei-uiti postiaim {Ci/uictis). In some Felidje (e. ff., a skull 
of F. jiiyiiaroiidi) it is only a little closer to tbe foramen 
luceruin /JostUuin tban in Cynictis. In otbers it lies back so 
as to open within that fossa. 

(2) In the Viverridie tbe canal itself may be a long com- 
pletely bony tul)e traversing the wall of tbe bulla {MvHf/os and 
allied genera), or it may be a complete bony tube only at its 
anterior end and an open channel in the bulla posteriorly 
{Genetta, Puyvnia), or it may be an iiicomi)lete tube or 
an open ebaunel throughout its length in the bulla [Civettidis, 
Viverricuta, Viverra), or it may form a very distinct ridge 
running obliquely across tbe cavity of the bulla {Cynogale) . 
In the Fclidie it is, as a rule, an open channel, only excep- 
tionally being a closed bony tube in its posterior half. 

(3) In the Vivcrridse the orific(?'by which the artery enters 
the base of the skull after leaving the tympanic canal may 
be entirely cut off from tbe rest of the foramen lacerum 
medium and fully exposed on the basisphenoid {Mangos^ 
Cryptoprocta^ Fossa, Galidictis, Arctogalidia), or it may be 
coutinuous with the foramen lacerum medium behind and form 
a deeper or shallower notch in the basisphenoid, the anterior 
end of this notch being sometimes plainly visible in front 
of the bulla {Arctictis, Diplogale, Paradoxurus), sometimes 
overlapped by it and only visible by looking beneath the 
bulla {Geneda, Viverricula, Nandinia). In the Felidaj the 
orifice always notches the basisphenoid, as in the genera just 
mentioned, but it is never visible from the surface, because 
the overlying portion of the bulla forms here a bouy contact 
or fusion with the basisphenoid. 

The combination of these characters — namely, the fusion 
of the bulla to the basisphenoid and the consequent complete 
concealment of the foramen lacerum medium by which the 
internal carotid enters the skull after leaving the bulla — is 
apparently the only positive feature that can be substan- 
tiated between the Viverridse and the Felidae so far as the 
structures under notice are concerned. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES, 
Platk X. 

Ficj. 1. Base of cranium of Viierricula malacccnsis, with bulla of leftside 
rt- iuo\ ed and bristles passed through the eustachian tube and the 
carotid canal of the right side, ov., foramen ovale ; yi, glenoid 
foramen ; fm., foramen lacerum medium running from the 

fieriotic and deeply notching the basisphenoid ; st., stylomastoid 
oramen with the fenestra rotunda on its inner side and the 
fenestra ovalis juat in front ; per., periotic pierced by these two 



SLulls of the Fcliila; and Vivcrridic. 2G9 

fpiiPstr.T and on tlu- inner sicio abnttinp n^raiiist tlie ba^^ioccijiitftl ; 
fp., foniincn liu-Hruni pusticnm with the coiulylnid fornnu!! just 
beliind it; ;»wr., piimcfiiiitiil ; th., tviiipaiiic bulla, the position 
of tlie partition sli()wn l)y a dotti,'(l Ihr', 

Fig. 2. Base of cranium of C'ryptoprorta ferox with the two bullae in 
Tilace. Lettering and arrows as in fig. ] ; ftn., the foramen 
laceruni niedi'im piercing the splienoid as a round hole entirely 
separated from the periotic. 

Fiy. 3. Base of cranium of Muu//<>s iclincuinon with the antero-intemal 
portion of the bulla of the left side cut away to show the bony 
carotid canal {cc.) running alongside the basiocoipital and 
terminating in front a little behind the part of the foramen 
lacerum medium (/?«.) which is separated from the periotic 
(l>er.), the rest of it being represented by the smaller, more 
external orifice behind; co., the posterior orifice of the carotid 
canal. Other lettering and arrows as in figs. 1 and 2. 

Fiij. 4. Base of cranium of NcnKlinia binotatu with the cartilaginous 
portion of the bullre missing from both sides and the osseous 
anterior portion, niarl;ed th. on tiie left side, removed from the 
right. The stylomastoid foramen {st.) is remote from the 
margin of the prominent mastoid (;«.) and the fenestra rotunda 
on the periotic {per.) is on its inner side ; the foramen lacerum 
nitdium (fm.) is a small orifice in the basisphenoid lying deeply 
beneath the tympanic {th.) and touching the periotic by a very 
narrow cleft. Other lettering as in preceding figures. 

Plate XI. 

Fiy. 1. I^eft auditory bulla of Civeltictis civetta, and seen obliquely from 
the underside to show the course of the carotid cavlhI {car.), 
represented by a dotted groove. The canal comes to an end at 
the edge of the inturned portion of the tympanic bulla ; ea., ex- 
ternal auditory meatus formed by tympanic ring. 

Fig. 2. Left auditory bulla of Arctictia bintnrong from the same aspect. 
The carotid groove is almost converted into a bony tube in- 
feriorly; eu., eustachian tube. The large groove behind the 
carotid groove leads to the foramen lacerum posticum. 

Fig. 3. Anterior portion of the left bulla of Paynma larvata, to show tlie 
carotid groove passing anteriorly into a bony tube, the arrow 
indicating a bristle ti-aversing the canal. 

Fiy. 4. The same in Gcnettn felina. 

Fiy. b. Bight bulla of Fvlis imcia from the same aspect as represented in 
the foregoing figures. The arrow indicates a bristle passed 
through the carotid canal (car.), part of which is a complete 
bony tube. In all Felidic the canal apparently takes the same 
course, which is practically the same as that of Civettictis and 
Arctictis, but the canal is almost always an open groove, and 
not a bony tube. 

Fig. 6. Bight bulla of Viverricida malaccetifiis, with arrow indicating the 
course of the carotid artery anteriorly beneatii the triangular 
flange of bone, which is not united beneath the artery to the 
adjacent bone of the tympunic ring to form a tube such as is 
seen in Geiwtta. 

Fiy. 7. Left half of base of skull of Diployale hosei, showing the very 
short carotid canal beginning at car. ; /j/j. and fp., foramen 
lacerum medium and posticum ; st., Btyiomattoid foramm ; 
tb., tympanic bulla, with the line showing the separation 
between the two portions. 



1'70 On a new Binturoni/ from Siatn. 



XXVII. — A new Bint urong from Siani. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Among a collection of mammals from South-western Siam 
presented last year to the National Museum by Mr. K. G. 
Gairdner there occurs a fine binturong's skull, so conspicu- 
ously larger than any other known that it evidently represents 
a distinct species. I have, however, not been able to describe 
it before, owing to a doubt as to what sexual variation there 
might be in the genus aiul the fact tliat all our adult skulls 
appeared to be those of females. Now, however, thanks to 
the kindness of Mr. H. C. Robinson, I have before me a fine 
male skull from Bukit Gautang, Perak, and am thus able to 
make a proper comparison with the Siamese animal. This 
latter may be called 

Arctictis gairdiieri, sp. n. 

Size conspicuously greater than in the other species. 
Skull bioader, more vaulted. Nasals very broad, parallel- 
sided to the point where they join the frontals laterally, 
instead of evenly narrowing from front to back. Frontal 
region broad, much swollen upwards and laterally, then 
abruptly narrowed at the fronto-parietal suture. Sagittal 
and lambdoid crests greatly developed. Posterior palate 
broad, much produced backwards. Bullae narrow, far over- 
lapped by the heavy paroccipital processes. Teeth much 
worn down in the type, their proportions apparently about as 
in the Perak skull. 

Dimensions of the type (those of the Perak male in 
brackets) : — 

Greatest length 153 mm. (136) ; condylo-basal length 
152 (136) ; zygomatic breadth 98 (84*5) ; nasals, mesial 
length 28 (21), breadth at middle 19 (12) ; inferorbital 
breadth 41 (33) ; tip to tip of postorbital processes 59 (47*5) ; 
breadth immediately behind the latter 51"5 (40) ; breadth at 
fronto-parietal suture 41 (39) ; greatest posterior breadth ou 
ridges 73"5 (59) ; height of crown from posterior palate 
54-5 (47) ; palatal length 84-5 (73) ; breadth of posterior 
palate 24-5 (19-7). 

Ilab. Sai Yoke, S.W. Siam, near Tcnasseiirn boundary. 



A new (Joins fv I' Sciiinis poon:iis aiul its Allies. 271 

Ti/pe. Ailiilt .skull (no doiiht male) witliout skin. B.AF. 
110. 15. 12. 1. 2ti. ()ri<(inal miinber 207. Collected and 
presented hy ]\Ir. K. (i. Gaiidner. 

This biiitiiroiii^ diU'era so immensely in size from the 
ordinary Arctictis that no detailed comparison is needed in 
describing it as new. It affords a curious parallel to the 
giant Arctonyx of the same region — A. dictator — discovered 
by Mr. Robinson, which was also obtained by Mr. Gairdner 
at kSai Yoke. 

I have much pleasure in connecting this fine species with 
the name of its discoverer, who has been making great efforts 
to improve our knowledge of the Siamese mammal fauna. 
It is to be hoped that he may presently ije able to obtain a 
complete specimen of Arctictis gairdneri. 



XXVIII. — A new Genus fur Sciurus poensis and its Allies. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permissiou of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

When writing a revision of the genera of African squirrels 
in 1909"'^, I included, with much hesitation, three African 
species in the genus Sciurus, otherwise Ilolarctic only. 
Since then, however, the important characters which may 
be drawn from the structure of the penis-bone, or baculum f, 
have been discovered, and it is now evident that these three 
species should not be included in Sciurus (which has a 
peculiar and characteristic hand-like baculum), but need 
distinction as a new genus. 

For Sciurus poensis, one of the three species referred to, 
has a minute, perfectly simple baculum about 2 mm. in 
length, conspicuously different from that of Sciurus, but 
similar to that found in several other African squirrels, 
among whom no complicated bacula like those of Sciurus 
occur, still less any compound ones such as have been 
descril)ed in Callosciurus and Tomeutes. 

For the new genus I would suggest the name x^t/to- 
sciurus, with genotype x^. poensis (Sciurus poensis, A. Smith), 
and would include in it also JE}, lucifer and ruwenzorii. 

« Ann. & Ma}T. Nat. Hist. (8) iii. p. 467 (1909). 

t See Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xv. p. 388 (1915). 



272 Mr. O. Thomas on 

jiHt/wscinn/s would apjioar to be most nearly allied to 
Hcliosciiirus, but may be distiugjuislied by its possession of 
two uj)per premolars. As already explained in my previous 
])a])er, its basin-shaped lower molars se});irate it from Para- 
uerus and Funisciunis, and its more normal skull from the 
peculiar geuus Myrsilus. 



XXIX. — Notes on Bats of the Genus Histiotus. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of tlie Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The members of the genus Histiotus are all extremely 
closely allied to each other, their respective sizes, skulls, 
and teeth being almost identical, and the only distinguishing 
characters lying in the colour and the size and shape of the 
cars. Even these latter are both somewhat variable and 
very difficult to use for discrimination owing to the effect on 
them of shrinkage, whether in spirit or dry. 

In 1875 * Peters wrote an account of the genus which was 
wonderfully good, considering the comparatively few speci- 
mens he had available. He gave excellent figures of the 
ears of certain of the forms, these figures being referred 
to below. In the ease of the extreme southern species, 
however, H, magellanicus, the ears are drawn much 
too small, owing to their having been drawn from dried 
specimens. 

As Peters pointed out, the Brazilian species, H. velatits, 
Geoff., is readily distinguishable from all the others by 
its more triangular ear, which has a prominent rounded 
lobe in front projecting forwards, as shown in his plate, 
figure 1, and is connected with its fellow of the opposite 
side by a transverse band about 3 mm. in height. 

In colour H. velatus is very dark brown, with com- 
paratively dark ears and membranes. Its skull is a little 
narrower than in other species, with narrower interorbital 
regions and palate, but the difference is really very slight, 
considering the essential difference in the shajie of the 



ears. 



* MB. Ak. Berl. 1875, p. 785, plate. 



Bats of the Genus Ilistiotus. 273 

The type-locality of H. velatus is Curityba, Parana, and 
we have three exami)les from Palmeira (Coll. Grillo), elose 
by in tiie same province. Other specimens before me come 
from Lagoa Santa (Reinhardt) and San Lorenzo, Rio 
Grande do Sul (Ilicriny). 

Bnt in the liigiilands of Matto Grosso M. Alphonse 
Robert collected a specimen, which, thongh with typically 
H. velatus ears, appears to be subspecifically distinguishable, 
as follows : — 

Histiotus velatus miotis, subsp. n. 

Ears shaped as iu true velatus, but considerably smaller, 
measuring (when thoroughly rc-dauipcd) only 25 x 17 mm., 
as compared with 30 X 23 in typical velatus. Fur blackish 
brown at base, broadly washed terminally with lighter 
brown (between cinnamon-brown and Prout's brown). 

Skull smaller than in true velatus. 

Dimensions of type : — 

Forearm 40 ram. 

Head and body 55 ; tail 50 ; ear 25 x 17. 

Skull: greatest length 17-2; basi-sinual length 13*2; 
zygomatic breadth 10'5 ; interorbital breadth 5*6 ; maxillary 
tooth row G. 

Hab. Chapada, Matto Grosso. Alt. 800 m. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 3. 7. 7. 17. Original 
number 118G. Collected 21)th October, 1902, by A. Robert 
and presented by Mrs. Percy Sladeu. 

The other members of the genus all have broadly rounded 
ears as in Peters^s plate, figs. 2 to 5. 

H. maf/ellunicus, Phil., the most southern species, is re- 
presented iu the Museum by examples from Tierra del 
Fuego {Craws/.ay), Last Hope Inlet ((Volffsohn), and 
'iV-muco, S. Chili (Bullock). That from the first-named 
locality, certainly Phili^)pi's species, has ears 25 x 1G"5 mm., 
thus showing that the small size of the ears in Peters's 
figs. 4 a and 5 is due to the specimens having been dried. 
The body-colour of H. mayellanicus is a uniform dark 
brown (mummy-brown). Eare not connected across the 
crown. 

Next northwards follows H. macrotus, Poepp., described 
from Antuco, in the Andes of Southern Chili. This bat was 
said by its dcscriber to have ears three times the length of its 
head, which would make them something like 60 mm. long — 



274 Mr. 0. Thomas on 

no doubt an exaggeration. Peters identifies a specimen 
from Chili with ears 37 x 24 mm. with //. macrotuSj wliile 
we have none that I can assign to it. unless a very large skullj 
without skin, sent by Mr. Woltfsohn from near Santiago, 
may be referable to it. 

Then follows tlie commonest and most widely-spread 
species of all, H. montanus, Phil. & Landb. (syn. H. sec/efhH, 
Peters) — descril)ed from Chili (Cordillera of Santiago), 
whence Air. WolfFsohn has sent specimens, — which ranges 
northwards througli Peru to Ecuador and eastwards over 
the Andes to Cordova {Kemp), Neuquen (Buenos Ayres 
Museum), Buenos Ayres itself, and Uruguay (Aplin). The 
ears are of medium size, about 26-28 mm. long by 17-19 in 
breadth in spirit-specimens. The cross-band on the crown 
not developed in the middle linC^. The colour is a light 
greyish brown (wood-brown), very different from the dark 
of H. magelJanicus. 

North of this again there occurs, at Bogota, the following 
species : — 

Histiotus colomhice, sp. n. 

Most closely allied to H. mnntamis. Ears about as in 
that species. General body-colour dark brown, almost as 
dark as in the far southern s[)ecies H. mayellanicus, the hairs 
blackish brown basally, washed terminally with pale cinna- 
mon-brown. Hairs of under surface brown basally, dull 
buflPy (near "pinkish-buff^') terminally. Ears of rather a 
narrow-oval shape, those of the type, when thoroughly 
relaxed, 30 X 19'5 mm. No median connecting-band per- 
ceptible. Ears and membranes dark brown. 

Skull rather stoutly built, with broad interorbital region. 
Upper premolar with an unusual development of the antero- 
exterual angle, this forming a marked projection outside the 
hinder basal point of the canine; many of the other forms 
of Histiotus have this angle slightly projected forwards, but 
none so much as in the present one. 

* I am aware of Lataste's observation that on the fresh specinieu the 
connecting crMSS-band can be simulated by holding up the specimen by 
the eiirs, a fold of skiu then becoming visible across the crown (Act. Soc. 
Sci. Chili, i. p. 89, 1892). But he only had before him examples of 
H. montanug, and had probably never seen the species in which a com- 
plete connecting-band is present. Had he done so, he would not have 
thrown doubt on what is certainly a genuine differential character 
between the various species, as may be readily seen by examining good 
series of spirit-specimens. 



Bats of the Genus llistiotus. 275 

Dimensions of type (measured on skin) : — 

Forcarni 11) mm. 

Ear 30 X 19*5. Tragus on inner edge 12. Third finger, 
metacarpus 14, first plalanx 16, second phalanx 15 ; lower 
leg and liind foot (c. u.) 31. 

Skull : interorbital breadth GG ; intertemporal breadth 4*6; 
maxillary tooth-row G'G. 

Hab. Choachi, near Bogota. 

Type. Adult female skin and skull. B.M.no. 1)9. 11. 1. 1. 
Collected 2()th August, 1895, by G. D. Child. Presented 
by Old field Thomas. 

This bat is closely allied to H. montanus, of tlie monntain 
regions further south, but difl'ers by its dark(!r colour and 
the great dcveloi)nuMit of the anterior angle of the upi)er 
premolar. Should this latter characteristic prove inconstant, 
it may later be advisable to consider Colombia as a dark 
subspecies of montanus. 

In the lowlands cast of the Andes, besides H. montanus to 
the south, we have in Bolivia the following : — 

Histiotus Ifephotis, sp. n. 

Ears very large, as compared with those of //. montanus, 
about 32 or 33 mm. in length by 23 to 24- in breadth; 
transverse connecting-band well developed in middle, where 
it is about 3 mm, in height. General body-colour, of a 
specimen skinned out of spirit, rather dark brown (mummy- 
brown), the extreme tips only of the hairs washed incon- 
spicuously with lighter brown. Hairs of under surface 
brown basally, dull whitish terminally. On the other hand, 
while the colour of the fur is dark, much darker than in 
//. montanus, the cars and wing-membranes are comparatively 
light, pale and more or less translucent grey. 

Dimensions of type (measured on spirit-vspeeimen) : — 

Forearm 46 mm. (other specimens up to 51). 

Head and body 54; tail 50; ear 33x24; tragus 11; 
third finger, metacarpus 42, first phalanx 14, second phalanx 
1 1'5 ; lower leg and hind foot 29. 

Skull : greatest length 18*2 ; eoudylo-basal length IG'8 ; 
zygomatic breadth 10'8; interorbital breadth 5'4 ; nia.\illary 
tooth-row 5*8. 

Hub. Southern Bolivia. Type from Caiza. 

Type. Male in spirit. B.M. no. 97.2.25.1. Collected 
by Dr. BorcUi and presented by the Turin Museum. Four 
specimcus. 



276 On Bats of t lie Genus Hidtlotus, 

This species dift'ers decidciUy from H. montanus by its 
much hirger ears and their definite comicction by a trans- 
verse band. In describing it as new the only question is 
with regard to the South Chilian H. macrotus, Popp., which 
we do not possess. But the ears of the Bolivian bat, although 
large, are so very far less than three times the length of 
the head, and the respective habitats have such difl'erent 
faunas, that I do not think it possible the two should be 
the same. 

How far it extends southwards I do not know, but of 
some specimens from Tucuman some appear referable to 
this species and others to H. montanus, as though that were 
the meeting-place of the two forms. 

Finally, we have the somewhat surprising presence, right 
in the heart of the range of the triangular-eared velatus 
group, of the following member of the oval-eared group : — 

Histiotus alienus, sp. n. 

Ears like those of H. laphotis, but shorter (29 x 20 mm.), 
joined together on the forehead by a couuecting-baud about 
2 mm. high. General colour dark throughout, the body 
dark brown, the membranes and ears dark grey. Under 
surface apparently little lighter than upper. 

Dimensions of type (measured on spirit-specimen) : — 

Forearm 45 mm. 

Head and body 54 ; tail 45 ; ear 29 x 20 ; tragus 10*5 ; 
third finger, metacarpus 40, first phalanx 13'5, second 
phalanx 14; lower leg and hind foot 27. 

Skull: greatest length 18*3; condylo-basal length 17; 
zygomatic breadth 11'4 ; interorbital breadth 6'5 ; maxillary 
tooth-row 6'4. 

Hab. Joinville, Santa Catherina. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 9. 11. 19. 1. Collected by 
W. Ehrhardt. 

The presence of this bat in the region otherwise ex- 
clusively occupied by H. velatus is very peculiar, but there 
can be no doubt of the correctness of the locality, as the 
specimen came direct from a resident there, who could not 
well have obtained it from anyw^here else. 

H. alienus is dark-coloured, like the other Brazilian 
species, and its ears are larger than those of H. muntanus, 
smaller than those of H. laphotis, the latter being probably 
its nearest ally. 



iT7. 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



iUGAZINE OF iNATURAL niSTOEY. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 
No. 100. APRIL 1916. 



XXX. — Desci'iptions and Records of Bees. — LXXI. 
By T. D. A. CocKERELL, University of Colorado. 

Megachile tasmanica, sp. n. 

^ . — Length about 7"6 mm. 

Black with white hair, long on face, cheeks, and under 
side of thorax ; on front the very long hairs are stained 
with brownish, and the sc;inty hair on disc of mesothorax is 
somewhat l)rownish; head large, facial qnadrangle much 
longer thau broad; mandibles black ; clypeus with a dense 
beard of pure white hair, but upper part exposed, very 
densely punctured, but with a smooth shining spot ; antennre 
slender, black ; mesothorax closely and minutely punctured, 
without hair-spots, except that there is a small tuft of white 
hair behind each tegula ; tegulie piceous. Wings dusky 
gieyish, stigma and nervures black; anterior coxae covered 
with white hair and without spines ; anterior tarsi formed 
essentially as in M. leeKivinenais, M. -Waldo, the lobe on 
second joint large, oval, with a large black spot on a white 
ground. Abdomen short and broad, densely punctured, 
the first segment with a tuft of white hair on each side, 
segments 2 to 4 with thin apical hair-bands, weak in middle; 
fifth segment with thin glittering white hair ; sixth briefly 
bidentate, the teeth not far apart. The anterior tarsi, and 
anterior tibial at apex, are ferruginous. 

Hub. George Town, Tasmanin, Nov. 11), 1911 (F. M. 
Littler, 2248). 

Ann. tC- Ma<h X. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol xvii. I'J 



278 Mr. T. 1). A. ( ockcrell — Descn'^itioits and 

Allied to M. heuiviiu'iisis, but easily separated by the 
wholly l)laek abdomen. It cannot be the male of M. ordi- 
nariii, Sni., as that has hyaline wings witli I'eiTuginous 
ueivurcs. 

Megachile })ii(jnata ])Omon(P, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 15 mm. 

Like M. pu(jiHttii, Say, but the pale hair of thorax, lo^rs, 
and alxlonieu reddish yrllow, the doisal surface of sixth 
al)domiiial segment densely covered with clear ochreous 
hair, without any dark hairs iutermixed. Median apical 
lobe of clypeus entire. 

Hub. Mts. near Claremont, Calif. (Balcer ; Pomona coll., 

ib;^). 

Andrena macrocephala, sp. n. 

(^ . — Length about 9 mm. 

Black, with an exticmcly large and broad quadrate head, 
nnich broader than the small thorax ; eyes diverging below ; 
ely[)eus very broad and low, sparsely punctured, pale yellow 
villi two pale gnyish-browu spots ; process of labrum 
emarginate ; mandibles very long, hent in middle, red at 
tip; cheeks very hroad, but rounded behind; flagellura 
ver}' obscurely reddish beneath ; occiput and middle of face 
with red hair, sides of face with black hair; thorax dull, 
minutely granular, with long fox-red hair; legs slender, 
reddish black ; tcgulae very small, dark brownish. Wings 
modei'ately dusky, stigma dull ferruginous, nervures fuscous. 
Abdomen shining black, without bands, hair at apex soot- 
colour. 

Var. a. Head not so large, though still very large and 
broad ; thorax with pale fulvous hair. 

Hub. Claremont, Calif. {Baker ; Pomona coll., 200 ; 
var. a., 199). 

A remarkable species, suggestive of A. berberidis, Ckll., 
both having a broad head, yellow clypeus, and well- 
developed malar space. The clypeus is much broader and 
lower than that of berberidis, and there are many other 
differences. 

Payiurginus neomexicanuSj (^kll. 

P. nigrinus, Viereck, is the female of P. neome.ricanus. 
I have numerous females from J^eulah, August (one at 
flowers of Polemonium ; JV. Porttr), Kio Kuiduso, prox. 



Itecordi of Bi'oa. 270 

0700 ft., at flowers of Verljasrani i/K/psiis, ,hi\y 22 {Toirns- 
cnd), South Fork, Eagle Creek, piox. SO(J() It., at (lowers of 
Erif/cron macrun/hus, Aug. 18 {Tuwmcnd) ; all ia New 
^rexico. 

PanN}'f/inus piercei, Crawford. 

Tlic range is greatly extended by females from Las Vegas, 
N. M., at tis. of Splueralcea cuyi'ulala, Aug. 1 ( /r. Porter), 
and Tularosa, N. M. {Cuckerell). 

Panut'ffiiius dhUrupa, Ckll, 

Male from Las Vegas, N. M., at fls. of Verhesina exauri- 
ciiluta, July 31 {Cockerel/). 

Panurginus atricornis (Cresson). 
Male from Beulali, N. :\I., Aug. 18 {W. Porter). 

Panurginus nebrascensis, Crawford, 

A male from Lincoln, Nebr., Aug. {Bruner), certainlv 
belongs here, but it has an impressed line down middle of 
clypeus. 

Panurginus bakeri, Ckll. 

Female from Copelaiid. Park, Boulder Co., Colo., Sept. G 
{S. A. Ruhwer). 

Panurginus flavotinctus (Ckll.). 

Female from Florissant, Colo., at fls. of Cleome serrtdata, 
Aug. 23 (*S'. A. Ruhwer). This has the teguhe pale testa- 
ceous ; in P. bakeri they are partly dark. P. flavotinctus 
occurs as far south as the Organ Mts., N. M., where 
Townsend took it in cora[)any with P. pectiphilus, Ckll., 
at flowers of Pedis papposa. It was also collected by 
Townb;eud on the Kio Kuidoso, N. M., pro.x. G500 ft., Aug. 4. 

Panurginus picipes (Cresson). 

Males from Pecos, N. M., at fls. of Rndbeckia ampins 
Aug. 4 (7^ & JV. Ckll.). This is quite distinct from 
P. inntiptus^ but is very close to P. albitursis (which visits 
Rudbcckia at Santa Fe), vet I think distinct. 

19* 



2S0 :Mr. T. D. A. CockcYcn—Deacriptions and 

Pamirgimis boy lei, Ckll. 

Beulal), N. M., July (CU/.) ■ Sun Ignucio, N. M., Sept. 1 
(^Porter d) CklL). 

Panurginns armatireps, sp, n. 

? . — Lengtli about 6 mm. 

Black, the head and tliorax with scanty long grey hair ; 
lieail enormous, the face extren)ely broad, without any light 
markings; face shining, front dull, except at extreme sides ; 
cheeks swollen, very broad, polished, armed beneath with 
a very large tooth ; mandibles extremely long, faloifoim ; 
labrum broadly rounded, depressed in middle, with a boss- 
like elevation on each side of base ; clypeus very broad and 
low ; antennai very long and slender, black; thorax small ; 
mesothorax and scutellum polished ; area of metathorax 
dull ; legs ])iceons, thinly haiiy ; tegulae rufo-piceous. 
"Wings moderately dusky ; b. n. falling short of t.-m. ; 
first r, n. meeting t.-c. ; second s.m. greatly narrowed 
above; marginal cell broadly obliquely truncate; abdomen 
shining, without bands. 

Hub. Claremont, Calif. {Baker; Pomona coll., 228). 

This ( xtraordinary species might have been referred to a 
new genus, but it is evidently related to P. ulriceps (Cress. ), 
from which it diflers by the large head with toothed 
cheeks. 



Perdita fedorensis, sp. n. 

? . — Length nearly 5 mm. 

Like P. vespertilio, Ckll., except that the flagellum is 
longer and darker, and consjjicuously hooked at end ; and 
the clypeus is dark brown with a white cuneiform mark on 
each side. The lateral face-maiks are between triangular 
and quadrate, notched above ; tubercles with a small white 
s})0t. Wings clear, with hyaline nervures and stigma. 
Abdomen dark brown, without markings. Legs dark brown, 
the tarsi pallid. The apical two-thirds of the (iagellum is 
rather narrowlv testaceous bene;ith. 

Hub. Fedor,' Texas, April 29, 1898 {Birkmunn, 87). 

Very close to P. ^rsperii/io, but apj)arently distinct. 
INIr. Birkmann has also taken P. iynota, Ckll. (Lee Co., 
Texas^ Oct._), and P. crawfurdi, Ckll. (male, Fedor, May 1). 



Records of Deeft. 281 

Perdita verlesina collaris, suljsp. ii. 

(J . — Head, niesotliorax, and scutelluin yellowish green, 
tlie nicsotliorax with slight coppery tints; nietathorax hlue- 
greeii ; U|)per part of front wholly dnil, lowei' part shining ; 
tlagclhmi bright orange, niarUcd with black above at base ; 
sides of clyppus, lower border rather broadly, and a median 
band yellow ; lateral face-marks transverse ; upper border 
of prothorax, and large spots on tnbercles, light yellow ; 
midille and hind tarsi dark brown ; second and following 
abdominal segments with orange bands, deeply incised sub- 
laterally, tiie middle portion of band on second segment 
almost obsolete. 

Hub. Rito de los Frijoles, New Mexico, August (Cockerell). 

Tliis resembles /■*. lepach'ulis, Ckll., in the colour of the 
thor.ix, and seems intermediate between h'jxichidis and 
verbes'u}(p. It may prove to be a distinct species. P. verbe- 
si/KPy var. maculata, (Jkll., has (J) yellow middle and hind 
tarsi, the small joints more or less ferruginous. 

Perdita heliophila, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 8-8*5 mm. 

Like P. n!bipennis, but head, thorax, and abdomen with- 
out light markings ; front dull. Very like P. verbes'ince, 
var. niyrior, with which I had confused it, but Lirger, hair 
of liead and thorax above ochreous, stigma pale orange. 
The mesothorax is shining yellowish green. 

Hub. Mesilla, New Mexico, three, all at flowers of Heli- 
anthus leiiticularis, Aug. li and 15 (Cockerell). 

Perhaps a variety of P. albipennis, but the specimens are 
all alike, and the appearance is very distinctive. 

Perdita croionis undecimalis, subsp. n, 

$ . — No supraclypeal mark; clypeus with two very broad 
black bars, forming a figure 1 1 ; lateral marks very short, 
not reaching level of top of cly[)eus, squarely notched on 
inner side above ; metallic colour of head and thorax 
green. 

Hub. Between Rowe and the Old Pecos Pueblo, New 
Mexico, at Howcrs of Crotou, Sept. 4 {JF. P. Cockerell). 

Perdita numerata, Cockerell. 

This was described from a female. A male, which f refer 
here with confidence, is from Mesilla Park, New Mexico, 



282 :,[r. T. D. A. CockexaW—Descn'ptums and 

'^\■^y 12, bv sweeping herbage {Cockerel/). It runs in my 
table of Perdita (Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Philad. 189o) to 
7'. maculipes, from which it is easily known by the dark 
brown stigma, the pleura with only an oblique yellow band, 
and the abtlominal bauds not united at sides. The dark 
mark on anterior tibia is small, and if the dark markings 
on anterior and middle legs were absent it Mould run to the 
vicinity of salicis, n'UiJella, and exclumans, where it would 
leadily be known by the dark stigma. The face is pale 
yellow, and the upward extension of lateral marks is like a 
closed hand with a very short index-finger jjointed ; there is 
a yellow band along lower half of posterior orbits. The 
second s.m. is not so greatly narrowed above as in the type 
female. The ventral surface of the abdomen is yellow 
without markings. 

Perdita blrkmanni, sp. n. 

? . — Lengtli 4 mm. or slightly over. 

Head and thorax dark bluish green, dullish, only slightly 
hairy ; head ordinary; elypeus (except the u^^ual dots and 
a pair of brownish bars), a very small transverse siipra- 
clypeal mark (sometimes having the form of a letter C), 
lateral marks (broad below, narrowed above, ending obtusely 
on orbital margin at level of antenna;), labrum, and mandibles 
(except the rufescent apices), all yellow ; cheeks without 
yellow; autennai rather long, flagellum i)ale fulvous be- 
neath ; tubercles with a [)ale yellow mark ; tegulse testaceous. 
Wings strongly dusky, outer r. n. and t.-e. pallid and weak. 
Legs dark brown, Mith the knees, and anterior and middle 
tibiae in front yellow. Abdomen with a yellow mark at 
each side of first four segments, those on first small, the 
others pcjiuted mesad, not or hardly oblique ; venter brown. 
The stigma is sepia, without a hyaline centre. 

Nab. Fedor, Texas, June 1 (Birhnann, 89). Two 
specimens. 

In my tables of Perdita this runs to P. a finis, var., but it 
is known by its small size and other characters. It is much 
smaller than P. octomuculata, Say, and has the lateral face- 
marks differently shaped, without the strong inner angular 
notch. Among the Texas species it falls ch^se to P. jonesi, 
Ckll., but differs by being smaller, with the yellow marks 
on third and fourth abdominal segments transverse (not 
oblique), supraelypeal mark present, anterior tibiae entirely 
vellow in front. 



I 



Records uf Dees. 283 

Perdlta bnineri, Ckll, {cockerelli, Crawf.). 

Tlie raiifj^c is j^roatly extended by a male taken at flowers 
of Solidayo, \)ci\\i:\', Colorado, Aug. 21, 1908 {Mrs. C. 
Bennett). 

Emphoropsis tristisshna (Ckll.). 

Claremont, CaliF. (Baker ; Pomona eoll. 14.2). A female 
E. murUiirtUj Ckll., eonics with the same data. 

Anthophora crutchii, Cresson. 
Claremont, Calif. {Baker; Pomona coll. 143). 

Anthophora inf emails, Dal la Torre. 
Claremont, Calif. {Baker-, Pomona coll. 153). 

Amhophora washinytoni, Ckll. 
Claremont, Calif. (Baker; Pomona coll. 133). 

Anthophora urbana, Cresson. 
Claremont^ Calif. (Baker ; Pomona coll. 142). 

Anthophora anstrutheri, Ckll., variety a. 

Mts. nenr Claremont, Calif. [Baker; Pomona coll. 142). 
This female differs fiom the type in iiaving the triangular 
hair-patch at apex of fifth abdominal segment very pale 
tawny instead of black. 

Stelis laticincta, Cresson. 
Claremont, Calif. (Baker ; Pomona coll. 186). 

Spinoliella euxantha, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 9'5 mm. 

Robust, black, with very bright yellow markings on face 
and abdomen ; head and thorax with [)ah; oclireous hair ; 
clypeus (except two brown spots), large triangular lateral 
face-marks, and spot on base of mandibles (followed by 
a red shade), bright yellow ; labium brownish ; flagcllum 
thick and very short, dull red beneath, except basally ; 
vertex shining, with large and small punctures ; thorax 
without yellow markings : mesothorax shining, spaiscly 
punctured, the disc impunctate ; area of metathorax shining. 



284 :Mr. T. D, A. Cuckcrell — Descrq't'wns and 

the basal middle roughened, very delieatcly ])Hcatulate ; 
legs robust, with ])ale ochreous hair ; middle femora very 
broad ; anterior tibiae broadly, and middle ones more 
narrowly, yellow at base ; tcgulie black with a faint reddish 
tint. A\ ings dilute brownish; b. n. falling far short of 
t.-m. : marginal cell ])ointed at end and appendiculate. 
Abdomen shining, withouthair-t)ands, but much ochreous 
hair at ai)cx ; segments 1 to 5 with bright yellow bauds, all 
boad at sides, the first narrowed nearly to a point in middle, 
the second with more than the median third linear, the 
third and fourth merely narrower in middle, the filth with 
a median wedge-shaped iucur*ion of black ; venter dark 
Avithout bands. 

Hub. Claremont, Calif, [Baker: Pomona coll. 229). 

In the table in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxv. p. Ilj5, this 
runs out at 10, because the clypeus is yellow and there is no 
supraclypeal mark except a minute scarcely visible dot. It 
falls near to S. zoualis (Cresson), known only in the male, 
but is too different to be its female. 

Sfiinoliella coinpiula, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 8*5 mm. 

Black, with ivory-coloured face-markings and dull yellow 
abdominal bands ; hair of head and thorax greyish ; face 
broad ; clypeus (except lower margin, and a j)air of black 
marks like triangular flags on poles, their points directed 
toward the eyes), subcircular supraclypeal mark, triangular 
lateral face-marks (produced above, ending in a sharp point 
on orbital margin a little above level of antenuee), lower 
part of labrum, and laige patch on base of mandibles, ivory- 
colour; flagrllum short and thick, dull red beneath except 
at base ; me>oihorax shining, sparsely punctured (punctures 
large and small), impunctate on disc; thorax witljout light 
markings ; area of metathorax shining, its base broadly 
dull ; anterior knees with a small yellow spot ; anterior 
tibiae and tarsi iu front with ferruginous hair. Abdomen 
with five yellow bands, the fifth broken into two large 
patches, the others continuous but narrow iu middle, the 
second with its large lateral expansions broadly excavated 
on outer side ; venter without bands. 

Hub. Mountains near Claremont, Calif. (Baker ; Pomona 
coll. 224). 

In my table cited it runs to 6, but falls out on account of 
th'i peculiar face-markings. In Fowler's table (' Psyche,' 
Sept. 1899) it luns to S. cincta (Cress.), but that has the 
face all dark in the female. 



Records of Bees. 285 

NeoUirra alha, sj). u. 

(J. — Longth about t nun. 

liobiist, covered with white scale-like pubescence ; man- 
dibles and lal)rum fcrrufjjinous, the latter with a boss-like 
elevation on each side ; face l)road ; llagelluin thick, ferru- 
ginous ; legs covered with white pubescence, but tarsi and 
knees can be seen to be pale lerruginous ; tegulie dark, 
covered with light hair ; secoiul s.iu. extrenudy small and 
narrow; stigma dark ; tcguiiient of abdomen d;irk, with the 
hind margins of segments reddish, but the whole densely 
covered with white hair, that of the hind margins forming 
chalky-white bands; venter densely covered with white 
hair. 

llah. Clarcraont, California {Baker; Pomona cull. 1913). 

Neohtrra vittala, sp. n. 

c? . — Length about 4 mm. 

Differing from N. alba as follows : less robust, flngellum 
clearer red, tegula3 reddish, legs not so densely tomentose 
(knees, tibiae at apex, and tarsi clear red), chalk-white bands 
of abdomen very distinct, the basal part of segments 
appe:iring darker and browner. The distance between the 
teguhe is 800 microns ; in N. alba it is 8G5. 

Hab. At Howers of Ditltyrea ivislizeni, Mesilla Park, New 
Mexico, 3800 ft., May 7 (Cockerel/). 

The known species of Neolarra may be separated thus : — 

Abdomen red 1. 

Abdomen not red 3. 

1. Very ^-niAll, leugtli 4 mm. or le&s pruinosa, Ashm. 

Larfrer, at least 5 mm 2. 

2. Abdomen very light red, tegulse pale clear 

red vcrbesince (Ckll.). 

Abdomen deep red, tegiibe dark cotajreyatu, Ciawf. 

3. Less robust ; abdomen appearing' dark brown- 

ish plumbeous, with very conspicuous white 

bands vittata, Ckll. 

More robust ; abdomen very white alba, Ckll. 

Dioxys au7-ifuscus (Titus). 

The range is greatly extended by a female from Claremont, 
California [Baktr ; Pomona cull. 194). 

Dioxys jjoinoiuv. Cockerel!. 

Described from the male. The female (Claremont, Baker; 

Pomona coll. 191) is a little over 8 mm. long, flagcllum 



28G Mr. T. D. A. Cockeixll — Descriptions and 

only very obscure reddish bcneatli, tegulre bright t'errujiiiious 
Avitlj a black spot in front, end of abdomen pointed, but 
forming an angle greater than a light angle. 

Dioxys pacificus, sp. n. 

$ . — Length a little over 9 mm. 

Similar to D. productus subruber (Ckll.), but differing 
thus : mesothorax less coarsely punctuied ; postscutcllar 
spine smaller; b. n. meeting t.-m. ; second s.m. more 
narrowed above ; lejis black, the knees obscurely reddish ; 
abdomen much more finely punctured throughout, first three 
segments terra-cot ta red, hair-bands on hind margins of 
segments thin and white ; apex of abdomen broadly rounded, 
not truncate. 

Hab. Claremont, California (Pomona coll. 190). 

Xylocopa orpifex, Smith. 

Mts. near Claremont (fifl/:(?r ; Pomona coll. 175). Lords- 
burg, Calif., May 11 (H. H. Nininger). 

These specimens are rather large, but not to be separated. 
Tlie species extends eastward to Oak Creek Canon, Arizona 
{Snow). 

Halidus smithii, Dalla Torre, variety a. 

? . — Length 5-5'5 mm. 

Black, with scanty, pale, slightly ochreous hair, caudal 
fimbria concolorous ; head ordinary, broad ; clypeus shining, 
Avith very few scattered punctures ; mandibles red in middle ; 
supraclypeal area convex, shining, without evident sculpture; 
front dull ; flagellum ferruginous beneath except at base ; 
mesothorax dullish, extremely minutely punctured, the 
median impressed line very distinct; area of metiithorax 
semilunar, with very delicate, weak, straight, longitudinal 
plicae ; posterior truncation not sharply defined above ; 
tegulse rufo-tcstaceous. Wings greyisli hyaline; stigma 
large, dull ferruginous ; nervures fuscous or reddish fuscous ; 
third s.m. very broad above. Legs black, with pale ochreous 
hair. Abdomen shining black, without definite hair-bands, 
but the sides of the segments are thinly beset with long 
hairs, and the fifth has similar sparse hair all over. 

• Microscopical characters : clypeus and supraclypeal area 
very distinctly reticulate, with widely scattered deep punc- 
tures ; scape well punctured ; middle of front rough and 



Becords of Bens. 287 

extronicly densely punctured ; mesothorax minutely reti- 
cuhite, with rather sparse small punctures ; hind spur with 
only extremely minute saw-like teeth. 

Ilab. Waipara, New Zeahiud, Nov. 21, 1915 {Guy 
Brill ill). 

Mr. Biittiu took four females, two with dark tcf^ulre, two 
with ruro-tcstaeeous tegula?. I thouj^litat first that 1 could 
distin<::uish two species, that with dari;er tegulaj being the 
true H. sviithii (fainiliaris. Smith) and the other new. 
After minute comparisons, in which I am fortunately able 
to inchule a co-type of smitliii from Smithes collection, I 
coucliulc that there is only one variahle s|)ecies. The hind 
margins of the first and second ahdoaiinal segments of 
H. sinii/iii are very narrowly vibrissate witii white hair, 
though this is not always very evident. Cameron (Trans. 
N. Zealand Inst. vol. xxxii. p. 17) separates smithii from 
surdidus and huttoni by the character of the base of median 
segment (metathorax), but his statement is unsatisfactory, 
as the sc ulpturc in smithii is very delicate, appealing rugose 
under a low magnification, but showing tine plictc under a 
hiiiher. 



Halidus gulosus punctiferus, subsp. n. 

? . — Like H. gulosus {H. arcuatus gulosns, Ckll.), but 
mesothorax more closely punctured, especially at sides < f 
middle, where the punctures are hardly separated by a s])ace 
ecjual to the width of one ; th(! bind margins of the abdo- 
minal segments are very narrowly or often scarcely at all 
pallid. Wings brownish. Very like H. craterus, Lovell, 
but easily separated by the impunetate hind margin of first 
abdominal segment and the larger stigma. 

Hah. Boulder, Coloiado, twenty-six sj)ccimens with the 
following data: March 25 {Hite') ; March 22 [Hite] ; 
April 1 1 {RoJtwer) ; March 30, fis. Sulix beblnana (Rohuer) ; 
May 22, fls. Salix luteosericea [Rohiver) ; April 28, fl:^ 
Taraxacum taraxacum [Ro/iwer) ; April 14, fls. Rulac 
texanum {Hite) ; April l-l, fls. Prutnts pennsylvavica {Hite) ; 
May 20, fls. Bursa bursa-pastoris (Ro/nrer); Miiy 13, fis. 
Praiius melunocarpu {Roliwcr) ; Aug. 14 {Ruhwer). 



2ti8 Mr. H. A. Baylis 07i some 



XXXT. — Some yemerf/nea, Free-living yemntoda and OUgo- 
cluL'ta fioin the Falldaiids. By H. A. Baylis, B.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The material described in this jiapev was collected by 
Mr. Rupert Vallentin in tlie Falkland Islands during the 
yt-ars 1902, 1910, and ]911. Dr. J. II. Ashworth, of 
JOdinburgh, to whom it was haiided over, has kindly entrusted 
me with the determination of tli-; collection and the descrip- 
tion of such new forms as it contains. The species were all 
collected between tide-maiks, and most of tliem are probably 
tiuly littoral forms. The nemertines, however, and some of 
the nematodes would probably be found to range into water 
of cotisiderable depth. Lineus corrugatus and Le/4osomatu}n 
setosum, for example, are forms both known to occur in deep 
water. 

The following notes by Mr. Vallentin on the nature of the 
collecting-ground are of considerable interest : — 

The worms are from the " N.W. corner of the West 
Falklands. Roy Cove, where most of the specimens were 
gathered, is the only protected estuary in that district. It is 
a mile and a half in length, and the depth of water varies 
jrora 8 fathoms to riil. The creek is filled with ice during 
wii'.ter, and during a S.E. gale a heavy sea runs up the creek. 
The seas round this part are terrific." 

The collection comprises three species of Nemertinea, seven 
of Nematoda, and oue of Oligochseta. They are the 
following: — 

Nemertinea. 
Ampdiporus, Ehrenberg. 

1. Amphiporns hricliaelseni, Biirger. 

A single specimen, probably of this species, was taken at 
AVhale bound, " in sand near low-water mark, spring tide." 

Lineus, Sowerby. 

2. Lineus corrugatus, M'Intosh. 

Ten small examples of this widely-distributed form occur 
in the collection. 1 have previously (li-'lo, p. 128) noted its 
occurrence at South Georgia, and pointed out that its known 



Nemertinea (S:c.from (he Fulhlands. 280 

vanrrp. cxteiuls in almost a c*)ni[)k'te circle routMl the siih- 
aiitaictic region, hetweeii tlie laiituiles of 50° and 77° S. 
Tlie tact that it occurs also at the Falklands serves to render 
tills circle still nK>re comjdete. 

There appears to be great variation in the size at which 
this species attains sexual maturity. In the 'Terra Nova' 
collection, where the material was dredged from considerable 
depths of water (-45-250 fathoms), tlie sexually mature 
individuals were generally of large size (about 50 cm.). 
Among the present collection, on the other hand, an example 
not more than 65 mm. in length was found to contain well- 
advanced female gonads. The examples from South Georgia, 
to wliicli reference has already been made, were also com[)a- 
ratively small (not more than 1-45 mm.), and some of these 
were sexually mature. The material both from South 
Georgia and from the Falklands was taken in shallow water. 
It seems not improbable that the depth at which the worms 
live has some effect upon their growth, so that those which 
live close to the shore never attain so large a size as those in 
deep water, but are, nevertheless, capable of becoming mature. 

Loc. Roy Cove, etc., at low water ; sometimes washed 
ashore among Macroci/slis roots. 

3. Linens sp. 

There is a single female specimen, belonging to a species 
very distinct from L. corruc/atus, but taken with it at low 
water, spring tides, 1902. It is about 30 mm. long and a 
little less than 2 mm. in diameter. The skin is smooth. 
The head is rather narrow and provided with elon^^ate 
cephalic slits. The mouth is indistinct, and is probably very 
small. The most striking feature is the large size of the ova, 
which occupy almost the entire space within the body-wall. 
Tln^y measure 0'5-0*6 mm., or even more than this, in 
dianii;ter. 

I do not feel justilied in attaching a speciHc ninie to this 
single specimen. 

N P: M A T D A. 
StENOLAIML'S, Maiio:', 1870. 
4. Sleiiolaimus sen'alis, sp. n. 

The nematode most abundanily represented in the colJee- 
lion is an interesting form which may be provisionally 
referred to the genus Stcnolaimus. Out of twenty-six ex- 
amples only two are males. 



200 Mr. II. A. Baylis on some 

Moasurenients (in mm.), taken from two males aiul three 
mature females: — 

6. $. 

Lengrth Tj-o 6 5-52-6 

Thickness— at crown of hairs 0'()33-00.'17 0-0.37 

„ at base of o?sophagus . 0-lo-0-l(3 014-0-16 

„ at middle of bo Iv 0-22-0-2-i 019-0-25 

„ at anus " 009 009-0-1 

Length of wsophagus 0-8-0-93 0-81-0-9 

„ tail 0-33-0.35 0-4-0-5 

,, spicules 0-12-015 .... 

Distance from head-end to excre- 
tory pore 0-065 00625-0-075 

Distance from head-end to nerve- 
ring 0-40-0-44 0-39-0-42 

Distance from head-end to vulva . .... 1-41-1*65 



« 23-6-25 22-2-29 

^ 6-4-6-5 6-6-6-8 



y 



15-7-17 11-1-13-8 



Tlie body tapers considerably both anteriorly and poste- 
riorly, the neck especially being very slender. Posteriorly 
the tapering begins a little in front of the anus. The cuticle 
is quite smooth, no transverse striations having been detected. 
In the male only there are a few slender hairs (fig. 2, p. 292) 
on the ventnil surface in front of and behind the anus, and 
a few shorter and more scattered hairs on the tail. The 
lateral fields are of a coarsely cellular appearance, and 
measure 0'025 mm. in width. 

The head (fig. 1) is very narrow. Near the extremity 
there is a crown of six stoutish bristles, which stand out at 
right angles to the long axis of the body, their tips curving 
furward. Two of the bristles are lateral, two subdorsal, and 
two subventral. The chief peculiarity of the species is the 
fact that instead of the pair of circular or spiral lateral organs 
near the anterior end, cliaracteristic of the majority of free- 
living nematodes, there apj;ear3 to be on either side a longi- 
tudinal row of thirty or more very small pits in the cuticle 
(fig. 1, L.), which may pos.sibly be regarded as " lateral 
organs." They are situated just above the level of the lateral 
field on either side, and are, therefore, subdorsal in position. 
De Man (1884, pi. i. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 d) figures a row of organs 
in Deontoiaimus papillatus, which would appear, from the 
figures, to be of a somewhat similar nature. According to 
his account of this species, however (1884, p. 32), they are 
" jjapillaj" rather than pits, and occur, in the male onJy, in a 
sinj^le median ventral row extending throughout the whole 



Xemertinea tix.fi'om the Falklands. 



2'JL 



ccsopliao-cal rop;ion of tlie body. In the species now uii'ler 
consicleiation the pits are present in both sexes, and extend in 
two rows from a littlo behind the anterior extremity to about 
the level of the ncrve-rinp:. 

The nioiith is very small, and is not provided with distinct 



Fi^^ 1. 



Ex. P. 




Stetiulaimus serialis. Anterior end of female, lateral view. 

^?»., ampulla of excretory p-land ; Er.P., excretory pure ; 
L., " lateral orgaus " (?). 



lips or papilhc. There is no buccal cavity, the mouth 
leadinp; directly into the oesophagus. The latter is loiif; 
and slender ; it increases gradually in thickness towards its 
posterior end, but theie is no distinct bulb. The nerve-ring 



202 



Mr. H. A. Bajlis on some 



crosses the oesopliagus at about the inidille. The cells of the 
chyle-iiitestiiie are small, tessellated, and filled with brownish 
granules. 

Fig. 2. 




Stenolaimus serialis. Posterior end of male, lateral view. 
A., anus ; A. P., accessory piece ; C.G., caudal ylands ; >S'., spicules. 

The tail (fig. 2), in both sexes, tapers rapidly at first from 
the anus for about § of its leugtii, beconiiug more cylindrical 



I 



Nemertinea cOc. from the FuIUands. 293 

posferiorly. Tliere is a slight bulbous expansion of the 
cuticle just before the tip. At the exticnie tip there is a 
distinct pore, from which there may sometimes be seen 
issuing a coagulated stream of the secretion from the caudal 
glands, which are well develo[)ed. 

The minute pore of the excretory gluiid (fig. 1, K.c.P.) is 
situated close behind the head, the iluct expanding into a 
slight ampulla (.1///.) just before the opening. 

The spicules of the male (tig. 2, S.) are very slender 
curved rods ; there is apparently a slender accessory piece 
(-1./'.) near their distal ends. In the male the posterior end 
of the body is well provided with diagonal muscle-bands, 
probably serving to bring about the ventral coiling of the 
tail. 

In the female the genital organs are characteristic. The 
vulva is anteriorly placed, and the two branches of the uterus 
are very unequal, the posterior branch being 4^ times as 
long as the anterior. Both ovaries are doubly reflexed, i. e., 
bent back upon the uterus and bent back again upon them- 
selves near their blind ends. 

This species appears to be common between tide-marks, 
occurring under stones &c. at Hoy Cove. It agrees with 
Sttnolairnus man'oni, Southern (1914), and differs from the 
type-species, S. lepturus, de j\Ian, in the absence of any hairs 
on the neck besides the cephalic crown of bristles. It may 
be remarked that no lateral organs are mentioned in the 
descriptions of either of these species ; it is therefore doubtful 
whether the rows of pits described above for S. serialis are of 
generic or only of specific importance. It is possible that 
the si)ecies should be regarded as belonging to a new genus, 
with close relationships to Stenolaimus and Anticoma. 

DOLICHOLAIMUS, de Man. 

5. Dolicholaimus vallentini , sp. n. 

The collection includes three examples of a species which 
is undoubtedly to be referred to Dolicholaimus. Of these 
specimens, one is a male, one a female with ovaries developed, 
but containing no fu.l^'-formed eggs, and the third an imma- 
ture lorm of doubtful sex. 

The toUowing are the measuremenls (in mm.) of" the two 
mature individuals : — 

Length 3-47 340 

Thickuessi — al crown ol' hairs U275 03 

Ann. cO Mag. N. Ilisl. vSer. 8. Vol. xvii. 2(.» 



294: Mr. H. A. Biiylis on soms 

Thickness — at end of oesophagus 009 0"09 

„ at middle of body 0-10 0-U 

„ at anus 008 0-07 

Leugthof oesophagus (including buccal cavitv). 0*o3 0"60 

tail '. . 0-19 0-22 

„ spicules 007 .... 

Distance, head to end of buccal cavity 0"125 0125 

„ „ nerve-ring 0"2G 0"31 

„ „ vulva 1'9 

a 34-7 30-9 

^ 6-54 5-78 

y 18-26 15-77 

This form agrees well in essential points with the type- 
species, D. inarioni, de Man (1888). It is, however, sligiitly 
larger, and differs in certain other respects. The body is ot" 
very even thickness throughout the greater part of its length. 
Towards the head it tapers rather rapidly, and the posterior end 
begins to diminish in diameter from a little distance in front 
of the anus. The tail (tig. 4, p. 296), in both sexes, tapers 
rapidly for about the first half of its length ; more posteriorly 
it becomes cylindrical, and, finally, near the tip there is a 
slight swelling. The tip of the tail is bluntly rounded, and 
the aperture of the caudal glands is not conspicuous. These 
glands, however, are well developed (tig. 4, C.G.). 

The cuticle is quite smooth, as in the type-species, no 
transverse striations beinor visible. No hairs occur on the 
body, with the exception of four short, stout, submedian 
bristles situated close to the anterior end (tig. 3, S.). The 
lateral fields have a width of 0*025 mm. No lateral organs 
have been made out. In the type-species of this genus they 
are said to be present in the form of grooves {^^ sillons"), but 
notliing of this kind has been detected in the present form. 

The mouth (tig. 3) is a small funnel-shaped depression and 
is not provided with distinct lips. It leads into a small 
*' vestibule," as in U. marionij at the base of which there are 
three teeth (fig. 3, 2'.) arranged in a triangle, andleach shaped 
somewhat like a boot-tree. This vestibule is followed by 
the buccal cavity pro]jer (fig. 3, Ph.), consisting of a greatly 
elongate, rigid, chitinous tube. This decreases gradually in 
diameter from before backwards, its walls, comparatively 
thick in front, becoming also gradually thinner towards the 
posterior end. The distance from the mouth to the posterior 
end of this tubular buccal cavity is about a quarter of that 
from the mouth to the hinder end of the oesophagus. The 



}\emertinea li'C. from the Falklands. 



295 



cliitiuous tube is surrounded by a spindle-shaped muscular 
sheath (fig. 3, J/.), continuous with tlie oesophagus behind. 

The oesophagus exhibits a slight spindle-shaped tiiickening 
near its junctiou with the buccal cavity. In its middle 



Tier. 3. 



I 




DoUcholaimus vallentini. Anterior end of female, highly magnified. 

M., muscular sheath of huccal cavity ; Oes., oesophagus ; Ph., " pharynx *' 
or tubular portion of buccal cavity ; 6'., cephalic setae ; T., teeth. 

portion it becomes narrow again, but posteriorly it is greatly 
thickened. There is, however, no true oesophageal bulb. 
The nerve-ring crosses the oesophagus at about the middle 
of the distance from the mouth to its base. No trace of a 

20^ 



296 



Mr. H. A. Baylis on some 



ventral excretory olaiul has been discovered. In this con- 
nection it is notewortiiy that, accordino- to de Man, this organ 
does not exist in the type-species of the genus. 



Fijj. 4. 



cc-w^":' 




Dulickolaimm vaUentini. Posterior eud of male, lateral view, 
highlj' magnified. 

A., anus; A.P., accessory piece ; C.G., caudal glands; P., preanal 
papilla of riglit side; S., spicule of right side. 

The posterior end of tlie male is abundantly provided with 
diagonal muscles. The spicules (fig. 4, S.) are lamellar, their 
posterior edges having a rib-like thickening. There is also 



Nemertinea cOc. from the FaJklands, 297 

a fold or tliickenino' running down tlie middle o£ the spicule, 
like a mid-rib. The two spicules slide in a single accessory 
piece (Hg. 4, A.P.)^ situated near their distal ends in the 
position of repose. This accessory piece is apparently bent 
so as to form a deep slot in which the posterior ribs of the 
spicules are lodged. It is neail}-- half as long as the spicules 
themselves. There is a single pair of minute papillae 
(fig. 4, P.) situated just in front of the anal aperture. 

In the female the vulva is situated slightly behind the 
middle of the body. The two ovaries are about equal in 
length, and are reflexed. No fully-formed eggs were 
observed in the uterus. 

The specimens were taken under stones at Roy Cove, 
June 20, 1910. 

ExOPLUS, Dujardin. 

6. Eiwplus micliaeheni, v. Linst. 

Enoplus michaeheni, v. Linstow, 1896, p. 10; figs. 14-16; de Man, 
1904, p. 19 ; pis. iv.-vi., fig-. 7. 

Of this species two examples occur in the collection, both 
females. They were taken under stones at Roy Cove, 
June 20, 1910. 

7. Enoplus sp. 

There is a single example of a second form which is 
possibly to be referred to this genus. It is a female, measuririi^ 
about 2 mm. in length, and occurred among other small 
nematodes and oligocluetes, in association with Marphysa 
corallina, July 22, 1910. • 

It does not seem desirable to found a species upon this 
unique specimen. 

Oncholaimus, Dujardin. 

8. Oncholai'mus sp. 

A single female specimen, apparently belonging to this 
genus, occurred with various other forms among Marphysa 
corallina, July 22, 1910. It measures a little over 5 mm. in 
length, and is the largest of the nematodes met with, with the 
exception of Leptosomatum selosum. 



298 On some Neynertinea dw from the Falkkmds. 

Leptosomatum, Bastian. 

9. Leptosomatum setosum, v. Linst. 

Lepfosomattnn setosum, v, Linstow, 1806, p. 5 ; figs. 4-7. 
lltoracostoina setosum, de ]\Ian, 1904, p. 25 ; pis. vi.-x., fig. 8. 
Leptosomatum setosum, Leiper & Atkinson, 1915, p. 23 ; pi. i., figs. 8, 6, 9. 

Two female examples of tliis form were taken at low water 
during spring tides, Feb. 21, 1902, together with nemertines. 

This species ajipears to occnr in any depth of water from 
low-water nnnk down to 250 fathoms or more, and is widely 
distributed in the subantarctic region. 

Thoracostoma, Marion, 1870. 
10. Thoracostoma sp. 

A single female example occurred among the various other 
species in association with Marphysa corallinaj July 22, 
1910. 

Oligocha:ta. 

Marionina, Michaelsen. 

11. Marionina (jeorgiaiia (Mchlsn.). 

Eighteen examples of a small Enchytrseid worm, which I 
refer to this species, were collected at Roy Cove or else- 
where at low water. The collector's labels indicate that 
they were taken in June and July, 1910, some being found 
under stones, otliers, Avith various nematodes, in association 
with Marphysa. 

• References. 

Baylis, H. A. 1915. British Antarctic ('Terra Nova') Exp., 1910, 

Zoolog}', ii. no. 5, p. 113. Nemertinea. 
Leipeb.R.T., and E. L. Atkinson. 1915. Britisli Antarctic ('Terra 

Nova ') Exp., 1910, Zoologv, ii. no. 3, p. 19. Parasitic Worms. 
Linstow, O. VON. 1896. Hamb. Magalh. Sammelr. Nematlielminthen. 
Man, J. Gr. de. 1884. * Die frei lebenden Nematoden der Niederland- 

ischen Fauna.' 
. 1888. "Sur quelques Nematodes libres de la Mer du Nord." 

M^ra. Soc. Zool. Fiance, i. p. 1. 

. 1904. Res. Voy. S.Y. ' Belgica,' Zoologie. Nematodes Libres. 

Marion, A. F. 1870. " Recherches sur les Nematodes non parasites, 

marins." Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. (5) xiii. 
Southern, R. 1914. "Clare Island Survey,'' Part 54. Proc. Roy. 

Irish Acad. xxxi. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ili/menoptera. 299 



XXXII. — Notes on Fossorial ITymenoptera. — XXI. On the 
Australian Larrii)a3 of the Genus Tachytes. By iioWLAND 
E. TuENEK, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Key to the Australian Species o/Tuchytcs. 

1. Abdomen wholly bright testaceous or 

ferruginous red 2. 

Abdouieu black, at most the apical margins 
of the segments or the apical segment 
brown or ferruginous 3. 

2. Abdouieu bright testaceous ; pubescence 

of thorax and median segment golden ; 

legs bright testaceous T. fonnosissimus, Turn. 

Abdomen ferruginous red ; pul>escence 
white ; legs black, the tarsi more or less 
ferruginous T. rubellus, Turn, 

3. Pubescence of the abdomen deep or pale 

golden 4. 

Pubescence of the abdomen silver, that on 
the pygidial area sometimes golden .... C, 

4. Outer margin of the basal joint of the foi-e 

tarsus with five spines ; second joint of 
the flagellum scarcely longer than the 

third T. ajrproximaius, Turn. 

Outer margin of the basal joint of the fore 
tarsus with six spines ; second joint of 
the flagellum distinctly longer than the 
third 5. 

5. Legs almost entirely black ; median seg- 

ment nearly half as long again as the 

scutellum T. plutocratictis, Turn. 

Tibial, tarsi, and the apex at least of the 
femora bright testaceous brown ; median 
segment very little longer than the scu- 
tellum T. relucens, Turn. 

6. Tibia?, tarsi, and sixth dorsal segment 

ferruginous T. mitis, Turn, 

Legs, except the apical tarsal joints, black; 
sixth dorsal segment black 7. 

7. Pubescence of the pygidial area golden and 

dense 8. 

Pubescence of the pygidial area not golden, 
either silver and dense or fusco-ferru- 
ginous and very sparse 9. 

8. Pygidial area very broadly rounded at the 

apex, almost truncate ; basal joint of fore 
tarsus with six spines on the outer margin. T. eestuans, Turn. 
Pygidial area narrowly rounded at the apex, 
almost triangular ; basal joint of fore 
tarsus with five spines on the outer 
margin T. futalis, Turn 



.',00 Mr. K. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

9. Pvpidinl area almost pointecl, densely 

clothed with silver pubescence T. dispersns, Tnrn. 

Pvpidial area very coarsely punctured, the 
punctures confluent loniritudinally, 
sparsely clothed with fusco-ferru^inous 
setse T. sulcatus, Turn. 

1. Tachi/fes formosi'ssimiif!, Turn. 
Tachytes fonnosissimus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 482 (1908). 

Ilab. Macka}', Q. {Turner). 
I have only seen the type. 

2. Tachytes rubellus, Turn. 
Tachytes rubellus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 482 (1908). cf. 

JIah. Port Darwin, N.T. {Turyier) ; Adelaide, S.A. (ex 
coll. Perkins). 

? . The pygidiul area is fairly broad, rounded at the apex, 
clotiied with golden pubescence. Basal joint of tlie fore 
tarsus with five spines on the outer margin. Second abscissa 
of the radius equal to the third; the two recurrent nervures 
separated on the cubitus by a distance greater than that 
between the first recurrent nervure and the first transverse 
cubital nervure. 

The only female I have seen is from Adelaide ; tiie species 
appears to be rare, though with a considerable range. 

.3. Tachytes approximatus, Turn. 
Tachytes approximatus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 483 (1908). 

Hah. Mackay and Cairns, Q. {Turner). 

4. Tachytes plutocraticits, Turn. 
Tachytes pltitocraticus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 348 (1910). $ . 

Nab. Townsville, Q. {Dodd). 

This is the largest Australian species of the genus. 

5. Tachytes reJitcens, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; tibiis, tarsis, femoribus apice, posticis fere totis, 
tegulisque laete brunneo-testaccis ; segmentis dorsalibus fascia 
lata, ventralibus angusta brunneo-ferruginea ; segmentis dor- 
salibus, fa.scia lata apicali proecipue, aureo-sericeis ; capite 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossor'utl IIymenoj>tent, MOl 

Ihnraccque pallide aureo-piloBis ; alls hyalinis, veiiis fusco- 

ferriigineis. 
S . FeminaB similis ; area pygidiali pallide pilosa. 
Long., $ 14 mm., (S 12 mm. 

? . (!lypeus very broadly rouiulcd at the apex. Second 
joint of the flagelluni longer than the third by about one- 
quarter ; eyes separated on the vertex by a distance slightly 
exceeding the iengtii of the second joint of the flagcdluni. 
Basal joint of the fore tarsus with six spines on the outer 
margin. Front, clypeus, side.«, and npex of the incsonotum 
and sides of the median segment clothed with |)ale pubescence 
tinged with gold, a spot of rather deejier golden pubescence 
on each side near the middle of the anterior margin of the 
mesonotuni. Median segment short, scarcely longer than the 
scutcllum, opaque, with a very obscure median sulcus, which 
becomes well defined on the posterior slope. Abdomen 
broadly conical ; ])ygidial area rather narrowly rounded at 
the apex and clothed with deep golden pubescence. Second 
abscissa of the radius as long as the third ; fiist recurrent 
nervure received distinctly nearer to the second recurrent 
than to the first transverse cubital nervure. 

Except in the usual sexual characters the male is very 
similar to the female; there are four small spines on the 
outer margin of the basal joint of the fore tarsus ; the sulcus 
on the dorsal surface of the median segment is more distinct ; 
the abdomen is more slender, and the third abscissa of the 
radius is distinctly longer than the second. 

Hah. Mackay, Q. ( Turner). 

In the number of spines on the basal joint of the fore tarsus 
this resembles plutocraticus ; but this is a smaller insect, 
with a shorter median segment, the shape of the clypeus is 
different, also the colour of the legs. It is more stoutly 
built than approximatus, from which it also differs in the 
shape of the clypeus, in the number of spines on the basal 
joint of the foro tarsus, and in tlie broader pygidial area. 

6. lachytes mitts, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; maudibulis basi, area pygidiali, tibiis tarsisquc ferru- 
gineis ; segmentis dorsalibus et ventralibus fascia angusta apicali 
brunneo-ferruginea ; tegulis pallide testaceis ; alis hyalinis, venis 
fusco-fcrrugineis; abdomiueargenteo-sericeo, segmentis dorsalibus 
1-4 fascia lata apicali dcusius argcnteo-scricea ; area pygidiali 
aureo-setosa. 

S . Feminae similis. 

Long., $ lU mm.. 6 S mm. 



302 ^Ir. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ihjmenoptera. 

? . Clypeus with a broiidly arched depression on the apical 
quarter, the margin transverse, the deflexed portion bare and 
sliining, tlie basal portion densely clothed with silver pubes- 
cence, which extends on to tiie front. Second joint of the 
tlagelhim equal to the third, less than twice as long as the 
first ; ej-es separated on the vertex by a distance greater by 
one-third than the length of the second joint of the flagelluni ; 
a sulcus reaching from the posterior ocelli to the occiput. 
Pronotum thick ; niesonotum, scutelluni, and mesopleurai 
closely and minutely punctured, the mesopleurse and sides of 
the mesonotum clothed with whitish pubescence. Thorax 
subopaque ; median segment opaque, more strongly punctured 
than the thorax, with a distinct median sulcus which is more 
deeply continued on the posterior slope, clothed with siiort 
pubescence, silvery on the sides, greyish and sparser in the 
middle of the dorsal surface, fully half as long again as tiie 
scutellum. Abdomen subopaque, pygidial area elongate- 
triangular, very narrowly rounded at the apex. Basal joint 
of the fore tarsi with five slender spines on the outer margin. 
Second abscissa of tiie radius distinctly longer than the 
third ; first recurrent nervure almost halfway between the 
second recurrent and first transverse cubital nervures, a little 
nearer to the former than to the latter. 

The male has the joints of the antennaj shorter than in 
the female, so tiiat the eyes are separated on the vertex by a 
distance fully equal to the combined length of the two basal 
joints of the fl;igellum ; there are only four small spines on 
the outer margin of the basal joint of the fore tarsus, and the 
seventh dorsal segment is black at the base and clothed with 
silver pubescence. 

Ilab. Kalamunda, S.W. Australia {Turner) ; February 
and March. 3 <? c? , 1 ? . A single male apparently of the 
same species taken at Townsville, Q., by F. P. Dodd. 

7. Tachytes cbstuans^ sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, albo-pilosa ; tarsorum articulo apicali, tibiarum tarso- 
rumque spinis fernigineis, tegulis pallide brunneis ; segmentia 
dorsalibus 1-4 fascia apicali argenteo-sericea ; area pygidiali 
dense aureo-setosa ; alia hyalinis, venis fusco-ferrugineis. 

Long. 14 mm. 

? . Clypeus transverse at the apex, deflexed in the middle 
just before the apex, and clothed with rather long white 
pubescence which extends on to the front. Second joint of 
the flagellum equal to the third, more than twice as long as 
the fiist ; eyes separated on the vertex by a distance equal to 



I 



I\Ii-. R. E. Turner on Fossori'al Ilymenopiera. 303 

the combined lenn^tli of the two basal joints of tlie flagellum ; 
the sulcus from the posterior ocelli shallow and not quite 
reaching the occiput. Thorax minutely and very closely 
punctured, thinly clothed with greyish pubescence ; median 
segment more opaque than the thorax, the pubescence denser 
than on the thorax, without a median sulcus on the dorsal 
surface, the segment about half as long again as the scutellum. 
Abdomen fairly stout ; ])ygidial area very broadly rounded 
at the apex, almost truncate, the sides not very strongly con- 
vergent. Basal joint of the fore tarsus with six fairly stout 
spines on the outer margin. Second abscissa of the radius 
sliorter than the third ; first recurrent nervure almost or 
quite as near to the first transverse cubital as to the second 
recurrent nervure. 

Ilah. Hermannsburg, Central Australia (//. J. HiUier) ; 
Killalpanima, S.A. {11. J. lliUier). 

This is very near T. fatah's^hwt has the pygidial area much 
broader at the apex, the sides less convergent; six spines on 
the basal joint of the fore tarsus as compared with five in 
fatalis ; there is also a ditference in the form of the clypeus. 

8. Tachytes fatalisy sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, argenteo-pilosa ; mandibulis apice, tegulis, unguienlisque 
tarsalibus brunneis ; segmentis dorsalibus 1-4 fascia apicali 
argenteo-pilosa ; area pygidiali aureo-pilosa ; abs hyalinis, veuis 
fusco-ferrugineis. 

Long. 13 mm. 

? . Clypeus very broadly rounded at the apex, the apical 
margin transversely depressed and bare, the base of the 
clypeus and the front clothed with silver pubescence ; second 
joint of the flagellum slightly longer than the third ; eyes 
separated on the vertex by a distance equal to the length of 
tbe two basal joints of the flagellum. Mesonotum minutely 
and closely punctured ; median segment scarcely as long as 
the scutellum and postscutellum combined, without a median 
sulcus on the dorsal surface. Abdomen subopaque ; the 
apical bands of silver pubescence broader at the sides than in 
the middle; pygidial area clothed with golden pubescence, 
elongate-triangular, narrowly rounded at the apex. Basal 
joint of the fore tarsus with five spines on the outer margin. 
(Second abscissa of the radius scarcely as long as the third ; 
first recurrent nervure nearer to the second recurrent than to 
the first transverse cubital nervure. 

Ilah. Toowoomba, Q. 

This is nearest to dispersus, from which it may be distin- 
guished by the golden pubescence of the pygidial area, which 



304 ^Ir. ]\. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

is also more distinctly rounded at the apex than in 
dispersus ; also bj the shorter median segment and the form 
of the clypeus. From (pstuans it is easily distinguished by 
the much narrower pygidial area and the number of spines 
on the basal joint of the fore tarsus. 

9. Tachytes dispersus, sp. n. 

2 . Xigra ; unguieulis tarsalibus tegulisque bruimeis ; segmentis 
dorsalibus 1-4 fascia lata apicali argenteo-pilosa ; area pygidiali 
argentco-pilosa ; alls h3'a]iuis, venis nigris. 

c? . Feminae similis. 
Long., 2 13 mm., cJ 11 mm. 

? . Clypeus clothed with silver pubescence at the base, a 
bare, somewhat deflexed triangular area at the apex, the 
apical margin truncate. Second joint of the flagellum 
slightly longer than the third, more than twice as long as the 
first ; eyes separated on the vertex by a distance equal to the 
length of the third joint of the fl;igellum. Front, pronotum, 
mesopleurse, and the sides of the mesonotum and of the 
median segment clothed with silver pubescence; mesonotum 
distinctly depressed in the middle of the anterior margin, 
minutely and closely punctured ; median segment more 
opaque than the mesonotum, more than half as lung again as 
the scutellum, with an obscure median sulcus from base to 
apex, the sulcus becoming broad and deep on the posterior 
slope. Abdomen subopaque ; the apical fascife of pubes- 
cence broad, especially on tiie sides; pygidial area elongate- 
triangular, almost pointed at the apex. Basal joint of the 
fore tarsus with five spines on tlie outer margin. Second 
abscissa of the radius a little longer than the third ; first 
recurrent nervure a little nearer to the second recurrent than 
to the first transverse cubital nervure. 

Bab. Baudin Island, N.W. Australia {J. J. Walker) ; 
Townsville, Q. (Dodd) ; Mackay, Q. (Turner) ; Perth, W.A. 
(Turner) ; Port Essington, N.T. (Gould). 

This seems to be the commonest Australian species of tlie 
genus, and ranges over almost the whole continent. Tiie 
silver pubescence of the pygidial area and the narrower and 
more pointed shape of the same area distinguish it from 
other Australian species. 

10. Tachytes sulcatus, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; tarsorura articulis duobus apicalibus fusco-ferrugineis ; 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial IJymenoptera. 305 

tibiurum tarsorumque spinis albidis ; tegulis fuscis macula albida ; 

alis hyalinis, vcuis fuscis. 
cJ . Femiiuc siiuilis. 
Long., $ 10 mm., S 8 mm. 

? . Clyi)eus shilling, the a[)ic;il niar<^in transverse and de- 
flexed ; the base ot" the cljpeus and die tront clothed witii short 
silvery pubescence. iSecond joint ot" the fla^elhun equal to the 
third, twice as long as the tirst; eyes separated on the vertex by 
a distance almost equal to the combined length ot" the two 
basal joints of the flagellum ; vertex behind the posterior ocelli 
somewhat concave^ and divided by an obscure longitudinal 
sulcus. Tliorax very minutely and closely punctured, sub- 
opaque; median segment nearly twice as long as the scutellum, 
broad, opaque, microscopically punctured, the dorsal surface 
without a sulcus excej)t at the extreme apex. Abdominal 
segments subopaque, microscopically punctured ; dorsal seg- 
ments 1—4 with a narrow apical band ot" silver pubescence, 
the margins of the segmenis under the pubescence fuscous. 
Pygidial area broatl^ subtriangular, rounded at the apex, the 
basal line a little shorter than tlie sides, the surface covered 
with very coarse elongate punctures, from which spring very 
short fusco-fcrruginous setse. Basal joint of fore tarsus with 
five spines on the outer margin. Second abscissa of the 
radius longer than the third ; first recurrent nervure nearer 
to the second recurrent than to the first transverse cubital 
nervure. 

The male is very similar to the female, but the antennal 
joints are shorter, so that the distance between the eyes on 
the vertex is nearly as great as the combined length of the 
second and third joints of the flagellimi ; the seventh dorsal 
segment is covered with silver pubescence. 

Jlab. Busselton, W.A. (T«r«er), (^ ?, January ; Cottesloe, 
W.A. {Giles), S ? J December. 

The female is easily distinguished from other Australian 
species by the coarse sculpture and very sparse setae of the 
pygidial area. 

11. Tachytes tachyrrhostus^ Sauss. 

Tachytes tachi/rrhostus, Sauss. M^m. 80C. phys. & hist. uat. Geneve, 
xiv. p. 18 (1854). (S; Sauss. Reise d. ' No vara,' Zool. ii., Hymen. 
p. 73 (1867). 6] Schulz, Zool. Ann. iv. p. 189 (1911). cJ. 

I have been quite unable to identify this species, of which 
the male only is described ; it is, however, certainly a 
Tachytes, and may prove to be the male of T. fataiis, but 



306 Mr. S. Hirst on a new Species of 

tlie species from S.E. Australia are very poorly represented 
in the British Museum, and will probably prove to be more 
numerous than is indicated in this paper. 

Tachj/tes (?) n'ujripes, Sauss. 

Larrada iiiffripes, SsLxiss. Reise d. ' Novara,' Zool. ii., Hymen, p. 74 
(1867). 2- 

Schulz (Zool. Ann. p. 191, 1911) described the specimen 
now bearing the type-label in iSaussure's collection. It is, 
however, a male, and has a head, whereas Saussure describes 
his species as female and implies that the type is headless. 
Schulz considers the generic position as intermediate between 
Tachytes and 2\otogonia, but nearest to the former. The 
locality given by Saussure is Tasmania, but the localities of 
the * Novara' are most unreliable, and tlie species may not be 
Australian. 

Tachytes australis, Sauss. (Reise d. ' Novara,"* Zool. ii., 
Hymen, p. 69, 1867, S), is doubtless a Tachysphex ; and 
T. femoratus, Sauss., and T. australis, Sauss. (ISott, nee 
1867), belong respectively to Larra and JSotogonia. 

Tachytes tarsatus, Sm., an Indian species, was recorded by 
me as Australian (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 348, 1910) 
owing to an error in identification ; in the same paper I 
also included T. australis, Sauss. (1867), as a Tachytes. 



XXXIII. — On a new Species of Solpnga from the Belgian 
Congo. By Stanley Hirst. 

(Published by permissiou of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Solpuga hewitti, sp. n. 

(^ . — Chelicera, Basal enlargement of flagellum rather 
high and shaped like an ear. Free portion of flagellum 
short, being much less than half the length of the chelicera ; 
it arises above the second tooth, and at first is fairly wide and 
flattened dorso-ventrally ; towards the middle of its length, 
however, it is rotated sideways, becoming higher than wide, 
and is furnished with a short little keel crowned with den- 
ticles ; distal end of flagellum slender and bifurcated, con- 
sisting of a sharp little spine and a minute soft twisted 



I 



ii 



Solpuga yro/n the Belyian Comjo. 



307 



structure, wliich is shaped rather like a sickle and clotiied 
with short Iiairs. Ituuiovable tin^^er of chelicera with the end 
strongly curved; the first two teeth are large, and there are 
two little intermediate teeth between them and the next large 
tooth ; there is a very minute denticle on the upper surface 
of this finger in front of the flagelluni. Movable finger with 
a single minor tooth between the principal ones. Width of 
head-plate considerably less than length of tibia of palp, but 
almost equal to that of the metatarsus. 

? . — W^idth of head-plate very slightly exceeding length 




Chelicera of Solpuga heioitti. 
A and B, distal half and extreme end of flagelliim, greatly enlaro-ed. 

of tibia of palp, but a little less than the length of its meta- 
tarsus + tarsus. Armature of chelicera practically the same 
as in the male sex. 

Tiie female (type) of S. hutleri^ Poc, from the Congo, is a 
very large specimen, the lengtli of its body being about 
52 mm. ; the width of its head-plate is considerably less than 
the length of the tibia of the palp or than the metatarsus + 
tarsus. 

Colour. Head-plate pale brownish or reddish yellow ; 
ap})arently it is not nearly so deeply infuscateas in 5. butleri. 
C!helicera yellowish at the side.'^, but darker above. Abdo- 
minal tergites rather dark brown, but the rest of the abdomen 



308 On a new Variety of European Tick. 

is yellowish with the exception of a narrow dark strip imme- 
diately bordering the tergites. Palp and legs yellowish ; 
they are slightly darker in the male than in the female, 
liowever ; malleoli pale and seemingly without any dark 
rim. 

[i\'o/<?. — There are two more female specimens of Solpuga 
from Kapiri which resemble those described above very 
closely in structure, but are very much darker, the dorsal 
surface of the cheliceraj, head-plate, and abdomen being very 
deeply infuscate. The palpi and legs also are rather dark 
brown in these specimens. Probably they are the female of 
another species.] 

Measurements in mm. — r? . Length of body 31 ; width of 
head-plate >i'b ; length of tibia of palp 10'^, of metatarsus + 
tarsus of palp 11'25. 

? . Length of body 32*5 ; width of head-plate 9 ; length 
of tibia of palp 875, of metatarsus + tarsus of palp 9*75. 

Loc. Kapiri, Belgian Congo ; a male and a female collected 
by L. Charliers (10-13. xi. 1913). 



XXXIV. — On a new Variety of European Tick (Derma- 
centor retieulatus, var. aulicus, var. nov.). By STANLEY 
Hirst. 

(Published bj permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

(J. — Colour-markings on dorsum very similar to those of 
the typical form ; the posterior pale linear markings are 
rather line. Cornua of capitulum distinctly shorter than in 
typical form. Trochanter of first leg with the angular pro- 
jection rather short, wide, and blunt. Second segment of 
})alp practically without any spine dorsally. Stigmata rather 
wide comma-shaped, closely resembling those of the typical 
form. 

$ . — Second segment of palp without any spine dorsally. 
Angular projection of first trochanter short and wide. 

Measurements in mm. — c? . Length of scutum 3'6-5*'l; 
width of scutum 2'6-3'8. 

? . Length of body 5'6, of scutum 1*5 ; width of scutum 1"65. 

Material. Three males and three females from the skin of 
a wild boar, killed in France (exact locality not known). A 
female specimen from Valescure, France, 2. iv. 1910 ; host 
not given {N. C. Mothschild's Coll.). 

Tliis new variety will be described in gi eater detail and 
figured in a later paper on parasitic Acari. 



On a new Sjiec'us o/'Elpoiia, Kdw. r>09 



XXXV. — .1 Third Species of the Genus Elporia, Edw. 
{Dipteni, Blepliaroceridaj). )iy F. W. Edwarus, B.A., 
F.E.S. 

(Published by permission of tlie Truateesof the British Museum.) 

Some time ago (June 1912) I described in this periodical the 
first known Suuth-AtVican Blepliarocerid under the name 
Kellogj/ina harnardi. More recently (iSepteniber 1915) I 
erected tor this species the new genus Elporia, adding at the 
same time a second South-African species, E. cap>-iisis. I 
now describe a third, also from South Africa, of which my 
friend Mr. K. H. Barnard, of the South African Museuni, 
has recently .sent me larvae and pupse, which were collected by 
him in January of the present year at a height of about 
3000 feet on the Caledon side of the Hottentots Hollands 
Mountains. Several of the pupse were sufficiently advanc(d 
in development to enable me to dissect out the adults, and it 
is from the.^e specimens that the adult characters have been 
drawn. As in the case of E. capensl^, this fact precludes 
any reference to coloration. The new species is much more 
nearly allied to E. barnardi than to E. caj ensi"-^ but the male 
claws resemble those of the last-named, and the larvse are 
quite distinct from those of either of the two known species. 

Elporia spinulosa, sp. n. 

Imago. — Front considerably broader in the female than in 
the male, being just one-third the width of the head in the 
jormer and one-fourth in the latter sex. Eyes of the male 
divided into two portions ; the upper part is a very little 
lar<^er than it is in E. capensis, but, as in E. harnardi, it is 
composed of larger facets than tho.ie of the lower part. The 
female eyes closely resemble those of E. harnardi, the upper 
portion being very small and its facets very much smaller 
than those of the lower. Pubescence of eyes about as long as 
the width of two facets. Antennae 15-jointed in both sexes, 
the joints somewhat oval, sessile, and all about equal in 
length, except the fourth, which is shorter ; last joint slightly 
enlarged in both sexes; tiiere are no strong hair.«, except one 
on the first joint, but the whole Hagellum is covered with a 
short dens<! ))ubescence. Mouth-p irts agreeing closely with 
those of E. harnardi in structuie, but rather shorter, being 
very little longer than the vertical diameter of the head ; the 
blade of the maxilla is a little longer than the first jjalpal 

Ann. cf- Mag. N. Uist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 21 



:5io 



(.hi a new Species o/Elporia, EJic. 



joint, and the suture between the third and fourth palpal 
joints is hardly di-^cernible, ; the labella have the same 
honeycombed structure and the same taste-hairs as in 
E. harnardi. 

Genitalia much resembling those of E. harnardi^ but those 
of the male at least showing good specific ditlerences (see 
figure) ; the female appears to have only one spermatheca, 
which is feebly chitinized ; E. harwirdi and E. capensis each 
have three spermatheca?, tliose of E. harnardi being feebly 
and those of E. capensis strongly chitinized. It seems veiy 
remarkable that such differenc(^s should occur within the 
limits of one genus. Tlie ovipositor resembles that of 
E. harnardi, the taste-hairs being more numerous than in 
E. capensis. 

Front tarsi: first joint nearly as long as the three 
following together ; second and tilth equal in length and 




Elporia spinulosa, sp. n. Male genitalia from above. 

rather longer than the tliird or fourth. Middle tarsi shorter 
than tiie front or hind pair, the first joint barely longer than 
the next two together ; second, third, and fourth gradually 
decreasing in size ; fifth as long as the second and third 
together. Hind tarsi : first joint almost as long as the re- 
maining four together ; second, third, and fourth giadually 
decreasing in length, fifth as long as the second. Male claws 
very similar to those of E. capensis, but tlie swollen basal 
part is not quite so hairy and the bare apical part is rather 
longer and straighter ; the female claws, on the other hand, 
are long, thin, and straight, like those of E. harnardi, but 
are perfectly smooth. 

Venation, as far as discernible, like that of E. harnardi. 

As will be seen from the above description, the male is 
readily distingui.-ihable from that of E. harnardi, but the 



On a new Ginus of Pytliidw. 31 1 

females of the two species are very similar. The female of 
the Jiew species differs chiefly in the somewhat narrower 
front, in the fourth antennal joint being somewhat shorter 
than the flftli and following joints, and in the perfectly 
smooth claws *. 

Pufia. — Closely resembles that of E. barnardi ; I can 
detect no differences. 

Larva. — liesembles that of E. barnardi in its two-jointed 
anteniue ; its hairy but sj)ineless lateral " pseudo[)odia," 
bifid at thetij) beneath; its Hve-braiiched gill-tufts; its four 
spiierical, equal-sized, anal papillie; and in the absence of 
any distinct knobs bearing the two pairs of long hairs on the 
anal segment. It differs from both E, barnardi and 
E. capensis in the extremely numerous short, thick, black 
spines on the dorsal surface. These s})ines are arranged as 
follows: — The cephalic segment, behind the horny liead- 
])lates, has four more or less regular transverse rows of ihem, 
about fifteen in each row ; behind the fourth row is a trans- 
verse bare area, then a patch of about forty spines, about 
half of which are in the middle third, the remainder being 
rather smaller and scattered over the lateral thirds. Tlie five 
intermediate segments each have about fifty to sixty spines, 
which, again, are most closely placed on the middle third ; 
some of these spines are very slightly larger than the others 
and occupy the same positions as the spines in E. capensis 
and E. barnardi. There are about twenty spines on the 
terminal segment, which is more evenly rounded than in 
E. barnardi. 



XXX VT. — A nno Gfmis o/'Pythidaj (Coleopf era) from the 
Fallclund hlands. By G. C. CUAMPION, F.Z.S. 

POOPHYLAX, gen. nov. 

Head short, broad, inserted into the ])rothorax to near the 
eyes and obliquely narrowed before them, broadly truncate 
in front, and excavate on each side behii'.d the shoit e|)istoma ; 
eyes sn)all, rounded, convex, laterally projecting; antenmu 
inserted beneath the cariniform orbits at a little before the 
eyes ; labrum transverse ; mandibles exposed at the tip, their 

* In my original description of E. barnardi I only noted the rndfl 
claws as Laving spines on the underside. In reality these ."pines occur 
in both sexes, though they are more conspicuous in the male. 

21* 



;U2 



On a neio Gtmis o/* PytliiJje. 



apices cleft ; mentuni strongly transverse ; terminal joint of 
tlie labial palpi oblong-ovate, narrow, that of the maxillary 
pair short-ovato, rather stont, and obliqiu'ly truncate at the 
tip; antennjB short, widening outwards; ))rothorax short- 
oval, obliquely compressed at the sides posteriorly, finely 
margined at the base, immarginate laterally ; scutellum 
transverse, subvertical ; elytra oval, striato-punctate, the 
epipleura rapidly narrowed and about reaching the second 
ventral .suture ; prosternum wtdl developed anteriorly ; ante- 
rior coxje separated by a narrow lamella, the cavities open 
behind and closed by the narrow sinuous ridge on the front 
of the mesosternum ; metasternum short, the episterna 
narrow ; ventral segments decreasing in length, 4 and 5 
subequal; tarsi pilose beneath, rather stout, the ante- 
penultimate joint excavate to near the base above for the 
rece[)tion of the small narrow peniiltini.ite joint, the terminal 
jiiint and claws long; wings wanting. 

Type, F. falklandiea. 

The single species from which tlie above characters are 
taken has been found in numbers (dead) in seeds of tussac- 
grass, Poa flahellata {l)actylis ccB^pitosa), sent from the 
Falkland Islands for the purpose of attempting to introduce 
the plant into Scotland. 

It may be described as large, pallid, apterous Salpingua, 
Gyll. {Sj>/iCBries(es, Steph.), with small, convex, lat^jrally 
projecting eyes, a short, broad, deeply inserted head, and 
rather stout tarsi, with the ante-penultimate joint deeply 
excavate above for the reception of the narrow penultimate 
one. Two allied nionoty[)ic genera, Thalassogeton and 
Chorinienum, from the I.-land of South Georgia'^, in the 
S. Atlantic, liave been recorded by Behrens (Stett. ent. Zeit. 
1887, pp. 18-22, pi.). These S. Georgian insects have the 
head more exserted than in the present genus, the eyes less 
piominent, the tarsi simple, the antennaj subtiliform, &c. 

Poophyl'ix /(tlklandica^ sp. n. 

Oblong-oval, somewhat convex, .shining, sordid testaceous, 
the eyes and the tip.sof the mandibie.s black, almost glabrous. 
Head sparsely, irregularly punctate, transversely depressed 
on the vertex anrl with two large fovese in front ; antennse 
rather stont, aboiit reaching the liind angles of the prothorax, 
j )ints 6-10 gradually becoming stouter, 9 and 10 about as 
broad as long, 11 ovate. Protliorax rather convex, wider 
than the head, broader than long, narrowed and con.stricted 

* Tiissac-grass is also found on this island, according to .Skottsberg. 



My. W. L. Di.staiit's Uhyncholal Nutrs. 313 

brhiiu], obliquely sulcate on each side before the base, tlie 
liiml angles obtuse ; closely, rather coarsely punctate, usually 
with an indication of a smooth median line. Elytra mode- 
rately luricr^ oval, at the base a little wider than the pro- 
thorax, separately rounded at the apex, leaving the tip of 
the last dorsal segment exposed, the humeri oi^tuse; coarsely 
striato-punetate, and with some additional punctures on 
either side of the suture at the bas", the interstices flaf, 
smooth. Beniiath clostdy, finely punctate. Penis-sheath of 
S lo"g> parallel-sideJ, abruptly acuminate in the middle 
at tip. 

Length O-'or., i)rendth 1^-2 mm. (J ? ). 

JIah. Falkland Is. (// N. Salivnn). 

Numerous specimens, received by the British Museum In 
July 1915. l3r. M. Oameron, H.N., collected a few Coleo- 
ptera in these islands in Dec. 1SJ14, but he did not meet vvilli 
P. faUdundica. 



XXXyi\.—Rhf/nchotal Notes.— LIX. By W. L. Distant. 

H O M O P T E R A. 

Fam. Membracidse (continued from p. 159). 

Xiphistes crassus, sp. n. 

Body aud legs pale brownish testaceous; tegmina hyaline, 
the veins pale brownish, about basal two-thirds retiectiug 
the dark abdomen beneath ; pronotum with the anterior 
lateral angles very short, broad, robust, three-sided, slightly 
directed ui)wardly and Ibrivardly, their apices broadly, 
obtusely augulate, moderately centrally, longitudinally 
carinate, the posterior process tricarinate, its apex a little 
passing the posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin, 
posterior margin of the frontal area above face distinctly 
concave, tibiae compressed and moderately dilated. 

Long. 7 mm. ; exp. pronot. lat. process. 3^ mm. 

Hub. Masiionaland, Salisbury (G. A. K. Marshall). 

The salient characters of this species are its elongate form 
and the short, Ijioad, obtuse, anterior lateral angles of the 
pronotum. 



314 Mr. W. L. l)i.staui'ri Ilhjnchotal Jfotes. 

Basilidts hipcnnis. 

Centrotus hipennh, Wa!K. List. Horn. ii. p. GOG (1851). 

Anchon albolimatuni, IJiu-lit. Mmi. Meiiibrae. p. JI(>, i»l. xlviii. (i^s. G^, i 

(1{K)3). 
Atnhoii fwciim, Bnckt. Tr. Linn. Soc. Loml. (2) ix. p. 3.'34, pi. xxii. 

lijr. -'MlSKtG). 
^loiiDCPufnis alboliiieaium, Schuiidt, Ziol. Aiiz. xxxviii. p. i'38 (IDll). 
Basilides ft/;>e«7i/»-. l)i.st. Aim. & Mng. Nat. Hist. (8) xvii.p. 149(191Gj. 

Hah. W. Africa. 

Since placing tliis species in my genus Basilides I liave 
found that Huckton^s Anchon albolitieatuin is also a synonym, 
and must fall accordingh'. 

As regards tlie genus, Schmidt (supra) inclines to the 
view (judging from the figure) that liucktou's species is to 
he included in Monocentrus^ jNlelich. (^^'ien. cut. Zeit xxiv. 
p. 297, 1905). I liave not seen a tyi)ical specimen of 
Monocenirns. Meliehar placed his genus after Anchon^ hut 
if Schmidt is right in his determination, then the structure 
of the pronotum with its anterior processes should ally it to 
Leptobclus, Stal. 

Centrocliures borneensis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and hody heneath brownish testaceous; 
legs testaceous ; tegmina ochraceous, base and costal niai- 
gin brownish testaceous ; pronotum punctate, sparsely finely 
tuberculate, lateral processes obliquely erect, their ajaces 
broadened, flattened, slightly recurved ; anteriorly conve.xly 
rounded, posteriorly truncate, with the apical angle sub- 
acute, centrally longitudinally carinate, posterior process 
undulate, shortly spinous above, distinctly raised aiul gibbous 
above scutellum, but deflected to apex of same, and from 
thence couterminous with tegmina, a strong trilobed erection 
about two-thirds from base, the apex robust and about 
reaching tegminal apex ; anterior tibiae moderately dilated. 

Long., inch tegm., 4^ mm. ; exp. pronot. lat. process. 
4 mm. 

Hub. Borneo ; Kuching (/?. Shelford). 

Cenlrochares posticus. 

Pterygia posfica, Buckt. Mon. Membrac. p. 70, pi. xi. fig. 5 a (1901). 
IJdb. Philippine Islands. 



Ceiitrochares bucktoni, sp. n. 
, n. .s., $ ?, Buc 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 



Pier^yia postica, n. .s., $ ?, Buckt. Mon. Membrac. p. 70, pi. xi. fig. 4 a 
(1901). 



:\Ir. W. L. ni>t;mi"> /i'ln/nrhoLiI Xnlrs. 'Mo 

Leptocentrus aureumaculatus, sp. n. 

Head, pronotmn, and scntcUum shining black ; head and 
stcnuun (hirkly grcyishly pilose; leniora black, tibi;e and 
tarsi paliT and more castancons ; tcj^inina snl)h\ aline, pale 
brownish ochraccoiis, the veins darker, a large bright o(,-lira- 
ceous spot at base; pronotuni thickly [)niietate, the j)osterior 
process somewhat slender, tricarinate, impinging on inner 
tegminal margin at posterior angle and extending lieyond it, 
the anterior kiteral processes slender and directed back- 
ward ly. 

Long. 7-7.', mm. ; exj). pi'onot. hit. process. 5 mm. 

Hal>. Ugaiula Prot., Valley of Kafn R., Unyoro, 3400 ft., 
KanipaUi Rd., ar)00 It., Ankole-Toro Border (S. A. Neave). 

Allied to L. ulliJ'ronSj Walk., but with the lateral pronotal 
processes more slender, less curved, and more straight ly 
directed backward, pronotuni more elevated at base, &c. The 
large bright oehraccous basal tcgniiual spot is also indicative. 

Leptuciuitnis f/ros.sus, ^). n. 

Head, pronotum, scutellum, sternum beneath, and legs 
dark castancons; tcgmina pale bronzy brown, extreme base 
castaneous, immediately followed by an obscure, pale oclira- 
ceous, transverse, macular fascia, veins castaneous ; pronotum 
thickly punctate, strongly centrally, longitudinally carinate, 
the anterior lateral processes robust, centrally longitudinally 
carinate, their posterior apices slightly reeurveil, posterior 
process tricarinate, its ajjcx passing the posterior angle of 
inner tegminal margin ; legs palely castaneous, somewhat 
thickly greyislily pilose. 

Long. 9-10 mm.; exp. lat. pronot. process. 5^-6 mm. 

Hub. Uganda; Entebbe (C A. IViyyinsand C. C. Guwdey). 
Entebbe Forest, 3800 ft., and Buamba Forest, Semliki 
Valley, 2300-:J800 ft. (S. A. Neave). 

In size allied to L. Umh'ipennis, Jacobi, from Ruweiizori, 
but with the posterior pronotal process much more slender 
and less undulate, &c. 

Centrutypiis shelf ordi^ sp. n. 

Head and pronotum black with a dark bluish reflection ; 
body beneath and legs fuscous brown, tarsi brownish oehra- 
ccous ; tcgmina shining castaneous, the costal margin 
blackish ; pronotum thickly punctate, the lateral processes 
broad, laminate, obliciucly upwardly directed, their apices 
broadly truncate, anteriorly rounded and posteriorly shortly 



316 Ml-. W. L. Distaiit's lihyncliotal ^otes. 

subacute, apical areas wrinldcd, and beliiiul middle strongly 
transversely cariiiate, the disk somewhat obsoletely centrally 
carinate, the posterior process strongly tricarinate, its apex 
sliglitly passing the posterior angle of the inner tegminal 
margin. 

liOng. Gj mm. : e\p. pronot. lat. i)rocess. 6 mm. 

Hab. Borneo; Sarawak {R. Shelf or d). 

A small well-marked species, the expanse of its broad 
lateral pronotal processes almost equalling its longitude 
including tcgmiua. 

Cenirotypus taurus, sp. n. 

Pronotura bluish black, apical areas of the lateral pro- 
cesses purplish black ; face and body beneath thickly, 
longly, ochraceously pilose; legs castaneous brown, the tarsi 
more ochraceous; tegmina very pale ochraceous, the apical 
area castaneous, the costal margin blackish ; pronotum 
thickly coarsely punctate, the lateral processes broad, trans- 
verse, slightly recurved, their apical areas laminate, almost 
impuuctate, ' wrinkled, their apices anteriorly broadly, 
obliquely rounded, posteriorly shortly >ubacute, the disk 
obsoletely centrally carinate, the posterior process strongly 
tricarinate, its apex subac\iteand passing the posterior angle 
of the inner tegminal margin. 

Long., inch tegm , 8^ mm. ; exp. lat. pronot, process. 
7 mm. 

Hab. Siamese Malay States [Annandale and Rubinson). 

Centroiypvs siamensis, sp. n. 

Head and pronotum bluish black ; body beneath and legs 
dull black ; tegmina pale ochraceous, subhyaline, the apical 
area pale castaneous, the costal area broadly black ; pro- 
notum thickly punctate, the lateral processes moderately 
broad and long, transverse, their apices very slightly re- 
curved, their apical areas very distinctly obliquely impressed, 
posteriorly transversely carinate, their apices anteriorly 
rounded, posteriorly broadly subacute, the disk faintly 
carinate, the posterior proc< ss strongly tricarinate, its apex 
subacute and about reaching the posterior angle of the inner 
tegminal margin. 

Long., inch tegm., 8 mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 5 mm. 

Hab. Siamese Malay States, Bulsit Besar [Annandale and 
Bobinson). 

Allied to C. latimargo, Walk., and C. pactohis. Buckt. 



^ 



Mr. W. L. Di.>t:iiil's llhyuchotal JSotes. 317 

Centrutypus /uthnarr/o. 

Centrotus lutimaryo, Walk. Jourii. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. i. p. 103 
(18o7). 

Hab. Borneo. 

Centrotyjms pactolns. 

Ol'moi'ia pactohis, IJuckt. Monoij^r. Meiubiac. p. 2'i'j, pi. lii. fig. la 
(I'Juy). 



Hub. Perak. 



Centrotypus tauriformis^ sp. n. 



Pronotiim (lurk bluish black ; face and bofly beneath 
thickly j^rcyishly pilose; lej^s fuscous brown ; tojj^uiina pale 
ochraceons, apical third castaneous, costal area black ; pro- 
notuni thickly, somewiiat coarsely punctate, lateral processes 
strongly recurved, somewhat slender, excluding bases almost 
imjMuictate, convexly narrowing to apices, which are suij- 
acute, behind middle strongly transversely carinate, tlie 
carination not reaching apex, disk obsoletely centrally cari- 
nate, p(jsterior ))rocess stronj^ly tricarinate, its apex narrowed 
and subacute and passing the posterior angle of the inner 
tegniin d margin. 

Long., inch tegra., 9 mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 7 mm. 

Hub. Java (ex. Buekton Coll.). 

A species to be recognized by the somewhat slender, 
strongly recurved, lateral prouotal processes. 

Centrotyjms pronotalis, sp. n. 

Pronotum bluish black ; face and sternum greyishly 
pilose ; abdomen beneath and legs testaceous ; tegmina 
shining ochraccous, the costal and apical areas a little darker 
and more purplish ; pronotum thickly coarsely punctate, the 
lateral processes gradually narrowing and strongly recurved, 
their apices subacute, bt hind middle transversely carinate, 
the disk faintly carinate, the posterior process strongly tri- 
carinate, its apex almost reaching the tegminal apex. 

Long., inch tcgm., 9 mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 8|^ mm. 

Hab. Java (A. H. Walluce). 

Allied to the preceding species, C. fauriformis, but with 
the lateral pronotal processes longer and more cresceuted ; 
colour of tegmina quite dissimilar, &c. 



318 Mr. AV. L. Distant's Rhynchotal Xotes. 

Centrotiipus perakensis, n. noiu. 

Cc/itroti/piis olatiis, Buckt. Monogr. Membrac. p. 237, pi. liv. fig. 2 a 
(1903). 

Hab. Pcrak {Duherty). 

Tlie Cenirutyjjiis alatus, Yinvm., is well figured, but the 
locality given (Brazil) is evidently incorrect. Tiie British 
jNIuseuni possesses a typical example. The Centrotyims 
alatus^ Buckt., was described from a specimen in my own 
collection and now contained in the British Museum. This, 
therefore, required a new name. 

Centroiypus aduncus. 

Leptucnntrus aduncus, Buclit. Monogr. Menibvac. p. 236, pi. liii. fig. 6 
(1903). 

Hab. Philippine Islands; Luzon. 

Centroiypus longicornis. 

Centrolus Imgicornis, Vuillef. Aun. Soc. Ent. Fr. (4) iv. p. 142, pi. i. 

fig. 8rt (ltitj4). 
Cent rot i/pus longicornis, Grifliui, 8oc. Ital. Scieu. Nat. liv. p. 7, fig. 

(1915). 

Hub. Borneo ; Sarawak {J. E. A. Lewis). 

The British Museum now possesses a single (somewhat 
damaged) specimen of this very rare Membracid, the original 
type of which has been recently minutely and excellently 
redescribed by Dr. Aehille Griffini. 

Lestarches, gen. nov. 

Allied to Centi'otypus, Stal, but differing principally by the 
structure of the posterior pronotal process, which is broad, 
very distinctly cariuate, distinctly moderately convex beyond 
scutellum, its apex subacute and distinctly deflected, over the 
posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin; disk and 
front of pronotum strongly centrally longitudinally carinate. 

Type, L. forticornis, Walk. 



Lestarches forticornis. 

Centrotus forticornis, Walk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond.,Zool. vol. x. p. 185 
(1868). 

Hab. Celebes. 



l\v. W. L. Distant's Rhijncliutid Notes. .TIO 

Einphnsis ayuatiis, sj). n. 

Head, proiiotiim, body beiicatli, and legs dark ])urplisli 
brown ; tegmina pale sliining ocliraceous, extreme ba-e and 
costal area dark j)iirplisli brown, apical area more or less 
tinged with eastaneous ; jironotuin very coarsely punctate, 
finely, centrally, longitudinally carinate, posterior process 
tricaiinate, only sli;ilitly elevated above seutelluni, and tlieu 
continuously iin|)inging ou inner margin of tcgnnna to a 
little before tegminal apex, disk of pronotuin crescentcd in 
form, tlie lateral processes broad and prominently directed 
baekwardly, in a line with the lateral pronotal margins. 

Long. 10 mm.; exp. lat pronot. process. 6 mm. 

Huh. Siam ; Chautaboun {M. H. Mouhot). 

Dacaratha, gen. nov. 

Allied to Emphasis, Buekt., but pronotum less regularly 
crescentcd in form, its frontal area shorter and strongly 
centrally carinate, the posterior process undulate and dis- 
tinctly elevated above scutellum, the apical area upwardiv 
directed beyond the posterior angle of the tegminal inner 
margin, the anterior lateral [)rocesses much more angulately 
and less crescently produced. 

Type, D. nyasana^ Dist. 

Emphus'is appears to be confined to the Oriental and 
^Malayan regions ; Dacaratha at present is only known from 
Central Africa. 

Dacaratha nyasana, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and scutellum black ; body beneath and 
femora black, tibije and tarsi dark eastaneous ; anterior and 
lateral areas of sternum greyishly pubescent ; tegmina sub- 
hyaline, wrinkled, base black, outwardly obscurely margined 
with dull ochraceous, apical area more or less bright testa- 
ceous ; pronotum thickly, finely punctate, centrally longitu- 
dinally carinate, the posterior process tricarinatc, convexlv 
raised above scutellum and then impinging on the posterior 
angle of the inner tegminal margin, and beyond this it 
straightly continues for a short distance, the lateral pronotal 
processes short, moderately obliquely angularly directed 
baekwardly. 

Long., incl. tegm., 8 mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. •!• mm. 

Hub. Near Lake Nyasa (//. B. Cotterill). 



320 Mr. W. L. Distant's Rhynclwtal Nvtes. 

Periaman ival/acei, sp. n. 

Pronotimi and legs black ; an arcuate linear spot beneath 
the lateral pronotal processes, a large spot on each side of 
base of posterior process and apices of anterior femora 
ochraceous ; face and body beneath thickly greyishly pilose ; 
tt'gmina pale bronzy subhyaline, base and costal marginal 
area — extending to apex — black ; pronotura coarsely punc- 
tate, the disk strongly centrally carinate, the lateral processes 
moderately well procluced, slightly recurved, centrally cari- 
nate, the anterior and posterior margins broadly sublaminate, 
their apices subacute ; posterior process robust, strongly 
tiicarinate, moderately laterally compressed, beyoud middle 
strongly narrowed to apex, which is subacute, and reaching 
the posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin ; femora 
moderately thickened ; face coucavely emargiuate before 
clypeus. 

Long., incl. tegm., 8j-9j mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 
5 mm."^ 

Hab. Borneo ; Sarawak {A. R. TFaUace, Brit. Mas.). 

OrixoToiDEs, gen. nov. 

Allied to Otinotus, Buckt., from which it principally 
differs by the posterior pronotal process, which is more 
robust, especially at base, where it has a distinct medial 
carination ou eacli side ; it touches the scutellum and then 
is distinctly moderately convexly elevated, its apical half 
roundly deflected, its apex slender, subacute, and almost 
reaching the tegminal a))ex. 

Type, 0. paU'qjes, Walk. 

Otinotoides pallipes. 

Cetitrottts pallipes, Walk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. x. p. 185 

(J8G8). 
Otinotus pallipes, Buckt. MonogT. Membrac. p. 232, pi. Hi. figs. 4, 4 a 

(1903) ; l)i.<t. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. xx. p. 35U (1914). 
Centrotus tibialis, Walk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. x. p. 188 (1868). 
Ventrotus ramiiitta, Walk. MS. ? 
Centrotus semiclusus, Walk. MS. ? 

Hab. New Guinea, Batchiau, Mysol. 

Otinotoides semihicidus. 

Centrotus semilucidus, Walk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Lend., Zool. x. p. 186 
(1868j. 



* In smaller specimen and type ; in a second larger specimen these 
processes are mutilated. 



I 



:\rr. W\ L. Di.sfc;ml'.s RhynclioUd Notes. 152 1 

Crntrofi/pu.^ tibialis, Biickt. Monogr. Meiiibiac. p. 238, pi. Uv. fiy. 3 a 
(VMii). 

Hub. Waigioa [A. R. IVallace). 

Otiiiotoides a/hldua. 

Centrotux ulbidus, Walk. Joiini. Linn. Soc. Load., Zcxil. x. p. 188 
(1808). 

Hub. Mysol {A. R. Wallace). 

OlinotoiJes brevivittus. 

Centrotus brevicitta, Walk. Jonrn. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zuol. x. p. 185 
(1808;, 

Hub. New Guiuca {A. R. iral/ace). 

Ot'inotoides siriyatus. 

Cc-ntrotus striyatus, Walk. Jonrn. Linn. Sue. Loud., Zool. x. p. 184 

(1808). 
Opkicentrun curvicornis, J3uckt. Monogr. Meiubrac. p. i^.^O, pi. Ivii, 

%. 3« (li»03). 
Eufrtnchia striyata, Dist. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Ilidt. ante, p. 103. 

Hab. New Guinea. 

I had previously included this species in the Australian 
genus Etijrenchia, to whicli it had considerable ajfiinity. 
Having now founded the genus Otinntoides for a number of 
Papuan species, it finds a natural position within it. 

GoNDOPH.\RXES, gCU. UOV. 

Prouotiira not prominently raised, the lateral processes 
moderately rolnist, their apices more or less recurved and 
subacute, centrally longitudinally carinate, posterior process 
broad, laterally compressed, triearinate, sinuous, at base 
almost touching the scutellum and then impinging on tlie 
tcgmina, its apex loiigly narrowed and acute, coiivexly 
deflected, and reaching the tegmiual apex ; tegmiua with 
three large apical cells. 

Ty|)e, G. piceus. Walk. 

A genus to be placed near Olinuides, Dist. 

Gotidopharnes piceus. 

Centrotus piceus, Walk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond, Zool. x. p. 187(1868). 

llab. Batchian (A. R. Jl'ulluce). 



322 Mr. W. L. Distant's Rhynchotal Notes. 

Genus Tricockps. 

Tricorepx, Buckt. Monogi-. Membrac. p. 249 (190.'}). 
Tniiihiisa, Dist. Insect. Transvaal, p. 21(5 (1908), iioni. pra^oco. 
I'ainbusana, Uist. Ann. & M;ig. Nat. Hist. (8j ix. p. (352 (1912), n. nom. 

Type, T. brunnipennis, Germ. 

I did not recognize Buckton's fjenus at tlie time, as his 
figure of the typical s|)ecies is defective, and he gave no 
reference as to its origin ; he also placed it in juxtaposition 
to a genus with which it had no affinity. 

Tricoceps brunnipennis. 

Cvntrotus hrimnijennis, Germ. R"v. Silb. iii. p. 2o7. 4 (IS-Doj : Fair.n. 

Ann. Soo. Ent. Fr. ser. 2, iv. p. 512 (ls4'i). 
Tricoceps brimneipennis, Buekt. Aluuosjr. Menibiac. p. 249 (1903). 

Hab. S. A^'rica. 

Buckton gave a different spelling to the specific name and 
no reference to its author. 

Tricoceps huhipennis. 

Centrotus hubipentiis, Fairm. Ann. Soc. Eut. Fr. ser. 2, iv. p. oil (1846) ; 

IStal, Hem. Air. iv. p. 95 (1866). 
Tamhitsa bubipennis, Dist. Insect. Trausvaal. p. 216, tab. xxi. fig. 17 

(1908). 

Hab. S. Africa. 

Tricoceps curvispina, sp. n. 

Body and legs black; tegmiua bronzy brown, base and a 
costal line black, a large spot at posterior angle of inner 
tegniiiial margin castaneous ; pronotum thickly punctate, 
anterior lateral processes recurved, somewhat long, their 
apices subacute, the disk strcmgly centrally cariuate, the 
posterior process tricarinate, strongly rais( d at base and theu 
straightly obliquely continued to posterior angle of inner 
tegniinal margin, which it distinctly passes, its apex sub- 
acute ; scutellum with its apex prominently upwardly 
recurved. 

Long., inch tegm., 5-f) mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 
3|-4 mm. 

Hab. Congo Free State ; Katanga, Kambove, 4000- 
5000 ft. (S. A. Neavc). 

Allied to T. brunnipennis, Germ., but with the lateral 
pronotal processes lon-er, much more recurved, and con- 
siderablv more acute. 



^Ir. W. L. Distant'^ Ithynchotal Notes. :}23 

Centrotus bovimis, sp. n. 

Head, pronoturn, scutellum, body beneatli,and legs Ijlack, 
a wliite spot at each basal angle oF the scutellum : sternum 
largely whitely tomentose; tegmina subhyaline, wrinkled, 
the veins castaneous, the base black, the apical area pale 
bronzy brown ; pronoturn wrinkled and punctate, centrally 
longitudinally carinate, the anterior lateral processes some- 
what slender, centrally carinate, and distinctly recurved, 
their apices subacute, posterior process tricarinate, very 
slightly elevated above scutellum and from thence recurved 
and impinging on tegmina, its apex passing the posterior 
angle of the inner tegminal margin. 

Long., iucl. tegrn., 7-7^ mm. ; exp. lat. jironot. process. 
4|-5 tnm. 

Hub. Uganla ; Kadunguru, East. Province (C C. Gow- 
dey). Brit. E. Africa : Mumias Distr. (A. D. Mibu^). 

Allied to C. buntucmtus, Dist., but is to be separated from 
that species by the strongly recurved lateral pronotal 
processes, &c. 

Centrotus shoanus, sp. u. 

Pronotum, body beneath, and femora dark ferruginous 
brown J tibije and tarsi testaceous ; lateral areas of sternum 
strongly ochraceously tomentose ; tegmina subhyaline, 
strongly wrinkled, venation dull ochraeeous, extreme base 
ferruginous brown ; pronotum thickly punctate, the lateral 
processes moderately short and roljust, transverse, their 
apices obsoletely acute, the disk ralher finely centrally 
carinate, posterior process finely tricarinate, distinctly sepa- 
rate from scutellum, apical area narrowed, the apex subacute 
and reaching the posterior angle of inner tegraiual margin ; 
scutellum with a small spot at each basal angle and the 
lateral margins ochraeeous. 

Long., incl. tegin., 8 mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 4 mm. 

Hab. Abyssinia ; Shoa. Collected on the mission of 
Sir W. C. Harris to Shoa. 

Centrotus uiatangensis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and scutellum black; scutellum with a 
dark (sometimes pale) ochraeeous s[)ot in each basal angle ; 
pronotal front, face, and legs dark purplish ; lateral areas 
of sternum and abdomen beneath pali'ly ochraceously 
tomentose ; tegmina purplish brown ; pronotum punctate 
and coarsely granulate, centrally longitudinally carinate; 



324 Mr. W. L. Distaiu's Rhjnclwlal Notes. 

the anterior lateral processes robust, hroaci, directed out- 
■\vardly and a little upwardly, their apices subtruncate ; 
])Osterior pronotal process tricarinate, impinging on tegraina 
immediately beyond scutelium, gradually narrowing to apex, 
which is subacute, and passing posterior angle of inner 
tegminal margin. 

Jjong, 8i mm.; exp. lat. pronot. ])rocess. 5 mm. 

Hub. Borneo; Alt. Matang {R. She/furd). 

Centrotus albilatus. 

Centrotus aViilatns, Walk. Journ. Linu. Soc. Loud., Zool. x. p. 184 
(1868). 

Hah. New Guinea. 

Genus Tsiiaka. 

Tshaka, Dist. Insect. Transvaal, pt. i.\. p. 214 (1908). 

Tshaka undulatus, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, scutelium, and body beneath black ; 
legs more or less castaneous, the tarsi ochraceous ; tegmina 
flavescent, the veins darker, especially ou the apical are;), 
base and a small costal spot beyond middle black, a small 
castaneous spot at posterior angle of the inner tegminal 
margin ; pronotum strongly, centrally, longitudinally cari- 
iiate, the posterior process tricarinate, undulate, impinging 
on tegmina before the posterior angle of the inner tegminal 
margin, and then recurved and running almo>t parallel with 
it to beyond the posterior angle, the apex subacute ; lateral 
pronotal processes robust, their apices slightly recurved and 
subacute ; scutelium about as broad as long, its ape.\ 
bispinous. 

Long. 5 mm.; exp. pronot. process. 4 mm. 

Hub. Mashoualand ; Salisbury (G. A. K. Marshall). 

Allied to T. natiiralis, Dist,, from the Ttausvaal, but with 
the posterior pronotal process shorter, more robust, more 
convexly arched over the scutelium, and the apical area more 
recurved; tegmina shorter and proportionally broader. 

Plafybelus escaleranus, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, scutelium, body beneath, and legs 
blackish brown; a pule spot at each basal angle of the 
scutelium ; tegraina subhyaliue, apical margin ochraceous, 



Mr. \V. L. Dislaiit's l!hijnclf)l,il X„les. 



?>i: 



Inisal :ut:i and two ti"aiisv(:r>c lascia; (one near middk* Ijroad 
and straijiht, the other narrower and curved before apex) 
purplish hrown ; pronotnni thiekly punctate, strongly cen- 
trally, longitudinally cai-inate, the lateral processes reeinved, 
gradually narrowing to ajiiees, wliieh are acute, posterior 
process al)ove finely serrate, robustly raised at base, and 
downwardly convexly curved al)ove scutelluni and to a little 
beyond its apex, and then again recurved to apex, which 
extends beyond the posterior process of inner tegininal 
margin. 

Long. 7 nun.; exp. hit. prouot. jjioccss. i mm. 

Hdb. Caineroons [Esca/ri-a, Brit. Mus.). 

Allied to P. jiaciis, Sign., but with the posterior pronotal 
process more slender and with its basal angle more pro- 
nounced ; lateral pi'onotal processes also more slender and 
their apices distinctly and regularly acute. 

Plulyhelus yijtidciji^ sp. n. 

Allied to the preceding species P. cscalerunus, Ijut with 
the lateral pronotid processes considerably more slender and 
a little more directed backwai'dly ; tegmina ochraceous, with 
the basal and eostal areas black ; base of posterior pronotal 
j)rocess more obliquely raised. 

Jjong. 7 mm. ; ex[). lat. [)ronot. process. 4- mm. 

Hub. Uganda : Mabira l''orest (C C Gondeij). 

Platijhehm a/ricainis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, body beneath, and legs black or blackish 
brown ; disk of pronotum with a slender waved greyish line 
on each- lateral area and a similarly coloured small linear 
spot at each basal angle of the scutellum ; tegmina dark 
ochraceous, i)ase and a spot at posterior angle of inner 
tegininal mai'gin eastaneous, a very obscure pale transverse 
macular fascia beyond middle ; pronotum thickly punctate, 
the lateral processes as in the two preceding species, but 
■with their apices less regularly convexly recurved ; the poste- 
rior process is also more robust and its base more obliquely 
raised . 

Long. 7; ex|). lat. i)ronot. pnjcess. 4^ mm. 

Hah. Canierouns [Esca/era, Brit. Mvis.). Uganda Prot., 
Buamba Forest, Semliki \'alley,and Jiudongo Uorest, Unyoro 
{S. A. Neave). 



Ann. Jj Muo. X. I list. Ser. 8. \ ol. xvii. 



22 



323 Mr. W. L. Distant's lihynchotal Notes. 

Phtiijhelus flavus. 

Ceutrvtnsflavu.i, Si<:n. in Thonis. Arch. Ent. ii. p. 339 (1858). 
Plutijbelusjiavm, tStal, Hem. Afr. iv. p. 9li (18G(i). 
Ophiceiitrus varipeiDiis, JJuckt. Moiiogr. ^ieiiibrac. p. 2-jO, pi. Ivii. 
tig. U (1903J. 

Uab. Calabar. 

PlatybeJus iiisic/uis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotuni, scutcllmn, body l)eneath, and le<^s 
l)lack ; tarj;i ochraceous : teguiiiia pale sliiiiiiig ociuaceuus, 
the base and a spot on costal margin beyond middle black, 
a brownish spot on inner margin near posterior angle ; 
pronotum punctate, the anterior margin truncate, the lateral 
])rocesses robust, their apices recurved and subacute, poste- 
rior process arched above scutelluui, where it is rol)ust ami 
impinging on inner tegmiual maigiu before the })osterior 
angle, and thence attenuated and recurved to apex, which 
passes the posterior angle. 

Long., incl. tegm., 5 mm. ; exp. lat. pronot. process. 3| mm. 

Hub. Near Lake Ny:issa {Thelwall, Brit. Mus.). 

]\LviKVA, gen. nov. 

Pronotum very strongly centrally longitudinally ridged, 
the lateral processes somewhat short, broad, sublamiiuite, 
the apical nuirgius oblique, the posteiior process impinging 
on the scutellum and tegmiua, laterally broad and sub- 
laminate for about half its length, wiiere it is convex above 
and then suddenly attenuated to apex, which passes the 
jKistcrior angle of the inner tegminal margin ; face mode- 
rately globose : legs simple, not dilated; tegmina with four 
apical cells. 

Maunja gibbosulus. 

Centnitus yibbosulii!', ^Yclllv. Jouni. Linn. .Soc. Loud., Zool. x. p. 187 
(18«8j. " 

IJub. Macassar (fVallace). 

AxTiALciDAS, gen. nov. 

Pronotum broad, strongly centrally carinate. the posterior 
process prominently couvexly, laminately raised, its margins 
strongly carinate, the apex shortly acute and not passing 
the posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin, the lateral 
angles broad and robust, their apices obliquely truncate. 



Mr. \V. I.. Di.staiit's Rhijnchotal .Votes. 



:V27 



niodei-ately raised and slightly (iiicctcd backwai-d, viewed 
from the front they appear to be obtusely acute ; tegmiua 
more than twice as broad as long, strongly wrinkled, four 
apical cells, the veins straight. 

The i)nnei|)al character of this genus i-i found in the 
convexly lamiuutely raised posterior pronotal process. 

Ant'iulc'idas trlfolhiceus. 

Ceiifrotiis trifol Ulceus, Walk. List IIuiii., Siippl. p. 16."} (18.j8). 
Hub. North China. 

Pantaleox, gen. nov. 

Body somewhat short and broad ; pronotum strongly, 
centrally, longitudinally cariuate, the lateral angles u()wardlv 
raised, their a[)ices angulate and moderately recurved, on 
their inner margin before apex a strong obtuse spine some- 
wiiat upwardly directed, the posterior process strongly 
laminately subconvexly raised, with the margins robust and 
thickened, its apex shortly acute and slightly passing the 
posterior angle of the inner tegminal margin ; tegmiua not 
more than twice as broad as long, apical veins four in 
number, with the veins slighily curved. 

Allied to tlie preceding genus, Anlialcidas, by the lami- 
nately raised posterior pronotal process, but dirt'ering in the 
peculiarly bispined lateral pronotal angles, short tegmiua, &c. 

Paataleon iiioniifer. 

Centrotus montifrr, Walk. List IIoiu. ii. p. 020 (I80I). 
JJdb. IJouii" Kony;. 



Amithocuates, gen. nov. 

Head truncately declivous in front, with two strong 
central ridges, more than twice broader than long ; pro- 
notum with the disk elevated, very strongly centrally longi- 
tudinally cariuate, the lateral angles short and very rol)ust, 
ni)wardly directed, anteriorly coarsely serrate, their apices 
continued in a slender spine a little directed backwardly, at 
frontal base before eyes distinctly, obtusely, angularly pro- 
duced, posterior process very robust, strongly nndulate, 
well se[)arated from scutellum, near base shortly strongly 
globose, then nodulatc and strongly directed (lownwanl, 
afterward raised, strongly longitudinally globose and with 
a long, slentler, slightly curved, aj)ical spine which distinctly 



328 



Mr. W. L. Distant's Rhynchotal Sote^. 



passes the posterior angle of the inner tcgminal margin ; 
scutelluni a little lon^^er than broad, the apex slender and 
rccnrved ; tegniina ahont three times longer than broad, 
apical cells four, preceded by tiiree subapical cells ; legs 
elongate. 

Amitrochates yrahami, sp. n. 

Head, pronotnm, and scntcllum shining black, a small 
greyi-<h-\vhitc spot at each basal angle oP the scutellnm, a 




Amitrucliutes r/rd/ianii, ])i.-^t. 

similar spot on each lateral margin of the prouotum, and 
another spot near insertion of tegmina ; legs black, til)ice 
and tarsi ochraceous, bases of the tibiae black ; abdomen 
more or less greyish white ; tegmina pale hyaline, the basal 
areii black, venation brownish ochraceous, a transverse 
linear spot at posterior angle of inner tegminal margin, and 
a marginal costal spot beyond middle pale brownish ; pro- 
notnm thickly, somewhat coarsely punctate, posterior pro- 
notal process with the upper and lower margins irregularly 
coarsely serrate : oiher structural characters as in generic 
diagnosis. 

Long., incl. tegm., 5 mm. 

Hab. Ashanti; Obnasi [Dr. IV. M. Graham). Gold Coast; 
Aburi (/('. H. Patterson). 

Genus Tricentrus. 

Tricentrus, Stal, Hem. Afr. iv. p. 89 (18(50); (Efv. Vet.-Ak. Forli. 

1869, p. 283; /. c. Itt70, p. 728; Uist. Faun. Brit, India, iv. p. 53 

(1907). 
Otaris, liuckt. Monogr. Membrac. p. 249 (1903). 
Taloipa, Buckt. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. p. 334 (1905). 



Tricentrus auritus. 

Otaris auritus, Buckt. Monogr. Membrac. p. 249, pi. lix. fig. 1 a (1903) ; 
Schmidt, Zool. Anz. xxxviii. p. 242 (191 J). 

I lab. Sumatra. 



.Air. W. L. Distaiit'.s Uhjnchotal Svtes. .'{29 

T cannot separate this species (tyjie of tlie proposed 
genus Olarh) from the genus Tricenlrus. 'I'he type of 
O. auritiis is now before me, and I think tliat Buckton 
must have originally described from a niutihitcd specimen 
and afterwards ol)tainod a perfect example wliich he marked 
as type. I am forced to this opinion, as he writes of tlie 
'■ posterior horn " as " ahnost obsoh'tc," and, again, "the 
])osterior iiorn is l)lunt," The posterior pronotal process is, 
however, normal, slightly passing the posterior angle of the 
inner tegminal margin, and its apex is distinctly narrowed 
and acute. It is, however, a species very broad compared 
with its lenjrtli. 



Trict'ntrus hasat'ii^. 

Centrotus basalts, Walk. List Ilora. ii. p. G26 (1851) ; Matsuin. Annot. 
Zool. Japon. viii. p. 10 (1912). 

Hub. China; Hong Kong ; Japan. 

Triceiitrus Ji mthnus. 

Cen/rotiis ^nitinius, Walk. List Iloin. ii. p. G28 (ISol). 
Hub. China ; Hong Kong. 

Tricenirus caliyinosus. 

Centrotus caliyinoms^ W.alk. Journ. Liun. Soc. Lond., Zool. i. p. 93 
(1857). 

Hob. Malacca {A. R. Wallace) ; Singapore (H. N. Ridley). 
Siam Malay States ; Biserat {Annandale 6^ Robinson). Malay 
Archipelago; Bali {U\ Dolierty). 

Tricenirus femoratus. 

Centrotus femoratiis, Walk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. x. p. 186 
(18G8). 

Hah. Celebes ; Macassar [A. R. fVallace). 



Tricenirus conyesius 

Centrotus congestus, V 

(1868). 

Hab. Sula [A. R. JVallace) 



Centrotus conrjestus, Walk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Loud., Zool. x. p. 187 

(1868). 



i\'M) ^Ir. R. I. Pocock ou some of the E.clernal 

Genus SiPYT.us. 
Sipi/Inf, Stai, fTem. Afr. iv. p. SO (18(50). 

Sipyliis (li/afntfis. 

Ce»troti/s (Ulatatiis, AValk. List Floni. ii. p. OnO (ISol). 
Sipiihiiiiio(lipe)i)}i.o,Y\u\k\\o\\-i. Joiirn. iMit. & Zool. (Pomona Cullf^ge, 
Calif., U..S..\.) vi. p. 72, %. ^ (]i)14). 

Enb. Philippine Islands. 

Walker described his species as liaving the " fore win^s 
greyisli, ferrusfinous at the base ; veins ferruginous, nodose," 
Avhereas in his type the tej^raina are also very distinctly 
ferruginous on tlie apical areas, as in Funkhouser's figure. 



XXXVIII. — On so)ne of the External StructuraJ Characters 
of the Striped Hijcena ( Hytena liysena) and related Genera 
and Species. By li. I. Pocock, F.R.S. 

This paper is based primarily upon the carcase of a female 
example of Hyana hyaena, from India, wliicli died in the 
Zoological Society's Gardens in Dec. 1915. Of the otlier 
species of Hysenas I have seen no fresh specimens ; but in 
1908 I made some sketclies of the anal pouch and glands of 
au example of I'rotehs cristatas. Tliese 1 take the oppor- 
tunit}' of reproducing. Unfortunately, no notes were made 
of other external features of this animal. 

77<e Facial Vibrissee and Rhinarium. — The facial vibrisste 
of Hyena hyana, as in all iEluroid Carnivoraj except the 
Felid^e ■^, consist of the normal number of tufts — najnely, 
the mystacial, superciliary, two genals, and the intcrranuil. 
The latter consists of about four well-developed bristh s, and 
each of the two geual tufts of approximately the same 
number. These tufts are set rather close togetlier near the 
middle of the cheek, the inferior of the two being above the 
])osterior corner of the month. All the vibrissye may be 
described as of medium length and considerable thickness. 

In living examples of the Spotted Hysena {Crocnta 
ciocvta) the corresponding tufts of vibrissee are quite 
apparent, and on a dried skin of a Proteles from South 

* In lliis family llio iiitcrramal tuft is always absent, as I have else- 
wliere record-^d (P. Z. S. 1914. ii. j). 901 j. 



( hanicters <>/ tin' Slri) cJ J lyiinn d'r. 



:j31 



Africa I find tlic vihrissoe precisely as descriI)C(l l)v Flower 
( P. Z. S. IS()i), ]). 170) — that is to say, the niystacial, super- 
ciliary, anil intcrramal tufts are present ; but the upper 
genal tuft appears to be suj)pre>.sc(l, uliilc the hnver is 



Fi-. 1. 




A. Head of adult Ili/fPun hifcena, showinrr the facial vibrissfB and the ear. 
I?. Head of newly-born cub of the same, .shoAin^ tlie facial vibiissie. 
('. llliinariuni of Ibja-nn hya-na from above, -i^ nat. size. 
J). The same from the fiont. 



represented by a single stiff vibrissa. Supplementinnf 
Flower's account, 1 may add that the niystacial vibriss;e 
arc unusually thick for a terrestrial niannnal of the size of 



[V,V2 Mr, II. 1. Pucock 0)1 some of tin: Ji.rfernaJ 

Proteles, being actually as tliick as those of the Hysenas, 
thus recalling the stiff vibrissre of predatory a([iuitic or 
amphibious mammals like Cyno(/ale or the Seals. 

The rhiuarium is large, naked, and nearly smooth. From 
the front its upper edge is evenly and lightly convex from 
side to side. Its lower half is marked by a groove ascend- 
ing to a point midway between the two nostrils and con- 
tinuous inferiorly with the cleft dividing the n|)per lip. 
^riie infranarial portion on each side is dee|) and i'ls lower 
edge curves obliquely upwards and outwards, overlapping 
laterally to a eonsiderahle extent the internal rim of the 
narial slit above. In })rotile view the upper anterior margin 
is rounded and not prominent. From the doisal aspect, 
the naked portion, measured from the inner margins of the 
narial slit, is rather more than twice as wide as long ; its 
antero-lateral margin is convex from side to side, and, as 
stated above, is considerably overlapped externally l)y the 
naked margins of the narial slits. It may be added that 
the height of the upper lip in the middle line is al)ont two- 
thirds the height of the middle line of the rhinarium 
above it. 

Tlie rhinarium of Crocnta appears to be similar to that of 
Hyaiia; and the same applies to Proteles, except that 
Flower described tlie anterior orifices of the nostrils as 
'• turning upwards.^' In the hysenas they look straight 
forwards. 

Ears. — A. detailed description of these organs has been 
rendered unnecessary by the exact account of them published 
by Boas*. The principal point to notice is the complete 
absence of the marginal bursa found in all other ^luroids, 
except the mongooses. Boas considers the bursa to be 
represented by a shalh)w de|)ression on the postero-inferior 
portion of the surface of thepinna, rut her nearer to the auditory 
cavity than to the jjosterior edge of the pinna and a little 
below the level of tlie supratragal ridge [plica principalis of 
Boas). There is nothing particularly remarkable about this 
ridge, which follows the usual longitudinal course and 
exhibits a swelling near the middle of its length. The 
antero-intenial ridge descends as a long crest with a sinuous 
edge, but without delinite enlaigements of any kind, and 
disiippears inferiorly behind the much shorter antero- 
external or tragal ridge. The inferior orifice of the ear is 
a small notch bordered in front by the tiagiis and behind 

* ' OhrAiiDrpel unci an^^seres Ohr der Siiu^'etliiere,' JM'- l-i-^-Hfi, 
pl.xxi. li- -«;J (1912). 



Charact( vs of the SlrijKd I hjiiiui (fr 



X\\) 



by tlio antitrjigus, the iiifi'iior proniiiicncc of the jiostcro- 
extenial ri(l';e uliich ascends ohli(HU'ly upwards ami back- 
Mards. The postero-internal ridge is \v(;il developed, but 
there is no definite supplementary ridge on the ])iiina out- 
side the h)\ver end of the postero-external ridge. 

The interesting point connected ^ith the ear of tlic 
hyu'na is the al)scnce of the marginal burso, a feature 
which suggests afhnity with the mongooses. ]iut the 
aiiaugemcnt of the n)ain cartilages of tlie car is not in tiic 
least like that of the mongooses, and diHers in no important 
respects from the anangement seen in other yEluroidea. 

There is nothing in Flower's account of the extcinal ear 
of Proteles to distinguish itfromthatof the Striped llytenas, 
if, as appears toleiably certain, lie was describing in the 
following jiassage the depression regarded by Boas as the 
liomologue of the marginal bursa: — ''The hinder edge [of 
the ear] is produced near the base into a slight 'lobule' 
vith a hollow on its inner side, separated from the ' concha/ 
or main cavity of the pinna, by a well-marked ridge." 

Feet. — Certain ("haracters in the feet of hyienas, such as 
the complete absence of the pollex and also of the hallux, 
the shortness and bluntness of the unretraetile claws, have 
often been described ; but it does not apj)ear that the feet 
iia\e ever been figured or described in detail, and, since 
they differ somewhat remarkably in certain points from the 
feet of all other /Eluroidea that I have exan)ined, it mav be 
useful to supply the defects above alluded to. In the fore 
foot the pads are smooth. The plantar pad is cushion-like 
and ti'ilobed ; l)ut"the lobes are ill-defined marginally and 
are not marked by superficial grooves. It is comparativelv 
long and narrow *, its length being a|)pro\imately equal to 
its width. In the middle line posterioi'ly it is de|)resscd 
and obli(jucly corrugated, and its jiosterior border is 
emargiuate. 

The digital lads, which like the plantar pad are smooth, 
show several peculiarities. In the first pLuc, the plane of 
the lower suiface of eaeli is approximately at right angles 
to the long axis of the foot when the latter is in the hing 
posiiion. This indicates the extreme of digitigradism ex- 
iiibitcd in the ilCliiroidea. Another peculiarity is their shape. 
Instead of being elliptical, or approximately so, in outline as 
in most /Eluroidea. their slia[)e may be described as iiregu- 
larly semi-conical. The posterior margin of each is trun- 
cated, the external margin lightly convex, and the internal 

* ill the iii'wly born cub tlii.- pad i.s imicli bioadtT than in tiie 
niliilt. 



3.^4 



^Ir. 1>. 1. Pocock oti so))ie of the External 



margin lightly concave. Tlicy uanoAv soniewliat ra])i(lly 
from the base to the apex, and tlie int'ero-internal angle is 
])roniinent. The digits are very symmetrical, and comj)actly 
united by strong webbing extending np to the proximal end 



Fit?. 2. 




A. RigLt fore paw of ^y««rt //_(/«■;/« from below, with the digits fully 

spread.- \ nat. size. 
]?. Right hind pnw of the same. 
C Right hind paw from the side, showing the vertical plane of the 

digital pads, 

I>f.B. — In figs. A and B the digital pads are drawn diagrammatically in 
the same plane as the plantar pad to show their shape. Naturally, they 
only a,¥sume this position by great muscular contraction. 

of the digital pads. The underside of the sole of the foot 
between the digital and plantar pads is naked, but the webs 
are marked with .scattered speckling, showing the position 



Chardcti'VM of the Striped IIijuiki (fr. 



x\r) 



of liair-roHiclcs in tlic skin. Tlic uijperside of tlic webs 
is naked and the tips of the dijjits earry long hairs, some of 
whieh spread on to, and to a slij^ht extent l)eneatli, the edge 
of the wch joining the tliird and fourth digits togetlier. 

Thecarpiil pad is small, nearly heniis|)herieal, and set almost 
in the niiihlle line a long distance above the plantai' pad. 
Tbe area between the carpal and plantar j)ads is covered 
with hails, whicii arise in two streams above tiie carpal pad, 
encircle it, and converge to a line passing between that pad 
and the i)ostero-externai angle of the plantar pad. Jnst 
above the plantar, to a point nearly midway between it and 
the eai'pal jjad, the skin is scantily hairy and there is a 
similar scantily iiairy area on the inner side and in front of 
(l)elow) the carpal pad. 

Tlie hind foot is very similar to the front foot, hnt is 
shoiter and narrower, and the hairs above the ))lantar j)ad 
rnn in a contmnous downward diieetion ; hnt there is 
here also a scantily hairy area jnst above that pad in the 
nii<ldle line. 

In rigidity, compactness, and in the shape and ui)tilting 
of the digital pads, as well as in the shortness and bluntness 
of the claws, the feet of liyaMias resemble those of the 
Canidce, generally speaking, rather than of other ^'Elnroidea. 
In the latter the plane of the digital pads, which are almost 
always elliptical in ontline, is usually the same as that of the 
plantar pad when the foot is in the lying position. 

The feet of Crocuta seem to be quite like those of Hycena ; 
and the same applies to the feet of Proteles, except for the 
])resenee of the pollex, which is situated halfway between 
the wrist-joint (carpus) and the tips of the other digits, and 
of a patch of naked skin on the heel, which Flower con- 
sidered to be normal and not due to Mcar. It may be 
particularly noticed that this author stated : — "The auinr.al 
appears to be perfectly digitigrade." There is, however, 
one point connected with tlie feet of Proteles to which 
Flower did not allude. In the skin of a South African 
speciiueti, the area between the plantar and digital pads is 
centered tolerably thickly, though not so thickly as the rest 
of the foot, with short hair, and the upperside of the webs 
is also hairy. In this particular the feet of Proteles differ 
from those of all the hy;enas, judging from skins of the 
Striped, Brown, and Spotted species in the Zoological 
Society's collection. 

Anal Pouch and Glands. — These structures have been 
dcscriljcd by several authors in the three existing species of 
hyieuas. !Murie's account of the pouch in Hijaoiu hnnineu 



336 ^Fr. Iv. T. Pocock on some of the External 

and Watsoirs in Crocuta crociita agree elosely with that of 
Danbenton in H. hyana ; and niy observations in connection 
vitli the latter species are qnite in accord. In Crocuta, 
ll0^ye\•er, the skin of the ponch is said by Watson to be 
])ai-tially hairy, whereas in Htj«ina it seems to be qnite 
sniootb. 

When tlie tail is lowered, the walls of the pouch are in 
close apposition and its orifice appears as a curved slit above 
the anus, the concavity of the curve being downwards. It 
has a thickened rim, the inferior portion of which is con- 
tinuous with the naked skin above the anus. Tiius the 
oritices of the pouch and of the anus lie one above the 
other in a large disk of naked skin surrounded by hair, the 
hair in tlie middle line below forming a narrow strip above 
the vulva. The skin of the disk is very soft and pliable, and 
the pouch is susceptible of considerable dilatation. The 
orifices of the anal glands lie deeply within it, one on each 
side of, but not close to, the middle line. They are thus 
far removed above the anal orifice, a condition not known, 
so far as 1 am aware, in any other Carnivore, though fore- 
shadowed in some mongooses, e. g. Cynictis. 

In the newly-born young the pouch is well developed and 
in the same position as in the adult, but the orifice of the 
pouch is transverse with the two ends slightly upcurved, 
instead of downcurved, and this orifice and the anus are 
sunk in a common depression near the centre of the anal 
disk. 

Mivart, perhaps (but not certainly) correctly, cites tlie 
presence of an anal pouch as evidence of affinity between 
the hyseiias and the mongooses. There is, however, con- 
siderable difference between the pouches in the two groups. 
In the mongooses the anus o])ens near the centre of the 
pouch, which, apparently in these animals, represents the 
entire anal disk in the hyaenas ; and the margins of the 
pouch close rig! it over the anus when the pouch is closed. 
In the mongooses, moreover, the orifices of the two anal 
glands open into the j)oueh t(jlerably near the anus, and not 
very far above it and remote froin it as in the hyaenas. 

As Murie (Tr. Zool. Soc. vi. p. 505, pi. Ixiii.j described 
in the case of Ilyeena brimnea, the anal glands are enveloped 
in muscular tissue ; but the glands in H. hyana differ from 
those of that sjjecies in the following particulars. In Hyayia 
hrunnea it appears that the normal anal gland found in all 
/Eluroid Carnivores is tripartite. At all events, ]N[urie figured 
three closely juxtaposed saccular glands, each with a separate 
compartment for storage of the secretion, which makes 



Characters of Ute Slriped Ihjuina cCr. 
Fi-r. 3. 





A. Anal pouch of female Jlyaria hijcena, partially distended. i\, vulva; 
«., anus ; x., arrow indicating bristle parsed through orifice of 
duct of anal gland ; m., u])per margin of anal pouch. 

V>. Tlie same cut away and seen from its inner aspect, with the principal 
glands disf-ected out on the right side, o//., saccular or flask- 
shaped anal gland, with its upper wall cut away to sliow the 
orifice of the duct, with arrow indicating a bristle passed 
through it from the pouch ; ,«</., auxiliary glandular mass ; 
<//.s'., mass representing the glands enveloped in muscular and 
connective tissue and fat ; c, vagina in section; r., rectum cut 
short and turned aside. 



338 ^Ir- H. I. Pocock on some of the Ilrli'mul 

its way to the extcrioi" along a narrow passable — tlie three 
passages converging and fnsing to form a common duct 
opening to the exterior within the anal poncli. In the 
example of Ut/tciia /ii/a'ua, on the contrary, tlie normal anal 
gland is piriform antl saccnlar and nndivided, and opens at 
its narrow end by a small duct into the anal [)onch. Close 
to its narrow end, externally and in front, there is a large, 
double, supplementary, glandular mass, which (li(F(irs from 
the Hask-shaped or piriform gland in containing no cavity 
and no definite duet. The secretion from this ghind makes 
its way into the anal pouch by means ol' a number of minute 
orifices scattered over the wall of the pouch adjacent to the 
orifice of the duct of the piriform gland, which unmistakably 
corresponds to the normal anal gland of other Caruivora. 

According to Alurie, therefore, H. brunnea has a single 
jKiir of anal glands, each subdivided into three compart- 
ments^ the passages from which join to form a common duct, 
and thei'e are no accessory glands ; whereas in H. Injiena 
there is a single pair of simple undivided anal glands, each 
being accompanied by an accessory mass of enlarged cuta- 
neous glands opening into the anal pouch by numerous 
small apertures. Considering the tolerably close resem- 
blance in other respects between the two species, this 
difference is full of ijilerest. 

Judging from Watson's account of these glands in 
Crocuta crocuta (P. Z. S. 1877, p. 369, pi. xli. and 1H78, 
J). 41G, pi. XXV.), there is also a single j)air of piriform anal 
glands in the Spotted Hyiena, and these are connected along 
the lower portion of the pouch by a band of accessory glands 
ojiening into the pouch by a "line of perforations.^* 

The very exact and detailed account given by Daubenton 
(Bulfon's Hist. Nat. ix. pp. 287-288, |)ls. xxvii. & xxviii. 
1761) of the glands in the Striped Hyiena agrees closely 
with n)y observations upon that species, except that in 
Daubenton's example the walls of the sack above the rectum 
were more highly glandular than in my example, and the 
lateral glandular mass does not appear to have been in any 
Avav subdivided. 

Mivart (P.Z. S. 1882, pp. 198-199 ami 201) summarised 
the facts recorded by Daubenton, Murie, and Watson by 
saying " There is an anal pouch with two {H. striata = hi/(enu) 
or three (H. brunnea) pairs of anal glands on eacli side of the 
rectum; and in one [//. /njana], if not in both, species 
there is a transverse band of isolated [glandular] follicles 
at the bottom of the anal pouch " [pp. 198-199) ; and in 
Crocuta '' there is but a single pair of anal glands, one on 



Characters of the Strt)>ed Ili/cena lOc. 330 

each side of the rectum and a transverse band of follicles " 
(|). 201 ). Again, when comparing Prote/es with the hyaiiias, 
he remarked : " There is an anal ponch with one pair of 
anal glands and a snpra-anal band of follicles as in Cro- 
<•«/«" (p. 20.3). 

This snmmarv is, however, not very happilv worded. In 
the first place, " the transverse bancl of isolated follicles " 
referied to by ^livart in eonnecticni with //, /tt/<ena appears 
to bo the enlarged cutaneons glands generally distributed 
over the wall of the sack, between the fi;isk-like glands, 
which Daubenton described. Judging from Flower's 
account of Proteles {V.Z.S. ISirJ, p. 49.j), which Mivart 
consulted, the corresponding area of the sack is very 
similarly glandular in that animal; whereas in Crucuta 
alone docs it seem that the enlarged glands form a detinite 
and comparatively narrow transverse band runnino- across 
the sack from one Hask-like gland to the other. Watson 
at all events, figures it so. In the second i)lace, it is wliollv 
misleading to say that //. Inj(eita hastwo pairsof anal glands. 
Like Fi'ott'les and Crucuta^ it has but a single pair, corre- 
sponding to the saccular anal glands of other Carnivore. 
AN'hat Mivart described as the second pair is the mass of 
greatly enlarged cutaneous glands of the anal sack, each 
with a pore to itself, opening upon the suiface. These in 
the aggregate do not constitute an " anal gland,'' properly 
speaking, any more than the transverse belt in Crocuta 
constitutes an anal gland. Therefore, since llycena hyteiia, 
Crocuta, and Proteles have but a single i)air of anal glands, 
it is in the highest degree probable that I/)/cena brvnnea is 
similarly supplied, with the difference that each of these 
glands is tripartite instead of simple. 

Prol)ably the correct way of expressing the facts is to say 
that in the Hyienidie and ProteU'S the normal pair of anal 
glands is retained, usually unmodified in form [H. hijfena 
Crocuta, and Proteles), but sometimes j)artially subdivide(l 
iiit(j three eonpartnients [H. krunuea) \ and that, e.\eei)t in 
H. hrnnnea, certain cutaneous glands of the anal pouch 
adjoining the saccular glands are enlarged ami active, and 

emit their secretion by separate pores into the anal pouch 

the most highly developed of these form a great mass out- 
side and above the saccular gland on each side {H. hycena) 
or are arranged in a band between these glands {('rocuta). 

Enough has been said to show that the anal sack and 
glands of Proteles resemble those of the hyicnas toleriibly 
closely : but, since Flower's figure only displays the parts 
dissected from the dorsal aspect, 1 take this opportunitv of 



340 



]\li'. W. I. Pocock on soine of the JL.vfenuiI 



reproducing two sketches, made many years ago, of tlie 
anal disk as it appears from bcliind, when the tail is raised, 
and when dissected from tlie inside. From the hist sketeli it 
may be seen that when the disk is slightly spread, theoriticc 
of the pouch is somcwiiat Y-sha[)ed, the U|)right branch ex- 
tending downwards towards the anus and the transverse 
l)i'anches obliquely upwards with tlieir ends curving slightly 
downwards over the orifices of the anal glaud«. The disk 
is carried on a very distinct anal prominence, jutting bacl<- 
Mards beneath the tail. A corresponding ])roniinence is 
"well marked in newly-born cubs of the Striped llytena, but 
is hardly so noticeable in the adult. 

Fi-. 4. 





A. Aual pouch of male Proteles lalcoi'lii, partially distended, p., the 

povicli with Y-shaped crease, showing its deepest part ; o., orifice 
of rijrlit anal gland ; n., anus ; so., scrotum. 

B. Median vertical section tln-ough the anal promiueuce. /., tail raised; 

J)., aual pouch : o., orifice of left anal gland ; yl., lel't anal gland ; 
in., muscle ; ;•., rectum : a., anus. 



The odour of tlie secretion of the anal glands in ProteJea 
is much stronger and more repulsive than in the hyienas. 
According to a note I made at the time of dissection, the 
secretion has a " waxy consistency and smells like strong 
cheese blended with the scent of skunk or pole-cat.^' 

The rcpulsiveness of the odotir, to which several observers 
liave testified, is interesting in connection with the com- 
parative uselessness of the teeth of Proteles for defensive 
purposes ; and, considered iu connection with the record 



Characters of the. Striped Ilycena (£)C. 341 

that the animal discharges the secretion when attacked *, is 
suggestive of the use of the secretion for defence to make 
good the deficiency of tlie teeth in that respect. 

Since the al)ove-given account of the female Hyana hyrpna 
was written, a male of tlie same species, also from India, 
has come into my hands. Apart from its sexual organs it 
agrees with the female in all essential respects. 

Although the external sexnal organs of the m.tle were 
described and ilhistratcd by Daubenton, neither his descrip- 
tion nor his figures are quite as detailed as is desirable. 
The following account of them may therefore prove use- 
ful :— 

The scrotum (fig. 5, A, B, *c.), as in Crocuta, is not a 
prominent or pendulous sack, but consists of an area of 
naked skin slightly raised above the level of the surrounding 
integument and marked with a median groove. It looks 
backwards just beneath the lower edge of the anal sack^ and 
is se|)arated therefrom by a hairy tract of skin. The 
perineal region beneath the scrotum inclines convexly for- 
wards, and the prepuce forms au excrescence far in advance 
of the scrotum in approximately the same position on the 
prej)ubic area as in the Cauidffi and L'rsicUe and in some 
^'Elunjids, e. g. Cnjptoprocta and Parudoxurus. Dorsally 
the prepuce is tied closely to the abdominal wall, so that 
the penis when retracted is in no sense pendulous (fig. 5, 
A, B. pr.). 

When the skin of the prepuce is cut along its ventral 
side and turned over laterally, the glans penis, ovate in 
outline, is seen lying with it (fig. 5, F, gl.). The apex of the 
glaus (fig. 5, C, G, gl.) is obli(|uely truncated, the inferior 
edge being more prominent than the superior, and has a 
shallow median orifice formed by a prominent rim of 
wrinkled or puckered skin, suggesting two labia or lips 
which can be pulled back on each side of the rigid central 
portion, and this is provided dorsally willi a smooth low 
ridge, cartilaginous in consistency and ending in a j)oiiit, 
beneath which is placed the aperture of the urethra (fig. 5, 
U, K). As Daubenton observed, the outer wall of the glaus 
is beset with minute recurved spicules. 

Owing to the elasticity of the skin of the prepuce 
(fig. 5, G) and of the tissue of the penis, the latter organ is 
capable of being drawn out, so that it projects about four 

* Quoted by W. L. Sclater, ' Fauna of S. Africa, Mammalia,' i. p. 83 
(1900j. 

Ann. tt- Mag. N. Flint. Ser. 8. VuJ. xvii. 23 



342 On the External Charnrtcr.^ of the Striped Flijana. 




A. Anal and genital area of Hyasna hyatna, S , the parts represented as 

lying in one plane, t., root of tail ; as., anal sack, or pouch, 
with horseshoe-shaped orifice, closed and curving round the 
anus ; sc, scrotum ; pr., prepuce, the outline of the penis shown 
beneath the sparsely hairy skin. 

B. The same in profile view, showing the forward curvature of the 

penis. Lettering as in A. 

C. The penis unsheathed, but not quite fully stretched, its ventral side to 

the right. <//., glans with its obliquely truncated or bevelled 
apex. 

D. Glans penis seen from the end, with its puckered labia partially 

separated to show the central portion with its median elevation. 

E. The same from the side with the labia pulled back below the median 

portion, with the median elevation apically overhanging the 
urethral orifice (o.). 

F. Prepuce cut down the median ventral line and the flaps turned aside 

to show the glans (ffl.) in situ. 

G. The same, with tho glans (;//.) pulled back and turned aside. 



On Edrtophthalma from South America. .343 

inches beyond the abdominal integument and is then 
pcndnlous. The preputial sack is then completely evagi- 
natcd. When turgid and erected, the organ projects very 
much farther antl resembles that of a horse in a similar 
condition (tig. 5, C). 

I am unable to find any structural difference between the 
penis of lhjcp.ua and that of Pruteles as descrii)od by Flower, 
and can thus confirm his remark that, judging from 
Daubenton's account, the male organs in Hi/(Bua " are an 
almost exact counterpart of those of Froteies." I have 
seen no examples of the male of Crocuta enabling me 
to substantiate the small differences between the penis 
of that genus and Hi/cena, pointed out by Flower on the 
evidence of a preparation in the Museum of the College 
of Surgeons. 

Considering the opinion held by some authors that the 
relationsliip between the hyaenas and mongooses is tolerably 
close, the difference in the length of the penis and the 
position of the prepuce in the two groups is remarkable. 
In the mongooses the prepuce is quite close to the scrotum, 
as in the Felidie, and the penis is comparatively short, 
is provided with a bone, and has an elongated urethral 
orifice on the underside of the glaus, which is simple 
in structure. 



XXXIX. — Edrioplithalma from South America. 
By Alfred O. Walker. 

The Crustacea in the following list were received from : — 

(A) Sr. Carlos Moreira, Director of the Laboratory of 
Economic Entomology in the Xational Museum of Ilio de 
Janeiro, collected by him " on the shore of Capacabana near 
and outside the harbour of Rio de Janeiro." Of these II., 
III., VI., and IX. were in considerable numbers, and must 
have cost the collector not a little time and trouble, espe- 
cially no. VI., if as active as most of the Talitrida^! 'I'he 
specimens are in excellent condition, reflecting great credit 
on Sr. Moreira, at whose request examples of each species 
have been sent to the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

(B) Monsieur le Prof. Carlos E. Porter, Editor of the 
' Chilian Review of Natural History,' Santiago, Chile, 
collected at Arica, Chile. 



344 Mr. A. 0. Walker on 



ISOPODA. 

I. ? Ci/tnodoce truncata, Leach, 1818, (? . 

1818. Spha-roma pn'iIpau.ri(inu}n,T,efich. $. 

18G8. Sphrri-Dnia priileauxianum, Bate <fc Westwood, Hist. Brit. 

Sessile-eyed Crustacea, p. 4iri. $. 
1868. Ci/modocea truncata, Leach, Ilist. Brit. Sessile-eved Crustacea, 

p. 426. J. 
1873. Cymodocea tnmcata, Hesse, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) vol. xvii. p. 14, 

pi. i. 
1900. ErospfifProma pndeauxianttm, Leach, Stebbing, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. London, p. o53. 

1905. Cymodoce tnmcata, Leach, H. J. Hansen, " Propagation, Classi- 
fication, iSrc. of Sphseromidae," Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. xlix. (1) 
pp. 69-13.5, pi vii. 

1906. Ctjmodoce truncata, Norman & Scott, Crust. Devon and Cornwall, 
p. 44, pi. iv. figs. 3-14. 

As all the specimens collected (about thirty) appear to be 
immature, the species cannot be identified with certainty ; 
none of them exceeded 5 mm. in length, and no ovigerous 
females were observed. They agree pretty closely with the 
form figured by Norman and Scott {op. cjf. p. 44, j)l. iv. fig. 6) 
and considered by them to be possibly young males. Re- 
garding the specific identity of Cymodoce truncata and 
tSpharoma prideauxtanum, the references given above may 
be consulted. 



II. Idotkea haltica (Pallas). Rio de Janeiro. 

A large number of specimens, very variable in colour, 
marking, and size. Females with ova measure from 6 mm. 
to 10 mm. in length. This is a cosmopolitan species : for 
localities and synonyms see " Isopods of N. America," Miss 
H. Richardson (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 54, 1905, p. 364). 



A M P H I P D A. 

III. Nototropis minikoi (A. O. Walker). Rio. 

1905. Paratylus minikoi, A. 0. W., Gardiner, Fauna Maid. Laccad. 
vol. ii. p. 925, fig. 141. 

In quantity : previously recorded only from the lagoon of 
the island Minikoi, one of the Maldives. 



' Edriophthalma frovi South America. 345 

lY. Ekismojms rapax, Costa. Rio and Arica (var.). 

A few — male, female, and young. 
A very widely distributed species. 

In connection vvitli this may be mentioned a form received 
from Piol:. Curios E. Porter, of Santiago, Chile, and collected 








Elasmopus rapax, var. denlipalma. Second gniatbopod, adult cJ . 



at Arica, which I can only regard as a variety of the above. 
The female and young male do not differ from E. rapax, nor 
does the adult male except in the second gnathopod, of 
wiiich the following is a description : — Side-plates irregularly 
rounded, rather small. Hind lobe of fifth joint not projecting 
beyond hind margin of sixth, densely setose. Sixth joint: 
hind margin about half as long as the palm, which is defined 



346 On Edrlophthahna from South America. 

by a strong tooth ; on the inner side near the hinge of the 
dactjlus is a broad irregularly rounded tooth, below which is 
another similar to that defining the ])alui but hirger. On the 
outer side, opposite to the rounded tooth and projecting beyond 
it, is a lonq curved tooth zoith rounded apex (as in figure, 
p. 345), thedactylus when closed lying between the two teeth. 
Length of adult male 9 mm. It ma}'^ be called var. denti- 
palma. Specimens in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

V. Mcera i?i<xquipes (A. Costa). Arica. 
Three specimens. 

YI. Orchestoidea brasiliensis (Dana). Rio. 

In quantity. Length of female with ova 10 mm. 

VII. Orchestia chiliensis, ]\1.-E. Arica. 
Many. Length of large c? 20 mm. 

YIII. Hyale grandicornis (Kroyer). Arica. 
About twelve. 

IX. Ht/ale media (Duma) . Kio. 
Many. 

X. Amphithoe intermedia, A. 0. Walker. Rio. 

Seven. 

AVidoly distributed: Ceylon, Indian Ocean, Gambler 
Islands *, S. Africa. 

XL CapreUa scaura, Templeton. Rio. 

Caprella nttetiuata, Dana [from Rio de Janeiro], Mayer, Die Caprel- 

lideu, p. 67, figs. 24, 25. 
Caprella scawa, Temp., Mayer, Caprellidae 'Siboga' Exped. p. 117, 

pi. V. tigs. 13-18. 

Six specimens. 
* Chevreux, M6m. See. Zool. de France, vol. xx. 1907, p. 615, fig. 29. 



I 



Geological Society. — Miscellaneous. 347 

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIKTY. 

Doccmbor Ist, 1915. — Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
iu the Chair. 

The Presidext exhibited lantern-slides lent by Prof. Elltot 
Smith to illustrate the fossil human skull found at Talj^ai, Darling 
Downs, Queensland, in 191-4. Tiie si)ecinien was brought to the 
notice of the British Association in Sydney by l^rof . T. W. Edgeworth 
David, and would shortly be described by him and Prof. Ai'thur 
Smith. It was obtained from a river-deposit in which remains of 
Diprofodon and other extinct marsupials had already been discovered, 
and there could be no doubt that it belonged to the Pleistocene 
fauna. It therefore explained the occurrence of the dingo with 
the extinct marsupials. The skull is typically human and of the 
primitive Australian type, but differs from all such skulls hitherto 
lound in possessing relatively large canine teeth, which interlock 
like those of an ape. The upper canine shows a large facet worn 
to its base by the lower premolar. The discovery of the Talgai 
skull is, therefore, an interesting sequel to that of Mr. Charles 
Dawson's Piltdown skull, in which the canine teeth are even more 
ape-like. 

The thanks of the Fellows present were accorded to Prof. Elliot 
Smith. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pareiasaurian Nomenclature. 

To the Editors of the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History.' 

Silts, — Mr. D. M. S. Watson published a paper in the Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist, for July 1914, "On the Nomenclature of the South 
African Pariasauriaus," in which he revises the names at present 
in use. 

The trouble arises mainly from the fact that Owen's type-sknU 
of Pareiasaurus serridens is lost, and we have only a bad cast and a 
fragment of lower jaw. In the British Museum are one nearly 
perfect and two imperfect skeletons which have been referred to 
Pareiasawus by every previous worker. The skeletons found in 
Russia and others in South Africa have also been hitherto referred 
to Pareiasaurus. 

Wutson has discovered iu the British Museum a number of 



348 Miscellaneous* 

portions of the postcranial skeleton of what; appears to be the 
orii^inal type ; and as there is evidence of the presence of large 
dorsal scntes, he proposes to remove most of the other so-called 
Parciasaurs to other genera. The classical specimen figured by 
Seeley and represented in most geological textbooks becomes 
Britdi/saKrus. The magnificent Cape Town specimen beccrmes 
Emhrithosaurtis. But a more serious matter is that our South- 
African Pnreiasaurtts zone, accepted by all our geological surveys 
and textbooks, becomes the Tapinocephalus zone. One might put 
up with the inconvenience if it cleared up all the confusion, but 
unfortunately it does not. All tho larger Pareiasaurs are un- 
doubtedly very closely allied one to the other, and were it not for 
the condition of the dermal scutes would be placed in one genus. 
All those s])eciraen8 in which the dorraal scutes are unknowr) will 
have to be left in a kind of limbo. Thus, even Watson cannot tell 
us whether Pareinsnurus hombkhns, of which there are two fair 
skeletons in the British Museum, belongs to Pareiasaurus, Brady- 
saurus, or EnihritJiosaiirus. 

Now, while Watson's conclusions may, strictly speaking, be 
perfectly sound, one would like some way out of the inconvenience, 
and I might suggest the following modus vivendi. 

In palaeontology a genus and species cannot have qiiite the same 
relative value as in living forms, as we can never know much of 
hairs, feathers, or epidermal scales. If a herpetologist were given 
the skulls of one hundred species of Li/gosoma, it is pretty certain 
he would not find many differences ; and if they were found in an 
Eocene deposit, most probably all would be referred to a very few 
species. In fact, a genus of recent herpetology is about equivalent 
to a species of the palaeontologist ; and considering that the 
palaeontologist has usually only imperfect skeletons to work on, 
it can never be otherwise. 

With regard to Pareiasaurus, what I should suggest is to regard 
the condition of the dermal scutes as of merely subgeneric value, 
and to keep all the large Pareiasaurs in the original genus Pareia- 
saurus. If one wishes to subdivide the genus, one can place in a 
distinct subgenus any forms whose scutes appear to differ con- 
aiderably from the type. The British Museum fine skeleton would 
be Pareiasaurus (Bradi/saurus) haini, if one wished to be very 
precise, and the Cape Town mounted specimens Pareiasaurus 
{Emhrithosaurus) schivarzi, and Pareiasaurus (Pareiasuchus) perin- 
gueyi ; but for the majority of mankind the generic name Pareia- 
saurus would be sufficient, and the Pareiasaurus zone would 
remain as the zone where the Pareiasaurs first appear. 

I remain, &c., 

K. Beoom. 



Tjl 



TllK ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

[KIGIITH SICRIES.] 
No. 101. MAY 1916. 



XL. — Xeiv Tipulidae /row the Malaij Peninsula. 
By F. W. Edwards, B.A., F.E.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Among a collection of mosquitoes recently received by the 
Imperial Bureau ot" Entomology, from Dr. A. T. Stanton of 
Kuala Lumpur, were eight specimens of crane-flies which the 
sender wished to have named. These were referred to the 
■writer for examination, and proved to belong to seven un- 
described species. Descriptions of these are appended in 
the following pages, and the opportunity has been taken of 
including a few other hitherto-uudescribed species from the 
same region, which are represented in the British ^Museum 
collection. The types of Dr. Stanton's new species have 
been pi'csented to the British jNIuseum by the Imperial 
Bureau of Entomology. 



Subfam. Tipvlinje. 

Group DOLICHOPEZINI. 

MiTOPEZA, gen. n. 

No distinct uasus. Anteunse ( ? ) 12-jointed, not longer 
than liead and thorax ; flagellar joints slender, with fine 
})ubesceuce and a few stiff hairs on the upper side. Third 
antcunal joint longer than the first two together. Pronotum 
not prominent. Ovipositor (fig. 1, p. 356) extremely short. 

Ann. (t' Maq. N. llist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 2-4 



300 Mr. F. W. Edwards on 

the lower valves fleshj' and hairy ; ducts of spermathecae 
enormously long, if uncoiled tliey would be much longer than 
the whole body. Legs long and slender, the tarsi hair-like. 
Venation : lis moderately short ; Ko vertical, but scarcely 
perceptible, being only represented by a slight thickening 
of the membrane ; base of R4+5 vertical, in a straight line 
with the R-^I cross-vein ; cell 1st M2 present, twice as long 
as broad ; cell M, sessile ; Cu^ fused -with M for a con- 
siderable distance, but leaving it again before the fork ; 
cell Cuj broadest at the base ; Cu2 straight ; Ax rather 
long. 

Genotype. — The species described below. 
Mitopeza differs from DoUchopeza in possessing the cell 
1st M2 and in the position of the fork of M^, which is just 
before the R-M cross-vein instead of far beyond it, and from 
all other genera of the Dolichopezini in the fusion of Cuj 
with INI taking place well before the fork. The female 
genitalia are very remarkable. 

Mitopeza nitidirostris , sp. n. (Fig. 1, p. 356.) 

$ . Head dull, dark brownish; front smooth, a quarter of 
the width of the head in its narrowest part. Proboscis 
shining, brownish, shorter than the head. Labella and 
palpi blackish. Antennae scarcely as long as the head and 
thorax together ; scape and first flagellar joints light brown, 
remainder dark brown. First joint about twice as long as 
broad ; second nearly round, narrower towards the base ; 
third joint slender, half as long again as the first two 
to<^ether ; fourth rather more than half as long as the 
third, remainder gradually and slightly decreasing in length. 
Second joint with a small forvvardly-projecting tuft of 
black hairs on the inner side ; flagellar joints with in- 
conspicuous hairs on the upper surface. Thorax dark 
brown, with indications of three darker stripes above ex- 
tending from the front margin to the suture. Mesonotum 
scarcely, pleurae considerably shining. Abdomen dark 
brownish, with shimmering whitish lateral spots (the speci- 
men is too contorted to describe accurately). Legs blackish, 
femora lighter on the basal fourth (middle legs missing). 
Wings somewhat infuscated, strongly iridescent; stigma 
dark brown, with a whitish spot on each side, that towards 
the apex being the more conspicuous ; a minute whitish 
spot over the veins at the base of cell 1st Mg ; cross-veins 
and branches of Cu narrowly bordered with fuscous, 
especially on Cu^a. Halteres with pale stem and dark 
knob. 



71CW T\\niVu]^ from iJc Mdhnj Peninsuln. ?t')\ 

Length of l)0(lv about 7 mm.; winj; 12 mm. 

Kedah : Keduii Peak, 3200 ft. {Dr. A. T. Stanton), 1 ? . 

Ill coloration M. nilidirustris must stronfrly resem'ole 
Tipnla sinnlxim/oisis, (\q Meij., re(;ently dcsorihcd from 
Simalur, but presumaljly de ATeijcrc's species bas the 
venation of a Tipnhij though be ([o(i% not descril)e the wing 
in detail. 



Group T I p u I, I N r. 

Tipula klossi, sp. n. 

? . Head dark brown, with a blackish m( dian line ; front 
occu|)ying more than a quarter of the width of the head, 
rather prominent above the antennae. Proboscis brownish, 
shorter than the head ; nasus extremely short, a mere 
rounded prominence; palpi dark brown. Antennce 13- 
jointed, the 13tli joint less than half as long as the 12tli. 
Scape liglit brownish. First flagellar joint cylindrical, light 
brownish, with some short black hairs in the middle on the 
underside, longer than tlie first scapal joint ; intermediate 
flagellar joints light brown with a blackish base which is 
slightly enlarged on the upper side ; last two or three joints 
entirely dark brown ; verticillate hairs much longer on the 
upper side of the joints than on the lower. Thorax dull, 
brown, with four darker brown stripes, the lateral pair 
shortened in front and extending back on to the scutum. 
Postnotum more greyish in the middle. Abdomen rather 
light brownish, the segments with dark brown bands apically. 
Leys blackish, the femora lighter towards the base. JJ'iriffs 
very slightly infuscated, the costal cell rather more so ; 
stigma dark brown ; a narrow dark brown cloud over Cuja ; 
a small whitish spot on each side of the stigma, and another 
obliquely across cell 1st M2. Pubescence on the veins in 
the apical part of the wing very noticeable. ^^enation : 
Rs extremely short, much shorter than the stigma, and 
equal in length to the first section of Mj^o- Stalk of cell 
Ml nearly one-third as long as the cell. Cu, meeting M 
exactly at the fork and fused with M^ for about half the 
length of the cell 1st ^NIo. Cross-vein connecting Mj^j with 
M3 extremely short, the cell 1st M2 being therefore almost 
diamond-shaped. Mj, M3, and the descending portioM of 
Cuj parallel and rather close together. Anal angle of wing 
well-marked, the cell Ax, therefore, broadest in the njiddle. 
Halteres light brownish, the club somewhat darker. 
Length of body 13 mm.; wing 11 mm. 

24* 



352 Mr. F. W. EJwajJs on 

Kedah : Kedah Peak, 3200 £t. {Dr. A. T. Slauton), 2 ? 
(ty|)e ill British Museum ; parutype in Kuala Lampur 

MusCUMl), 

In the rudimentary nasus, the extreme shortness of Rs, 
and the long fusion of Cui with M3, as well as in the small 
size ot" the cell 1st Mc,, this species is very distinct. 2\ in- 
conspicua, de Meij., is similar in many respects, but in 
that species the contact of Cui with M3 is almost puncti- 
form. lu the rudimentary nasus and the shortness of the 
vcrticillate hairs on the under side of the flagellum the new 
species resembles the European T. varilcornis, Schum. 

Subfam. Li2iyoBiiNM. 
Group L I M X o B 1 1 X I. 

Rhipidia rostrifera, sp. n, 

J . Head hrownish-grey. Proboscis black, sliglitly longer 
than the head ; palpi black, placed near the tip of the pro- 
boscis. Antennas : first joint yellowish, dark at the tip ; 
second joint yellowish ; third to thirteenth joints obscurely 
yellowish, dark at the base, from which springs a pair of 
long black pubescent processes ; the processes on the third 
and thirteenth joints are not much longer than the joint, 
those on the intermediate joints are much longer, the 
longest being quite four times the length of a joint; 
fourteenth joint black, simple, rather longer than the others. 
Thorax covered with a brownish -grey pollinosity, without 
distinct markings, a dark central line, however, is observable 
Avhen the thorax is looked at from behind. Abdomen dark 
brown ; in certain liglits the hind margins of the segments 
are whitish. Genitalia of the ordinary Dicranomyia type. 
Legs brownish, femora lighter towards the base ; claws 
simple. Wings hyaline with four dark brown spots on the 
costa situated at the tip of the wing, the tip of Sc, the tip 
of Ri, and the middle of Sc, the last two being larger than 
the first two ; there is also a dark brown spot in the base of 
the basal cells and another at the tip of Ax ; the tips of the 
other veins and the cross-veins are also darkened, but less 
conspicuously. Sci ending opposite base of Rs, Scj near its 
tip ; cells 1st jmd 2iid Mj confluent (i. e., discal cell open, 
confluent with the 2nd posterior) ; Cu^a meeting M at 
the fork. Veins dark, excejit costa, Sc, and Rj, which are 
yellow except where crossed by the dark spots. Halteres 
with yellow stem and black knob. 

Length of body 5 mm. ; wing 5 mm. 



)ieic T\\m\\d-:i} from flic MdJnij rotiusuJu. i\[}?i 

Kedaii : KcdiiU Peak, 3:200 ft. {Dr. A. T. Stanlon), 1 S- 
Readily distinguishable from the other Oriental species 
by the wing-niarkiugs. 

Limnobia crncea, sp. n. 

Head: vertex orange, blackish anteriorly; front grey, 
linear, the eyes almost touching for a considerable distance. 
Proboscis, palpi, and autcnu.e entirely black. Flagellar 
joints (except the first) each with a single very long liair in 
the middle on the upper side, and a few short ones below ; 
first few joints of the flagellum rounded, remainder gradually 
becoming elongate-oval ; last joint slender and nearly twice 
as long as the penultimate. Thorax entirely orange, exccjjt 
for a broad black median stripe on the pricscutum and two 
large black spots on the scutum, the black parts shining, 
the rest not. Abdomen orange exc( pt the eighth segment 
and male genitalia, which are black ; ovipositor orange. 
Legs : coxae and trochanters orange, remainder black. 
U ings slightly tinged with brownish-yellow, stigma small, 
brown ; larger browu spots over the base of Rs and the 
apex of Sc, and a brown band over the central cross-veins 
which practically reaches the hind margin ; basal fifth of 
wing dark brown. Venation as in L. loiiyinervls, Brun., 
except that the marginal cross-vein is long, oblique, and 
slightly curved, siuuilating the tip of Rj, the real tip being- 
less distinct and turned sharply up to the costa. Hulteres 
with orange stem and black knob. 

Length of body 7-10 mm. ; wing 9"5-ll mm. 

SiAM : Sungkie, 9. ii. 1902 {Robinson ^- Annandale), 1 ^ , 
2 ?. 

The only previously described species with which this can. 
be compared is L. longinervis, Brun., which is quite distinct 
in coloration. Both species might be placed almost equally 
well in Libnotes. 

Libnotes scuiellata, sp. n. (Fig. 2, p. 356.) 

Head deep ochreous. Frons very narrow. Proboscis 
and palpi blackish. Antennec shorter than tiie tliorax, scape 
blackish, flagellum brownish. Basal flagellar joints ex- 
panded apically, scarcely longer than broad ; apical joints 
more slender, but hardly longer, except the last one; hairs 
short. Thorax : prouotum ochreous ; a brown streak on 
each side below its edge, almost connected with a rather 
large brown patch above the front coxa\ Prfcscutum 
Inowuish-ochreous ; two pairs of brown marks on the 



[]')4: Mr. F. "\V. Edwards 07i 

lateral margin, on eacli side of the psondo-snture ; two 
pairs of short brown streaks above near the suture, the 
outer pair very small. Scutum oclireous, paler in the 
middle, with a pair of dark l)rown spots. Scutellum whitish, 
the posterior margin narrowly blackish. Postnotum dark 
brown, rather narrowly ochreous at the sides. Pleurae 
ochreous; a small, roundish, blackish-brown spot below 
and in front of the root of the wing, and a dark brown 
j)atch just above and in front of the middle coxa. Abdomen 
ochreous ; a narrow blackish lateral line, most distinct on 
the basal segments, and more prominent in the male than in 
the female. Hypopygium, fig. 2. Leffs ochreous brown; 
tips of tibiae and a preapical ring on the femora dark brown. 
M'lnys slightly ochreous-tinged, with numerous brown 
patches, the three largest of which are near the base of the 
cell 11, at the anal angle, and over the tips of M^, M2, 
and Cui ; others are situated over the cross-veins, at the 
base of Rs, at the tips of Sc, Rj, Cuj, and Ax, at the fork of 
Mi^2? ^^id near the base and apex of R24.3 ; besides these 
there are a few other smaller spots on some of the veins. 
Venation : Ri continued beyond the cross-vein for more 
than twice the length of the latter before turning up to the 
costa ; cell 1st M2 about five times as long as its greatest 
breadth ; Mi^2 forking a little before middle, and Cu^ 
meeting M at about one-third of cell 1st Mg. Halteres 
ochreous. 

Length of body 15 mm.; wing, (^ 20 mm., ? 17 mm. 

SiAM : Talum, 18.1.1902 {Robinson Sf Annandale), 1 ^, 

Allied to L. poeciloptera, O.-S., in venation, but readily 
distinguished by the thoracic and wing markings. 

Libnotes stantoni, sp. n. 

? . Head brownish ; proboscis, palpi, and antennae black, 
except the last four flagellar joints, Avhicli are dark brownish. 
Fi'ont very narrow. Basal flagellar joints almost rounded, 
very little longer than broad, the other joints becoming 
towards the apex gradually more slender and rather longer, 
so that joints 11-13 arc nearly three times as long as broad, 
and very little broader in the middle; the last joint is 
slender, four or five times as long as broad ; short hairs on 
the upper sides of the flagellar joints. Thorax slightly 
shining, dark brownish, without distinct markings except 
for the usual pair of darker spots 011 the scutum ; a dark 
patch on the pleurae above the front cox;e ; postnotum 



new Ti\m\\(\i)d from the Malarj Peninsula. 3')5 

blackish. Abdomen ochrcous, without markings ; long 
yellow hairs at the base of the ovipositor. Leys brown, 
femora with a black preapical ring. Wings very faintly 
yellowish-tingod, the base of the wing and the costal coll 
conspicuously so; veins yellowish, l)l;ick where the dark 
markings cover them. Anal angle darkened ; a fuscous 
band near the base of the wing extending almost con- 
tiuuously from K to the hind margin and covering the apex 
of Ax ; fuscous clouds over all the cross-veins and the base 
of Rs, the tips of Ri and Cuo, and the base of the fork of 
I\f 1 and Mo : in addition, there is a cloud near the base 
of Ro_,_:, which just extends on to R4+.r„ another near the 
apex of Ro+a, and one at the tip of jNIj which just extends on 
to the tip of Mj : a few other dark specks on the veins of 
the apical third of the wing. Scg exactly at the tip of Scj ; 
Rj continued beyond the marginal cross-vein for a distance 
rather greater than the length of the cross-vein, then turned 
sharply np to the costa, with a stump at the angle ; Rs 
nearly three times as long as the basal section of R4+5 ; 
M,^2 forks a little before middle of cell 1st Mg ; Cuj 
meeting M3 a little before the fork of Mj and Mg ; cell 1st 
JNIg more than three times as long as its greatest width. 
Halteres ochreous. 

Length of body 9 mm.; wing 11 mm. 

Kedah : Kedah Peak, 3200 ft. {Dr. A. T. Sianton), 1 ? . 

This species is in some respects intermediate between 
L. notatinervis^ Brun., and L. punctipennis, Meij., but seems 
to be distinct from both. The wing-markings are very 
similar to those of L. scutellata, but not quite so extensive ; 
L. scutellata also differs in its thoracic markings and its 
much greater size. 

Libnotes limpida^ sp. n. 

? . Head ratlier dark ochreous-brown ; proboscis and 
antennae brownish, the latter light ochreous apically. 
Flagellar joints rounded, only the last two or three being 
rather more elongate. Thorax : prsescutum brownish, 
lighter in front, whitish in the middle posteriorly; scutum, 
scutcUum, and postnotum whitish-ochreous ; postnotum 
brownish at the sides, with a snuill l)lackish spot on each 
side at the base ; pleurae light ochreous, a black dot beneath 
the root of the wing, and several small short brownish 
streaks, some of which form a discoutinifcus line across the 
middle of the coxa>. Abdomen dingy ochreous, the segments 
darker towards the base ou the dorsal side. Leys light 



35G 



Mr. F. Vi. Edwards on 
Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 




Fiff. 3. 




Fi?. 5. 





Fi-. 4. 




Fiff. 6. 




Fig. 1. — Mitopeza nitidirostris, gen. et sp. n. Ape.v of $ abdomen from 
above. The terpite is represented as transparent, in order to 
show (diagrammatically) the spermathecse with their coiled 
ducts. 
Fig. 2. — Libnotes scutulata, sp. n. Left half of hypopvgium from above. 
Fig. 8. — RhampJiidin niyriceps, sp. n. ,, „ 

Fig. 4. — Gynmastef;pictipe7inis,i\>.n. „ „ 

Fig. 5. — Gnophomyia macidiphura, fiT^.n. „ „ 

Fig. 6. — „ fraterna, sp. n. „ „ 

All figures made with aid of camera lucida from balsam preparations. 



t}eic Tipulitla\/Vo7?j t/ie Mahiy Peninsula. 357 

oc'lircous, tips of tibifc and a prcapical ring on tlic femora 
brownisli. U hu/s sli<rlitly greyish, Avitliout distinct dark 
niarkings on the nienil)ranc ; veins yellowish, cross-veins, 
base of Ks, tijis of R,, M], Afo, Cuj, C1I2, An, and Ax, and 
base of fork of Mj and IMj, dark; a dark mark near base 
and another smaller one near apex of R2+3, anotlier near 
base of An. Venation mnch as in L. stantoni, bnt Rj not 
eontinned quite so far beyond tlie cross-vein as the lengtli of 
the latter; Mi^o forking beyond the middle of cell 1st M,, 
and Cui meeting M3 before one-third of this cell. HuUercs 
ochreous. 

Length of body 9 mm. ; wing 11 mm. 

Kedaii : Kcdah Peak, 3200 ft. [Dr. A. T. Stanton), 1 ? . 

Though it might be taken for a very pale specimen of 
L. stantoni, this species is undoubtedly distinct, if only ou 
account of the structural difference in the antennie. 



Libnotes lutea, sp. n. 

? . Head dark grey, whitish round the eye-margins ; 
front narrow, silvery. Proboscis and palpi brownish. 
Antcnnse with the scape light brown, the flagellura dark 
brown ; flagellar joints oval, shortly stalked, the last two 
or three more elongate. Thorax uniformly sliiniug light 
ochreous, except for a dark brown spot on each side of the 
scutum immediately in front of the root of the wings. 
Abdomen uniformly shining light ochreous. Le(/s light 
ochreous, the extreme tips of the femora and tibise and 
the last three or four basal joints daj-k. Wings practically 
hyaline, with light fuscous stigma ; veins yellowish, except 
the central cross-veins and the whole of Cu, which are dark ; 
extreme tip of wing indistinctly darkened. Sco strong, 
oblique, more conspicuous than the tip of Sc^ ; tip of Rj 
turned sharply up to the costa, simulating a cross-vein, 
the marginal cross-vein right-angled, with a short stump 
arising from the angle, the horizontal portion longer than 
the vertical (in other words, the first longitudinal vein ends 
in the second and is connected with the costa by a cross- 
vein) ; cell 1st Mg less than three times as long as broad. 
Ml +2 forking near its apex ; Cu, meeting M3 a little before 
middle of cell. 

Length of bodv G mm.; wing 7 mm. 

Kedah : Kcdah Peak, 3200 ft. [Dr. A. T. Stanton), 1 ? . 

This species seems to be tpiite distinct in coloration from 
any previously described. 



358 Mr. F. AV. Edwards on 

Group R 11 A M P H I D I I N I. 

Rhamphidia nigriceps, sp. n. (Fig. 3, p. 356.) 

Head velvety blackisli-l)ro\vn, frons rather narrow, with a 
small grey spot above the antennae. Antennae, proboscis, 
and palpi brown. Proboscis a little longer than the head. 
Antennae not much longer than the proboscis ; first five 
flagellar joints roundish, remainder oval ; hairs about twice 
as long as each joint. Thorax dark brown above, lighter 
brown on the pleurae, without markings. Abdomen uni- 
formly dark brown ; ovipositor lighter. Hypopygiura, fig. 3. 
Legs dark brown, the tarsi lighter apically. Wings nearly 
hyaline, stigma rather faint. Venation : Sci continued far 
beyond base of Rs, its tip much less distinct than Scg ; Rs 
arising exactly in middle of wing-length ; cell 11^ narrow in 
apical third ; R^ and R2+3 ending in costa rather close 
together ; R~M cross-vein present, situate about its own 
length beyond the fork of Rs ; cell 1st M^ pentagonal, its 
apical side shortest ; Cui meeting M just before or at the 
base of the cell. Halteres\>vowv\. 

Length of body 4-5 mm. ; wing 5-6 mm. 

SiAM : Bukit Besar, 2 ^ (incl. type), 1 ? ; Talum, 
18. i. 1901, 2 (^ , 1 ? (Robinson S)- Annandale). 

Differs from R. kambangani in the blackish head and the 
position of Cuj. 

Rhamphidia rufescens, sp. n. 

Head light grey ; proboscis, palpi, and scape of antennae 
light reddish brown ; flagellum brownish, the basal joints 
round, the rest oval, last three or four a little more elongate, 
and with longer hairs, the hairs on the rest of the flagellum 
being very short. Thorax and abdomen slightly shining, 
uniformly light reddish-brown. Legs light brownish. Wings 
transparent ; venation as in jR. nigriceps. Halteres pale. 

Length of body 5 mm. ; wing 5*5 mm. 

Selangor : Bukit Kutu, Feb. 1903 {Dr. H. E. Durham), 

1 ?• 

Evidently closely related to the preceding, but seems 

distinct on account of its grey head, lighter colour, and 

slightly different antennae. It should be noted that the 

specimen is somewhat immature. 

Gymnastes pictipennis, sp. n. (Fig. 4, p. 356.) 

Head yellowish, darker in the middle, rather thickly 
covered with black hair ; frons very broad. Scape of 



new T'liAiVidii' fro7n the Malay Peninsula. 359 

antcnnie reddish-brown ; flaf^ellum black, the joiuts oval, 
with long hairs. Thorax almost uniformly shining blue- 
black, tinged with brown on the sides of the mcsonotum. 
Pronotum well developed, but not to the same extent as in 
typical Ttncholiihis. Abdomen uniformly dark purplish, 
somewhat sliining. Hypopygium, fig. 4. Leys dark, clothed 
with dark purple scales, a narrow ring of yellow on the 
apical third of each femur ; the femora are not clubbed, but 
gently and slightly enlarged towards their tips. Winys 
Avhitish hyaline, with three complete dark brown fascifc, the 
first well before, the second immediately beyond the middle, 
the third occupying rather more than the apical fourth of 
the wing ; the first fascia is nearly or quite connected with 
the second by a median projection in cell M; the second has 
its distal margin irregularly concave, and between it and the 
third is a squarish dark brown spot over the apex of cell 
1st ^NIj. Venation : Rg present, short, ending exactly in the 
tip of Ri ; Rs arising before one-third of the wing-length, 
not at all curved at its base ; marginal cross-vein situated 
on Kg a little bejond its base ; cell 1st ^Ij about twice as 
long as broad, scarcely narrowed at the base, the three veins 
at its apex equidistant ; R-M cross-vein joining jSIi^o a little 
beyond its base ; Cui meeting M3 near base of cell 1st Mj. 
Halteres black, tip of knob white. 

Length of body 6 mm.; wing 6 mm. 

Si AM : Bukit Besar (Robinson 4* Annandale), 2 <? . 

The genus Gymnastes was founded, by Brunetti in 1911 for 
G. violaceus, Brun. (= Teucholabis cyanea, Edw.), the author 
differentiating it from Teucholabis chiefly on the absence of 
a distinct neck and the clubbed femora. Neither of these 
characters being of much value, Alexander proposed to sink 
Gymnastes in Teucholabis, a course which the writer was 
till now inclined to favour. G. cyaneus, however, shares 
with the present new species the very peculiar character (for 
a Tipulid) of having the legs covered with scales ; and this, 
together with some other minor characters, such as the 
reduced neck and the colour of the halteres, will perhaps 
serve to keep Gymnastes distinct. The apparent gulf 
between G. cyaneus and G. pictipennis with regard to 
neuration is bridged by Gnophomyia oi-natipennis, de Meij., 
which is almost identical with G. cyaneus in colouring and 
yet has Rj present, and in much the same condition as in 
G. pictipennis. A specimen of an undeseribed Japanese 
species or variety closely resembling G. ornatipennis is in 
the I'ritish Museum collection, and shows the same scales 
on the legs as in G. cyaneus and G. pictipennis. I liave. 



360 Mr. F. W. Edwards on 

therefore, no hesitation in referring Gnophomi/ia ornat'tpennis, 
de Mcij., to Gymnastes, which is a very interesting genus, as 
it appears to eonneet Tcucholabis with the Gnopliomijia 
group. The hypopygium shows a greater resemblance to 
Teucholabis than to Gnophomyia. 



Group EllIOPTERINI. 

Gnophomyia macuhphura, sp. n. (Fig. 5, p. 35G.) 

Head dull blackish, front very broad. Antennae nearly 
twice as long as the thorax in both sexes; scape light 
brown, flagellum dark brown ; first joint not much longer 
than broad, second round; flagellar joints elongate-oval, 
almost cylindrical, at the base about four times as long as 
broad, at the apex not quite so long, all clothed with a dense 
pubescence as long as their width and with rather numerous 
hairs as long as the length of the joints. Thorax dark 
reddish-brown, scutellum and pleurse lighter, the pleurie 
with two large roundish black spots, one on the hypopleura 
and one just below and in front of the root of the wing. 
Abdomen uniformly dark brown. Hypopygium, fig. 5. 
Ovipositor resembling that of G. orientulis, de Meij. Legs 
brownish, tarsi somewhat darker. Wings hyaline, tlie veins 
blackish, stigma faint. Venation as in G. orientulis, de Meij., 
the relative lengths of lis and Ks+s ai*e somewhat variable. 
The pubescence on the veins is not quite so noticeable as in 
de Meijere's figure. Halteres blackish. 

Length of body, S 'I mm., ? 5 mm. ; wing, J 4 mm., 
? 5 mm. ; antennae 2 mm. 

SiAM : Bukit Besar (^Robinson Si- Annandale), 2 J" (incl. 
type), 1 ? . 

This species belongs to the same group as the American 
G. tristissima, O.-S., the type of the genus. As Osten- 
Sacken long ago pointed out, there are two distinct types at 
present included within the genus ; in the present writer^s 
opinion the other group might well be removed to a distinct 
genus, to which the name Dasymallomyia may perhaps be 
applicable, though D. signata, Brun., the type of this latter 
genus, presents some rather noticeable differences from the 
other species, such as G. luctuosa, O.-S., and G. elegans, 
Wied. 

G. maculipleura is evidently closely allied to G. orientulis, 
de Meij., and may eventually prove to be the same species, 
but appears to be well distinguished by the two distinct 
blackish spots on the pleura. 



neAo Tipiili(Jie//"om the .]fulai/ Peninsula. 361 

Gnophomy'ui fruti'rna, sp. n. (Fig. 6, p. 356.) 

Coloration and wing-venation as in G. maculipleura, but 
tlic autenniiL' a little shorter, the pubescence on tlie llajj;cllum 
loiiicer and the hairs shorter, so that the cliU'erence in length 
between pul)e.seenee and hairs is not so noticeable ; male 
genitalia (tig. (5) of quite dilTerent structure; pubescence of 
wing-veins rather more evident. 

Selangok (.1. L. Butler), 1 ^ . 

G/ioj)/ionii/ia nif/rescens, sp. n. 

"Whole body, except the ovipositor, blackish, somewhat 
shining. Antennae a little longer than the head and thorax 
together, with long liairs as in G. maai/i/jleuru, but here the 
flagellar i)ubesceMce is rather longer and less regular. Ovi- 
])o>iitor reddish-brown, of similar structure, b\it rather longer 
than that ofc" G. maculip/cioa. ^^'illg as in G. inaculipleura ; 
legs rather darker. 

SiAM : Talum, 3500 ft.. 17. i. 1902 {Robinson ^- Annandale), 
1 ?. 

Oxy discus umbrosus, sp. u. 

? . Head dull grey ; front almost silvery, broad and 
rather swollen. Antennae 15-jointed, first joint yellowish, 
dai'k at the tip, second joint whitish, remainder blackish ; 
joints 3-5 rather broadly oval, joint 6 cylindrical, a little 
longer than broad, joints 7-15 cylindrical, rather more than 
twice as long as broad. Thorax : mesonotum shining 
ochreous-browu, without markings ; pleurae light ochreous 
Mith two indistinct dark stripes. Abdomen dark brown, 
ovipositor lighter. Le(/s almost uniformly light ochreous, 
only the apical tarsal joints lighter. IVings slightly greyish 
witli darker clouds at the tips of all the veins (except'Sc) 
and over the cross-veins; additional dark clouds over the 
base of Rs, at the base of the forks of Mi and M^, and in 
the middle of cell 1st Ri. Tip of wing slightly hairy, lis 
angulated near the base, the cell 1st li^ rather broad ; 
marginal cross-vein vertical, placed exactly at the fork of 
II2+3; cross-vein R-M meeting M]4.2 a little above the fork, 
so that cell 1st M2 does not quite come to a point at the 
base ; fork of Isly and ^NIo scarcely as long as the second 
section of Mj^j '■> second section of .M3 straight and scarcelv 
longer than the cross-vein connecting it with Mj^jj Ax 
turned rather sharply downwards at the tip. tialteres light 
ochreous. 

Length of body 4 mm.; \\ing 1 mm. 



362 l^r. (-'has. Cliilton on tt neio Species of the 

Kedah : Kedah Peak, 3200 ft. {Dr. A. T. Stanton), 1 ? . 

Ill spite of its obviously close relationship with O. nebulosus, 
de Meij., there are a uumber of small ditiereuces in venation 
in which the new species bears a greater resemblance to 
Cladura. The characters common to both species of Oxy~ 
discus, distinguishing them from Cladura, are the shortness 
of Sc and the presence of surface-hairs towards the apex of 
the wing. 



XL I. — A neio Species of the Amphipodan Genus Hyale from 
New Zealand. \\y Chas. Chilton, M.A., D.Sf., LL.D., 
F.L.S., C.M.Z.tS., Professor of Biology, Canterbury 
College, New Zealand. 

The genus Hyale is represented in New Zealand by several 
species, of which, perhaps, the commonest is H. rubra 
(G. M. Thomson), which is found on all parts of the New 
Zealand coast, and agrees well with the brief description 
given by Stebbing in ^ Das Tierreich, Aniphipoda' (p. 572). 
In November 1915 a number of specimens of Hyale were 
sent to me by Mr. P. W. Grrenfell from Cuvier Island. Most 
of these proved to belong to Hyale rubra, but among them 
there was one that attracted my attention by its peculiar 
maxillipedes, the terminal joints of which were greatly ex- 
panded and tiiickly covered with long setae. On examination 
it proved that this specimen, which was a male, differed from 
H. rubra in the second gnathopod also, and I am therefore 
describing it as a new species. Unfortunately I have only 
the single specimen, but the characters of the maxillipedes 
and the second gnathopods are so distinctive that it will be 
easy to recognize it again. It is quite likely that the peculiar 
development of the maxillipedes is found in the male only, 
and is to be looked upon as a secondary sexual character, but 
the female of this species is at present unknown. The 
following will serve as a description : — 

Hyale grenfelli, sp. n. (Figs. 1-5.) 

Specific diagnosis. Male. — In general resembling H. rubra 
(G. M. Thomson), but differing in the maxillipedes, which 
have the carpus and propod greatly dilated and thickly 
covered with long slender hairs, and in the second gnathopod, 
in wiiich the palm is only slightly oblique, well defined, 
broad, the margni on both outer and inner sides being deeply 



Amphipodan Qenus Iljale/rowj Sew Zealand. 363 

concave and provided witli numerous short setules, the finger 
short and rather blunt. 

Colour. Tlie body variously marked with pink, as in 
//. rubra. 



Size. 7 mm. 
Female unknown. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig 2. 



Fig. 3. 





Fig. 1 .—ILjale grenfclli, S ■ -Afaxill i peds. 
Fig. 2.— Ditto. First giiathopod. 
Fig. 3. — Ditto. Second giiathopod. 



364 Dr. r*lias. Chilton on a new Species of the 

Locality. Cuvier Island, off the coast of Auckland, New 
Zealand ; between tide-marks. 

I liave named the species after Mr. P. W. Grenfell, Keeper 
of tlie ('uvier Island Lighthouse, to whom I am indebted for 
many interesting specimens of Crustacea. 

In addition to the above brief diagnosis, the following 
description may be given : — 

Side-plates 1-4 fairly deep, first one widening slightly 
below and produced a little anteriorly. Third segment of 
pleon with postero-lateral corner quadrate, very little out- 
drawn, subacute, the posterior margin nearly straight, but 



Fijj. 4. 




Fiff. 5. 




-pig. i.—Hyale ffre7ifelli, J. Fifth perse opod. 
Fig. 5. — Ditto. Urus, with uropoda and telson. 

with a few faint irregularities and three very minute setulea. 
Eyes rather large, irregularly rounded. Antenna 1 half as 
long as antenna 2, peduncle short, the segments decreasing 
ref^ularly in size, flagellum with about sixteen joints. An- 
tenna 2 more than half as long as the body, ultimate joint of 
peduncle .slightly longer than preceding; flagellum long, 
about twice as long as peduncle, with many joints. 



Ampldpodan Genus IIyalc/ro?n New Zealand. 3G5 

I\Ioutli-parts with exception of maxillipcds present no 
abnonnal Ceature.s. The niaxillipeds are of the usual struc- 
ture in the proximal joints, but the carpus and propod are 
very greatly dilated, so as to be fully as broad as lon<f, the 
inner margins being very convex ; the inner part ot the 
surface of the carpus and the whole surface of the propod 
thickly covered with long hairs irregularly arranged in trans- 
verse rows, the longest extending considerably beyond the 
end of the finger. Tlie linger is much shorter than the outer 
margin of the propod, it is narrow and tapers regularly to the 
extremity. The outer margins of the car|)us, propod, and 
finger are fringed with sette. The carpus is narrowed at the 
base, and the distal portion of the limb is twisted upon this 
so as to lie in a plane more or less at right angles to that of 
the proximal portion. 

First gnathopod with side-))late slightly widened below 
and produced a little anteriorly ; basis widening distally ; 
carpus with well-rounded lobe of hind margin fringed with a 
regular series of setge, which increase in length distally; pro- 
pod oblong, anterior margin slightly convex, devoid of seiaj 
except for a tuft at base of finger, posterior margin straight, 
with a regular row of sette which increase in length distally ; 
palm slightly oblique, curved, and fringed with setse of 
Vcirying lengths; finger fitting closely on to palm. 

Second gnathopod with side-plate quadrate; basal joint 
long ; hind margin a little convex, with a few setse ; anterior 
margin produced on the outer side into a thin flange, which 
projects in a rounded lobe beyond the end of the joint and 
])rovides a groove for the reception of the propod when 
reflexed ; ischium with the outer margin similarly produced 
into a thin rounded lobe; merus and carpus both very short 
and of the usual form ; propod very large, oval except for the 
excavation of the palm; anterior nuirgin fairly convex, 
without seta3; hind margin well develo[)ed, rather longer 
than palm, which is obliqu-^, deeply concave, broad, both 
inner and outer margins very concave, and with a regular 
row of setules ; the surface of the palm itself thin, mem- 
branous, slightly protruding beyond the firm margins; finger 
short and stout, narrowing abruptly towards the end, pro- 
duced at the base on the inner side into a rounded lobe with 
an irregular thickening beyond ; inner margin of finger 
with a row of very minute setules. 

Perajopods 1 and 2 as long as percoopod 3, of normal 
structure. 

Ferffiopods 3-5 increasing slightly in length posteriorly ; 
basal joint broad, with hind margin very convex and irregu- 

Ann. d; Mag. N. Iliat, Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 2'j 



■^GG Mr. W. ('. Crawley on 

larly cvenate below; liind margin of pvopod witliout setae 
except tuft at base of the finger ; setre on anterior margin of 
uniform size, not serrulate; finger strong!)' curved, with 
minute setule. . 

Uropods 1 and 2 -with rami equal in length to the peduncle 
and provided with lateral and apical spines, the peduncle of 
the first uropod bearing a specially stout spine on tlie upper 
side at the extremity. Third uropod of usual size, with 
ramus much siiorter than peduncle. 

Telson apparently cleft almost to the base, margins entire 
and without sctw. 

This species appears to come very close to //. rubra 
(G. M. Thomson), but until the female is known it is difficult 
to speak positively about its relationships. 



XLII. — Ants from British Guiana. 
By AV. C" CuAWLEY, B.A. 

The following list consists of ants collected recently in 
British Guiana by Mr. G. E. Bodkin, who made a number 
of interesting observations which form a valuable addition 
to our knowledge of the habits of many of the species. 
Dr. Forel and Prof. Emery very kindly determined several 
of the species with which T was unacquainted. • 

I. Subfam. PoNEMiN^ (Lepeletier). 

Tribe E CT AT M M I N i (Emery). 

Ectatomina (s. str.) quadridens, P., ^ . 

" A common species about the cultivated coast-land areas. 
The local nickname is ' Kop-Kop.' These ants are invariably 
found in the cane-fields, where they perform excellent work 
by carrying off the larvae of the small Moth Borer {Diatro'a 
saccharalis') and tlie Weevil Borer {Sphenoijliorus hemipterxis^ 
L.). They also destroy the egg-clusters of the small Moth 
Borer which occur on the leaves of the sugar-cane, and a 
number of other harmful insects are killed by them. When 
captured they emit a squeaking sound. They also frequent 
the flowers of certain commonly occurring plants, and have 
been observed to capture insects visiting these flowers to 
obtain the nectar. Formicary unobserved. Insects as soon 
as captured are carried off by the ants apparently to the 
uest." 

Also in Botanic Gardens. 



Anf,'^ from British (jluiana. 367 

Ectatomrna (s. str.) tuberculatuni, Oil v., $^ . 

Rockstone, 27. 12. U. 

*' An uncoinmon species^ unci appaieiitly only met with in 
the interior districts." 



Tribe P N e lu N r (Forel). 

Subtribe Pachycondvlini, Ashmead. 

Neoponeva (s. str.) vUlosa. F., subsp. inversa, Sm., 55 . 
"Not a common species. Formicary observed on two 
occasions in a hole in the trunk of a Cacao-tree. 'J'he 
connnunities were not large, consisting of about oOO-GOO 
individuals. The species seems to occur more commonly in 
the interior districts.'" 

Pachycondyla (s, str.) crassinodu, Ltr., ^ . 
Botanic Gardens, Geoigctown, 27. 5. 15. 

Pachycondi/la (s. str.) harpax, F., ^ . 
Lssororo, N. W. District, 12. 6. 15. 

Tribe D N T M a C h i n l ( May r .) . 
Anochetus (Ste7iomi/rme,r) emarghiatus, Y., ^ . 

" A fairly common species. Formicarium, which seldom 
consists of more than 100 individuals, is frequently found in 
decaying vegetable matter beneath tlie dead sheathing leaf- 
bases of several species of indigenous palms." 

lssororo, 3. G. 15. 

Odontomachus hcematoda, L., ^ . 

The single specimen has the node evenly striate all rou!id, 
as in the var. rugisqnama^ For., from Costa llica and 
Columbia, but not so coarsely. 

Georgetown, 11. 5. 15. 

0. luematoda, L., var. laticeps, Rog. ?, ^ . 

A single specimen in a tube containing Pachycondyla 
Jiarpa.v, F. It answers very well to the description of 
Koger, but in the absence of more material I place it with 
liesitation under var. laticeps. 

lssororo, 12. G. 15. 



368 Mr. W. C. Crawloy on 

Odontomachis hcematodo, L., vav. paJllpefi, var. nov. 

^ . Differs from the ty]>ical form in bcinpr sliglitly larger, 
move elongate, the scale sliglitly broader from back to front, 
not tapering so gradually into the spine, and particularly in 
colonr, which is entirely ferruginous with the gaster darkest 
and the mandibles and antennre lighter, and the legs entirely 
yellow. The nearest described variety appears to be palleus^ 
AVheeler (Bahamas), which is smaller and with a narrower 
and smoother scale. In var. paUipes the scale is faintly 
striate transversely in front and behind. Pubescence as in 
typical form. 
■ British Guiana, 20. 4. 15. 



II. Subfam. DojiYLiNM (Leach). 
Tribe EciTlNi, Forel. 

Eclion (s. str.) hamatum, F., 1/, ^ . 

" This species and E. hurchelli, Weslw., are tlie two 
common species of' foraging ants' in British Guiana. Both 
occur fairly commonly." 

E. (s. str.) hnrchelU, Westw., ^ . 

E. (Lahidiis) caecum (s. str.), Ltr., V, ^ . 

"A common species, but owing to its habit of burrowins: 
Ijeneatli the surface of the soil it is not frequently observed." 
Berlice, 3.3.15. 

E. [Acamntus) pilosiim, Sm., ^ . 

" This is not a common species of Eciton ; it seems to be 
more )iartial to the forest areas.'' 
Rockstone, 27. 12. 14, &c. 

III. Subfam. JUtmmicinjEj Lep. 
Tribe P S E U D M Y R M I N i, For. 
Pseudowyrma hiconvexa, For., '^ . 

"From bark of Sapium jenmanni, Hemsl.," Botanic 
Gardens, Georgetown, 1. 3. 14. 

" A fairly common species. Formicarium unobserved." 



Ants from British Guiana. 3(j9 

Ps. (jracilis^ F., $ . 

Dritisli Guiiiiia, 20. 4. 15. 

Tliis is a most vaiiablc species. Forel (Biol. Ceiit.-Ainer., 
Foimicidte) says it nests in lioilow stems, where the 5 ^ 
rest one behind the other, and varies in colour from yellow 
through red to black with every imaj^inable pattern. 

Ps. elegansj Sm., '^ . 
British Guiana, 2J:. 5. 15. 

Tribe P n i: i d L I N l, Emery. 
Pheidole fallax (s. str.), Mayr., 1/ ^ . 

" Tills species is ot' fairly common occurrence in British 
Guiana. Formicarium constructed beneath the soil.'* 

Tribe Crematogastrini, For. 
Crematogaster siolli, For., var. guianensis, var. nov., ^, ^ . 

L. 3'2-7 mm. 

These examples of this extremely polymorphic Cremato- 
gaster differ from the typical form as follows : Head and 
thorax a lighter chestnut-brown, with the gaster a much 
darker brown ; the head much smoother, witli hardly any of 
the irregular punctures so noticeable in Forel's duplicates, 
ocelli in ^ major di-stinct, the pro-mesonotuui with tiner and 
more regular longitudinal striation ; the basal surface of 
epinotum longitudinally striate fanwise (irregularly and 
transversely striate in stolli), spines of epinotum rather 
longer. In the 2 minor the sculpture is also tiner and more 
regular, and the striation on the epinotum similar to that in 
the %. 

This variety does not appear to be the var. amazonensisy 
For., from the Amazon and also Costa liica, as the description 
only refers to the colour and spines, and makes no mention 
of the sculpture. 

Tribe S L E N P S I D I N I, For. 

Subtribe MOXOMORIINI, Eur. 

Monomorium floricola, Jerd., c?, ? , ^ . 

"• In cocoimf/' Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, 7. -1. 11. 
A cosmopolitan species. 



MO Mi: W. C. Ciawley ou 

Subtribe SOLENOPSIDINI, For. 
Solenopst's geminata (s. str.), F., $ . 

'' In lioUow stems of plants, and in houses," 1913 and 1915. 

This is the typical American form (dark). It appears, 
however, to be becoming cosmopolitan, like tlie var. rw/a, 
Jerd., for Sautschi records it from Africa (Gabon, Liberia), 
and says that in certain districts it is ousting the local 
species (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg, Ivii. 1913). 

S. pylades, For. 

Port Mourant, 1915, and elsewhere. 

" Nest in soil at bottom of suo^ar-canes." 

S. corticalis, For., subsp. amazonensis, For., ^ . 

" This is one of the commonest ants in British Guiana. 
It is almost exclusively found in human habitations, and is 
fond of all food-stuffs, especially sweet oils, sugar, and milk. 
In the entomological laboratory it is impossible to breed 
insects unless the benches are kept witli the legs standing in 
kerosene oil, for they speedily discover the presence of living 
larvge or otlier forms of insect life in the breeding-cages, and 
will then enter and destroy them. The formicarium, which 
is often hard to find, is constructed in crevices in wood-work 
and is never large, consequently they are difficult to destroy. 
They do not hesitate to use their sting, which, for the size of 
the ant, is surprisingly sharp and powerful. I have fre- 
quently observed small masses of tiieni floating on the 
surface of water by means of surface-tension; their object in 
doing this is not apparent.^' 

Tribe Tetramoriini, Emery. 
Tetramorium guineense^ F., ^ . 

'' A common species, especially in the cane-fields. Formi- 
cary is usually constructed in the earth at the base of the 
canes, and varies in size. The larger formicaries form rou^-hly 
conical mounds about a foot and a half high and a foot in 
diameter. These mounds are intersected internally with 
innumerable galleries. The smallest formicaries are only 
slightly raised above the surface of the ground. The common 
coccid or ' Mealy Bug ' of the sugar-cane {Ripersia sp.) is 
invariably attended by this ant. Considerable inconvenience 
is caused at times to the caue-cultcrs by this species owing 



Aids from British Guiana. 371 

to its sliari) and paiiit'iil stin<>:, the (.'llV'ct.s of which hist for 
some tim(\ As aooii a.s the nest i.s disturbed the ants swarm 
out with their abdomens laisetl and readily attack the 
intruder. If tlie nests become flooded the ants ascend the 
CJines and there construct a temporary shelter of tine earth- 
pailicles cemented togetlier^ which form a covering. Tliis 
s|)ecies has been also observed to atteinl the coccid I'studw 
coccus citri, liisso, when occurring on cacao puds.'^ 

This interesting account of this cosmopolitan species shows 
very different habits from those exhibited in hot-liouses in 
this country, I have observed the habits of this ant in hot- 
houses at West Leake, Leicestersliire, in 1U08 and 1909, and 
at Kew in I'JIO; in the former localit)' the nest apj)eared to 
111- in the crevices of the walls, and tiie ants ran about on the 
floor and among the j)lants. The females, which are ergatoid, 
and only slightly larger than the workers, were running 
about among the workers. The ants probably attended 
coccids, though they were not observed to do so. A species 
of Ripersia (formicariij Newstead) is common at JStiaton, 
Devon (1912), and at Porlock, (Somerset, in the nesls of 
Lasius nijer and flavus, and is highly myrmecophilous. 
1 found the ants always removed the coccids when the nest 
was disturbed, often before their own larv*. 



Tribe C K Y P T c E R i N I (F. Smith) . 
Cruptocerus pusillus, Klug., ^ . 

" This species is frequently found moving about on the 
branches and twigs of smooth barked trees. It is a common 
species." 

Georgetown, and Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, 1914. 

C. miniitus, F., ^ . 

'^ A common species. A very sluggish ant which will 
remain absolutely motionless on a leaf for hours together. 
It has been observed to attend the following Coccidas : 
Pulvinaria pyrifonnis, Ckll. ; Coccus hesperidum, L.'' 

Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, 1914. 

C. atratus, L., '^ . 

" A common species. Formicary lias been observed in a 
large hollow in the trunk of a tree {Fachira itisi<jnis). The 
community is large, consisting of several thousands of 
individuals. The species has been observed to attend the 



372 Mr. W. C. Ciauley on 

follo\vini[^ species of Coccidfe : Pseudococcus citri, Risso ; 
Coccus hcsperidum, L. ; Sa'issetia nir/ra, Nictn." 
Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, lUl-i. 

C. maculatiis, Eur., $ . 
" On leaves of mango tree," Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, 

iyi5. 

Tribe D A C E T i N i, For. 
Dacelon armigerum, Ltr., ^ . 

"■ Fairly common in some districts. When captured with 
tlie forceps and placed in alcohol it emits from time to time 
a sharp click, which continues for some time after being 
placed in the liquid. Has been observed to attend the 
Coccid Pseudococcus ciiri, ilisso, on cacao pods. Formicary 
unobserved." 

British Guiana, 1914. 

Tribe Attini (F. Sm.). 
AUa (s. str.) Icevigata, Sm., 1/, ^ media. 

" This species appears to inhabit the sandy soils of the 
interior. The ])rocess of cutting up leaves and carrying 
them into the nest is carried on exclusively at niglit, com- 
mencing shortly after sundown and ceasing just before dawn. 
I have always observed this species to carry pieces of dead 
and dry leaves into the nest, not green leaves as with other 
species of leaf-cutting ants." 

Rockstone, 1914. 

A. (s. str.) ccphalotesj L., 1/. 

" The common leaf-cutting ant of British Guiana. The 
local name is ' Coushi ' or ' Acoushi ' ant. It seems to 
prefer the lighter sandy soils for its nests, and these are 
frequently found in the large sand-reefs which intersect the 
heavy clay soils in some districts. The formicaries are 
usually very large and have long underground galleries. 
This species works at leaf-cutting exclusively at night, though 
in the daytime some of the smaller forms may occasionally 
be seen carrying off particles of sand and depositing them at 
the exits of the galleiies. Slight disturbances, such as those 
caused by a person walking about on the surface of the nest, 
are sufficient to arouse the ants, including some of the largest 



Ants from British Guiana. 373 

forms, wliicli swarm out to tlie attack. They speedily ascend 
tlie legs of the intruder, and iiaving secured a good grip with 
their jaws, retain it with a bull-dog tenacity. They are 
specially tond of all kinds of cultivated plants, and it is 
almost impossible to cultivate any kind of plant in some 
districts owing to their depredations. The leaves of the 
Para Rubber Tree {IJevea bratiliensis) are readily attacked 
despite the exudations of the sticky sap which often proves 
fatal to other insects. No reliable method for their extinction 
has yet been devised. I have frequently observed, though 
have never been able to capture, a small species of tly 
{a[)parently a Muscid) which hovers over the ants while 
working in the daytime. From time to time the ants excrete 
from the tip of their abdomens a tiny globule of liquid, and 
as soon as this appears the tly darts down and rapidly absorbs 
it ; the ants, though apparently uneasy, make no attempt to 
drive away the intruder. 



Atta Acromijrmex ocfospinosa, Reich., ^ . 
Issororo, N.W. District, 1915. 

A. (A.) moUeri, For., subsp. meinerti, For., 
var. (jloboculis, For. (in litt.). 

^. "This species appears to inhabit the interior ; it has 
never been met with on the coastlands. The communities 
are never large, but frequently a number of communities are 
met with in a small area. Formicarium with fungus- 
chamber is invariably found within a decaying log of wood, 
either just under or slightly above the soil-surface, and easily 
accessible. I have always observed this species to utilise 
freshly cut pieces of leaves and they are daylight workers. 
This species also enters human habitations and will carry off 
particles of food-stuffs. On one occasion the greater part of a 
half-pound packet of dried raisins were carried off by these 
ants. They have a distinct partiality for the foliage of Para 
Rubber (//. braziliensis).'^ 

K.W. District, 1913. 

It would be interesting to know whether the number of 
communities in a small area, spoken of by Mr. Bodkin, all 
belong to the same colony, or are separate colonies. As far 
as 13 known, the colonies of Acromijrmex are much less 
populous than those of Atta, sensu stricto. 



374 Mr. W. C. Crawley on 

IV. Subfam. Dolicsobesinjs, For. 

Tribe DOLICHOD ERI N I, Em. 

DoUchoderus (s, str.) attelaho'ules, F., ^ . 
Konawanik, 1914. 

D. {Monads) hispinosus, OH v., ^ . 

D. [M.) dehilis, Em., 55 . 

" The formicary of this species was observed in the nest 
of tlie termite Entennes costaricensis, Holmgi-. The termite 
iiesi; was situated on the slump o£ an okl tree about four feet 
from tiie ground, and was partly inhabited by termites and 
partly by this species." 1913. 

D. (J/.) gagates, Em.j ^ . 

" This appears to be another uncommon species occurring 
in the interior. Observed to feed on the honey-dew given 
out by a Sassid nymph." 1914. 

D, {IlypocUyiea) hidens, L. 

" A common species of ant throughout the colony. Small 
nests are constructed by slightly drawing together the edges 
of a leaf and covering the intervening space with a thin 
covering of dark-coloured vegetable substance of paper-like 
consistency, though somewhat more fragile. Any plant 
whose leaves are suitable for this purpose is utilised by this 
species as a dwelling-place. Cof?ee-trees (Liberian coffee), 
if not properly pruned, are particularly liable to infestation. 
The picking of the coffee is then rendered a difficult matter, 
as the slightest disturbance causes the ants to sally forth and 
attack the intruder by inflicting exceedingly sharp bites. 
This species has been observed to feed on the honey-dew of 
the coccid Pseudococcus citri, Risso, on cacao pods.''' 

N.W. District, 1913, &c. 

D. (//.) lutosus, Sm., ^ . 

" A fairly common species, invariably found beneath the 
bark of trees. Formicary unobserved." 
Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, 1914. 



Ants from British Guiana. 375 

Tribe T A P i N M i N I (Emery) . 
Azteca schimjyeri, Em., ^ . 

" I have only once taken this species. It appears to infest 
the belt of low-frrowing trees termed ' Courida ' [Avicennia 
nitiiiu), which hinge the seashore in British Guiana. In 
this particular in.-?tance the ants were attending the coccid 
Lecaiiiain wquale, Green, which had intcsteJ several trees. 
Eormicarium unobserved.'^ 

-^1. chartifex, For., subsp. laticeps. For., ^ . 

" A common species. Forms large carton nests on the 
trunks of tree?:, and is especially fond of the mango for this 
purpose. fc)onie nests are as much as two feet in length 
This species intlicts a very sharp bite, and on the slightest 
disturbance the ants swarm out to attack the intruder, 
n)aking an audible rustling sound. The nests may be 
easily destroyed by fire, but a breeze is required to keep the 
conflagration smouldering until the nest is entirely consumed. 
Within six months, however, the ants will be found to have 
made considerable progress in the construction of another 
nest, frequently in the same spot." 

West Bark, 1911. 

A. instabilis, Sm. 
British Guiana, 20.4. 15. 

A. trigona, Em., subsp. suhdentata^ For. 
Aruka River, N.W. District, 5. 6. 15. 

A. aljaroi, Em., var. ovaticeps, For., ^ . 

"An uncommon species. Inhabits the medullary cavities 
of the trumpet-tree {Cercrop'ia peltata) .''^ 
Kockstone, I'Jl-l. 

A. velox, For., $ . 
British Guiana, 20. 4. 15. 

Tapinoma melanocephahim, F., ^ . 
Cosmopolitan. In houses, 1914. 

Tapinoma sp. 



376 Mr. W. C. Crawley on 

V. Subfasi. CAMPOxoTiyjE, Forel. 

Section EUC.UIPONOTIX.'E, Forel. 
Tribe Prenolepidii, Forel. 

Frenolepis longicornisj Ltr,, ^ . 

" A commonly occurring and very widely distributed ant 
in British Guiana. To be found as an inhabitant of most 
liouses. Is especially fond of sugar and dead insects of all 
kinds. I have also frequently observed it to infest steamers 
and other craft which call at the })ort of Georgetown. 
Formicarium usually constructed just beneath the surface of 
the soil at the base of posts, walls, &c., or in crevices in 
wood-work ; they are usually small. Houses may be 
successfully cleared of them by exposing a mixture of 
molasses and arsenic or by hunting for the nests and 
destroying them with carbon bisulphide.'' 

A well-known cosmopolitan species. 

Tribe Camponotini, Forel. 
Camjwnotus [Myrmothrix) ahdominalis, s. str., F., ^ . 

" Inhabiting the disused sacs of the larva of the moth 
CEceticus kirbi/i." 
Georgetown, 1915. 

C. {M.) ahdominalis, F., var. mediopallidus, F,, ^ , ? . 
Issororo, N.W. District, 1911. 

C. (M.) ahdominalis, F., subsp. stercorarius, For., ? j ^ • 

These specimens answer very well to ForeFs description 
and appear identical with examples received from him. 

" Nesting under leaf-sheaths of sugar-cane/' Botanic 
Gardens, Georgetown, 1914. 

(C. M.) femoratuSf F., ^ . 
Issororo, N.W. District, 1913. 

C. {Myrmosphincta^ sexguttatus, F., var. ornatus, Emery. 

Botanic Gardens, Georgetown, 1914, 1915. '^ major and 
minor. 

These specimens answer perfectly to Emery's description. 
From small carton nest on underside of palm-leaf. 



Ants from British Guiana. 377 

Appendix. 

Tlie following species liave previously been collected In 
British Giiianu, and identified by the Inipeiiul Bureau o£ 
Entomology : — 

Paropcnera clavafa, F. 

" A fairly common species. The local name is ' Muniri.' 
Formiearium observed on two occasions at the base of 
young trees. The soil is carefully cleared away from around 
the base of the trunk to a considerable depth, and this serves 
as the means of communication to the nest. It is only 
necessary slightly to tap the trnnk of the tree, when the ants 
swarm out makinjj the stridulati(i<r noise common to the 
species. They soon return to the nest, however. The sting 
as exceedingly painful, and will bring on fever in a susceptible 
individual." 

Odontomachus hcematoda, L. 

0. affinis, Guer. 

Eciton burcJielliy "SVestw. 

E. caecum, Ltr. 

Crypiocerus clypeatus, 01 i v. 

'' A fairly common species. The formicary has once been 
observed beneath the loose decaying bark of a tree ; the 
community consisted of about 1000 individuals." 

Atta fervens. Say. 

" This species seems occasionally to occur in the interior 
districts ; it has never been taken near the coast." 

Camponotus niaculatus, F., subsp. picipes, Oliv. 

JS^ote on Claviger testaceus. 

Donisthorpe has recently (Ent. T?ec. xxviii. 2, p. 34, lOlG) 
commented on my experiments with this myrmecoj)hilou3 
beetle and the queens of Lasius niyer, Jiavus, and umbratus 
(Ent. Rec. xxvii. 9, p. 205, 1915). My remarks, owing to 
their brevity, have evidently given rise to a misapprehension. 
The beetle?, as I have {ueviously observed niysell, sometimes 
rest on the queens in nests of L. Jiuvus, their normal host. 



378 Mr. G. T. Betlmne-Baker on 

but the point I wislied to make is that, in my experiments 
last year, the queens of L. rnnhrafus ap])eare(l to possess an 
attraction tor the beetles superior to that possessed by the 
queens of L.Jiavus, or L. niger (witli which Clav'iger tesfaceus 
is occasionally found, e. g. Seaton, 1912, Porlock, 1915). 
The nest of L. jlavus referred to, which contains four queens 
and fourteen Claviger, and is in a small frame, so that the 
beetles are continually coming across the queens, has been in 
my possession for eleven months, under daily observation, 
and it is curious that I have never seen anv of the Clavigers 
resting on the queens. On the other hand, when a few of 
these beetles and others tal<:t>n at the samo time, were put 
into nests containing L. umhratus queens, the beetles were 
constantly clinging to the queens, and for weeks never 
appeared to change their resting-place. The striking con- 
trast in this behaviour of the Claviger appears to me to be 
additional evidence that the parasitic queens (L. umhratus^ 
fuliginosus, &c.) have a body-secretion which renders them 
attractive to other species of ants and myrmecophiles. 



XLIIT. — Descri'ptiovs of new Species of Lepidoptera. 
By G. T. Bethune-Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

K HO PALO CERA. 

Lycsenidae. 

Epitola crowleyi. 

There is an interesting variety of the male of this species 
in the Joicey collection from the Cameroons. 

The primaries are entirely brown, with a very few blue 
scales near the base on the fold ; the secondaries have also 
less blue than usual, a reduction of the area taking place at 
the anal angle and along the inner margin. The underside 
of the secondaries is much whiter, with but little of the 
bronze hue. The specimen is also small. 

If it is a constant variety it might, perha|)S, "be known by 
the name Epitola crowleyi semihrunnea. 

Lrc^NiyjE. 

Turania cytis^ Qir. 

I made this genus {Turania) in the 'Entomologists' 
Becord,' 191-i (vol. xxvi.). p. 160, with cytis^ ('hr., as the 



i 



neio Species of Lcp'uluptera. 379 

type. My friend Dr. J. McDunnoui,'!!, of Decatur (U.S.A.), 
lias recently drawn my attention to the fact that Turania of 
liagonot already exists in the Pyralidie ; so that a new name 
is needed. I propose, therefore, the name 2\imnanay with 
cytis for its type. 

Lyccenesthes craioshayi. 

Capt. "VVilson took a pair of this species from the Xuha 
Hills of a very diminutive size ; the measurement of the male 
is 20 mm., compared with an average of 30 mm. from Sierra 
Leone and Uganda. I have several of a small race from the 
Budonga Forest, but they are 24 and 25 mm., as compared 
with 20 mm. from the Nuba Country. If this small form is 
constant, it might well be named craioshayi minuta. 

The markings are quite tiie same, but idl crowded up into 
the much smaller area. 

The specimens are in the Oxford Museum. 

Argiolaus ismenias, Klug. 

Several specimens of this fine but delicate species were 
taken at Sungikai and Kadngli, in the Nuba Hills (Southern 
Kordofan), on November 13 and December 10 by Captain 
li. S. Wilson in 1904. 



Spindasis kathiglu^ sp. n. 

cJ . Head and collar very pale fawn-colour. Both wings 
faded straw-colour, much obscured with the daik markings. 
Primaries with the base j)ale brownish, terminating in a 
darker transverse dash, the costa broadly pale brownish; 
postniedian band bioad, angled outwards at vein 4, reaching 
well below vein 2, and confluent about vein 2 with the sub- 
terminal broad dark band, which increases in width from the 
apex to the tornus ; the subcostal triangle of spots also 
touches tiie inner edge of the subterminal band, between 
which and the termen is a trace of a pale line. Secondary 
almost entirely obscured with the dark ])attern, the short 
broad subapical dash and the broad subterminal stripe being 
the only definite markings. Ujiderside : primaries pale straw- 
colour, with the markings more or less pupilled with motallic 
silvery ; there is a small subbasal spot, followed by two largei* 
ones, one in the cell and one below ; the postniedian and other 
bands follow the upper surface pattern, being merely more or 
less darkly outlined. Secondaries deeper straw-colour, with 
a trace of four basal spots, followed by three transverse rows 



380 Mr. G. T. Betliiinc-Bakcr on 

of spots, tlie tliird terminatincc on vein 4 ; all tliesc rows are 
more or less parallel, and are followed hy a terminal row 
which has only a trace o£ the metallic pupilliiif^. 

Expanse 34 mm. 

IJah. Kadugli, Nuba Ilillsj Kordofan, December (/?. S. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

This species will come near victoricv, Btl. 

Hesperidae. 
Caprona adeli'ca hordofani, var. n. 

cj . Head, thorax, abdomen, and all the wino^s very jiale 
])inkish buff, with the usual marks as in adtlica, Karsch, but 
the broad pale median area is more or less tilled in with 
stripes and lines. 

This is no doubt the dry-country form of adelxca^ and I 
think that any Cassxudalla from An<;ola is the more varie- 
oated Western form of the same insect. 

Heterocer A. 
Noctuidae. 

Sticloptera ohaktui, sp. n. 

(^ . Head and collar fawn-brown, the latter with pale 
edging ; patagia fawn-brown ; abdomen pale grey. Pri- 
maries fawn-brown, the basal and antemedian areas some- 
what mottled ; a pale ash-grey median band, in which there 
is a short dark dash in front of the reniform stigma, outside 
which is a twin, sharply crenulated, curved postmedian line ; 
two paler subterminal rows of spots almost forming lines. 
Secondaries hyaline, with the terminal third dark. 

Expanse 38 mm. 

Ilab. Obalau Island (Fiji). 

Type in my collection. 

Near melanistis, Hmpsn. 

Pseudojyhi.v pratti, B-B. 

I described this species in Nbvit. Zool. xiii. pp. 2G1 &2G2, 
1906, and I considered that the female I described on p. 2(52 
was the female of pratti ; but I tind this is not the case. 
]\rr. Joicey has received a specimen from the Wandammen 
!Mountains, Dutch New Guinea, which is without doubt the 
female oi pratti ; the markings are precisely tlie same, except 



ficw Sjecies of Le/)'uloj)lc}'a. 381 

tliat the basal aiul antemetlian areas are as dark as tlie rest 
of the will*;, not pale ehestnut-coloiir as in the male. It is 
necessary, therefore, to ;j;ive a new name (o the female first 
described j it will piobubiy be well to re[)eat the description. 
I therefore name it 

Piseudophix callipepla, sp. n. 

? . Head reddish ; thorax and dorsum of |)roximal (not 
prominal) abdominal sejjments pale orange-reddish ; abdomen 
dark grey. Primary with base and mcilian aiea orant>e-fawa 
colour; postmedian area dark reildish, edged by a fine irre- 
gular line of white scales ; terminal area broiidly reddish 
orange mottled with brown. Secor;d;iry orang'-fawn ; 
median and postmedian area reddish, edged by an irregular 
line of whitish scales; terminal area very broadly reddish 
orange mottled with brown. 

Expanse G-i mm. 

Ilab. jMouuI Kebea and other New Guinea localities. 

I'ype in my collection. 

LymantriadaB. 
Dasychlra loanJamniena, sp. n. 

(^ . Head, collar, and thorax greyish white, the latter with 
a bar of black on each side of the metathorax, abdomen 
brownisi). Primal ies whitish grey, a deeply indenfated fine 
black subbasal line; there is an irregular greyish area edged 
externally with b'ackish adjoining the subbasal line; median 
area white, with a sliglit yellow tinge ; median line sharply 
dentate and irregular; the postmedian crenulate black line 
is irregidar ; between these last two lines there is an ovate 
white mark, edged iinely with black around two-thirds of it ; 
area greyer up to the termen ; a very irregular subtenninal 
row of black internervular dashe-^. Secondaries yellowish, 
with the outer half sooty brown. 

Expanse 64 mm. 

Ilah. VVandammen Mountains (3000-4000 ft.), Dutch 
New Guinea. 

Type in Coll. Joicey. 

This species is very near D. cerigoides, Wlk., froui Borneo. 

Euproctis Jlavipunctatd, .sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and proximal segnifuts of the abdomen 
brigiit orange-red ; abdomen black, with whitish anal tuft. 
Ann. tO J/ay. N, Hist. Ser. y. \'oL xvii. 20 



382 



Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 



Primaries! witli a restricted basal area of pale orange-yellow, 
beyond which tlie wing- is entirely rufous-grey for three-fifths ; 
at the end of the cell there is a largish ovate yellow spot; 
terminal area orange-red, with the veins pale yellow. 
Secondaries uniformly pale yellow. 

Expanse -46 mm. 

Jlab. Dinawa, British New Guinea, 4000 ft. 

Type in my collection. 

The species is near huntei, but is, I think, distinct. 

PorfJnneia radi'ata, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and patagia yellow, abdomen blackish. 
Primaries yellow, with the basal area radiated with blackish, 
especially along the fold, where the radiations extend the 
greater length of the wing ; apical area broadly radiated 
with blackish between the veins ; fringes black. Secondaries 
black, with the hind margin dotted with yellow, which on the 
underside is transformed into a marked yellow terminal line. 
? . Like the male, but more orange in colour. 

Expanse, ^ 32, ? 42 mm. 

Hah. Owgarra, British New Guinea. 

Type in my collection. 

The species is very like my P. stilnigra, but the head, 
collar, and thorax are black in suhnigra and yellow in the 
present species. 

Caviria avolaensis, sp. n. 

?. Frons, head, thorax, and abdomen white; antennae 
very dark grey, so as to look blackish to the naked eye ; legs 
brownish, with white femora; all the wings pure white, not 
lustrous. 

Expanse 44 mm. 

J/ab. British New Guinea : Avola, 6000 ft., August {A. E. 
Pro a). 

Type in my collection. 



Notodontidae. 
Gargetta punctatissima, sp. n. 

J . Head, collar, and thorax dark variegated brown, palpi 
very dark brown ; patagia rather paler ; abdomen greyish. 
Primaries cinnamon-brown witiiout the red in it, clouded 
with dark brown at the base and along the costal area. The 
whole of the wing has a mottled appearance ; an antemedian 
row of dark dots, somewhat indistinct ; an oblique median 



veto Species of Lepidoptera. 383 

row of similar dark dots, followed hy a doiiljlo similar po-t- 
niedian row, a subterminul row of dark dots ; termcn with a 
minute dark triangle at tlie end of each vein. Secondaries 
palish greyish brown. 

? . Similar to the male, hut much paler, so tiiat the dark 
dots .stand out much more prominently. 

Expanse, ^ 52, ? 50 n)m. 

//«/;. British New Guinea: Mount Kebea and Babooni, 
300U ft., July to September (A. E. Pratt). 

Ty[)es in my collection. 

Scranchia idiopti-a, sp. n. 

cJ . Head and collar deep coffee-brown, thorax and abilo- 
men grizzly. Primaries greyish, motth d, with an indefinite, 
clearer, interrupted, twin subbasal line not; reaching the 
inner margin, a similar median line between the two ; almost 
on the fold is a raised ovate spot of brownish colour, an 
irregular dark median stripe across the wing, adjoining 
which is a tawny spot of moderate size with a fine black 
crescent in it; a fine dentate dark postmedian line, beyond 
which is a broad, very interrupted, dark, curved band ; 
outside, but adjoining it, is a small dark cloud, with an 
irregular serrate subterminal line; termen finely dark, on 
the costa before the apex are four dark dots. Secondaries 
brownish. 

Expanse 42 mm. 

J lab. Madagascar, 2500 ft., January to March. 

Type in my collection. 

Parathemerasiis tumeric var. melanistis^ var . nov. 

? . Thorax and primaries sooty grey, with the markings 
just visible, the ash-grey orbicular stigma standing out very 
jjrominently from its dark surroundings, a slightly cinnamon- 
coloured cloudy area before the stignui. Secondaries dark 
brown. 

]Cxpanse 62 mm. 

Hab. Mount Kebea (6000 ffc.), March to April ; Dinawa 
(4000 ft.), August ; British New Guinea. 

Type in my collection. 

Omichlis eri/thra, sp. n. 

cJ . Head and thorax cinnamon-red, abdomen dirtyochreous. 
Primaries cinnamon-red with the basal and antemcdian areas 
finely irrorated with brownish grey ; a median serrated line 
loses itself in the darker area, the postmedian dark line is 

2^^ 



3S4 Mr. G. T. Betlmne-Baker on 

strongly excurvod in tlie radial area and recedes very deeply 
on the fidd terminating abont the middle of the inner margin ; 
tliis is fi>llowed at a little distance away by anotiier fine dark 
line almost parallel with the preceding one and more or 
less broadly edged externally by pale oclireous, esijeciaily in 
the costal area ; terminal area darkly suflfnsed. Secondaries 
pale brownish, and of the usual silky-looking texture. 

Kxpanse 48 n)ni. 

Jlah. Mount Kebea, British New Guinea, 6000 ft., July 
{Pratt). 

Type in my collection. 

Cascera callima, sp. n. 

? . Head and thorax chestnut-brown mixed with grey. 
Primaries pale j)inkish brown witii a dark broadish subbasal 
dash on the lower margin of the cell, followed by a whitish 
patch in the angle of vein 2, at the edge of which is an 
oblique irregular stripe of dark shading edged by an indefinite 
and interrupted paler line ; a subterminal row of pale dots 
darkly edged externally. In the cell there is a twin dark 
line across the centre and a dark spot at the end with a pale 
centre, beyond which are two or three dark dots. Second- 
aries pale grey. 

Ex|)anse 50 mm. 

H.ih. British New Guinea : Mount Kebea, GOOO ft,, March 
and April (^1. E. Pratt). 

Type in my collection. 

Nearest to my Cascera hella. 

Stauropus ynediohrunnea, sp. n. 

(J . Head and thorax grizzly ash-grey, pale fawn-brown. 
Primaries with the basal area ash-grey slightly irrorated with 
brown, the whole of the median area dark brown terminating 
very irregularly, from where to the termen the colour is 
palish chocolate-brown, with a fine subterminal irregular 
line. Secondaries pale brownish with the usual darker 
" stauropus " mark at the apex. 

$ . Similar to male, but with the basal and terminal areas 
very pale ochreous grey, the dark median area large and 
deep brown, the fine terminal line accentuated strongly. 

Expanse, J 48, ? Gl mm. 

Hab. British New Guinea : Mount Kebea, 6000 ft., March 
and April; Babooni, 3000 ft., July and August; Ekeikei, 
1500 ft., July. 

'Jypes in my collection. 



7iew Sj^ecies of Lepuloplcra. 385 

Stauropus inixld, sp. ii. 

? . Ilt'inl and tliorax greyish niixed with brown, abdomen 
biift-eoh)Ur. I'riniaries variegated grey and whitish with 
bright green iridescent scab's and dark lines ; base with 
many green seales ; anteinedian line broad, bhickish, oblique, 
lii'arly straight, beyi>nd which is a second paraUel, somewhat 
indrHnite, fine line ; end of cell whitisli grey, below which 
the l(^ld is darker and has greeti scales; postnieilian line 
broatlish, blackish, tleeply crenulate on each side of the 
interspace of veins 3 and 4, beyond this line the area is 
whitish grey, edged externally by a row of irregular dark 
dashes interrupted at each vein. Secondaries pinkish brown. 

Exjjanse 48 mm. 

Jldh. British New Guinea: Blount Kebea, 3000 ft., July 
[A. E. Pratt). 

Type in my collection. 

Lasiocampidse. 

Avjjuda ninaijij sp. n. 

cJ . Head, thorax, and abdomen creamy grey, palpi fawn- 
colour. Primaries j)ale fawn-colour, with two oblique fine 
darker lines, the autemedian being short and the postmediaii 
much more oblique and curved basewards immediately below 
the costa ; a small dark spot at the end of the cell, an indis- 
tinct oblique crenulate line of grey shading in the subterniinal 
area (this line is quite distinct in some specimens). Fringes 
dark fawn. Secondaries warm pinkish fawn-colour. 

Expanse 46 mm. 

Hub. Ninay Valley, Dutch New Guinea, 3000 ft. (^1. E. 
Pratt) . 

Type in my collection. 

Chrysopnyclie jaiksoyd, B-B. 

I described this species in this Magazine for the year 1911, 
p. 563, having before me a series of fifteen specimens from 
Entebbe (Uganda). At a later date I was overhauling some 
of this genus and its allies, and I was struck by the fact that I 
had nothing but males, whilst in the same collection from 
the same place 1 had a series o£ twenty-one females of 
a species very closely allied to Lechnolepis varia, Wlk. 
These I have no doubt are the females of my species ^'ac/:so«e, 
but ihey are so close to the female of varia that I had at first 
named them so. Walker's species is, however, rather larger 
and the markings are redder, but the males are very dittercut. 

Varia is, however, a Chrt/sopsi/che, not a Lechriolepis, 



386 ]Mr. G. T. 15etliune-Bakcr en 



XLIV. — ^otes Oil the Synonymy of the Genus Ogyris. 
By G. T. Bethune-Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Waterhouse and Lyell are to be congratulated on the pro- 
duction of their recent work ' The Butterflies of Australia.* 
AVhilst, however, I have the greatest regard for both authors, 
and ])articularly for my old correspondent Mr. Waterhouse, 
I cannot refrain from criticising their treatment of some 
species in tlie genus Ogyris; for, instead of clearing up 
matters, they have made them more involved by adding yet 
more to the synonymy, by completely ignoring Hewitson^s 
oiiginal descriptions and figures, and by ignoring the rules 
of nomenclature as laid down in the International Code. 

Ogyris zos'ine, Hew. 

This species was described in Hewitson's Exot. Butt, i., 
and the male was figured on plate xlviii. figs. '6 and 4. 

Ogyris genoveva, Hew. 

This was tlie next species to be described in the same work, 
and it was figured on the same plate, the numbers being 
5 and 6. 

In the Spec. Cat. Lyc. B. ^I., p. 2, he (Hewitson) catalogues 
the known species of the genus and again figures zosine\ 
here he only figures the underside, referring to it in error as 
the ? , The specimen figured is, however, a male ; it is 
unfortunate that it is so, as he had the female before him 
at the time and this was the same colour as the male. 

In the Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1905, pp. 296 et seq., 
I monographed the genus and revised it up to date. Here I 
definitely selected the dull purjde ? as the ? type of Hewitson's 
species, and in so doing I acted quite correctly and in accord- 
ance, with the Code. It matters not whether the dull purple 
form is rarer than the paler blue form. Hewitson himself 
had described the blue form as genoveva ; he thought it was 
another species, but tliat does not alter the fact that he gave 
it another name, and he did so because he had lying before 
him the dull purple form of the ? as well as the pale lustrous 
one, and this alone not only justifies me in selecting that 
form as the type-form, but, in view of Hewitson's action, it 
is the only reasonable thing to do. Dimorphic females are 
always named in these days, and 1 think rightly named, the 
object being to designate the form. Waterhouse and Lyell, 



the Sijnonymy of the Genus 0;^yiis. 387 

however, sink genoveva as a direct synonym of zosine, and, in 
thus overriding my selection of the $ type and in siidving 
genoveva as a direct synonym, my ^ood frieixl Mr. Waterhoune 
is entindy io;iiorin<; all nomenchitoi ial rules — and he is ignoring 
the Cotle, and must not be followed. 

Ogyris zosine duaringa, P>-B. 

This hical race, a wcdl- marked form as to colour, is sunk 
also as a direct synonyn). The question of a local race will, 
I suppose, always be a matter of opinion to a certain extent ; 
in some cases, as in this, it will beaf|uestion of the keenness 
of tlie eye to colour-ditforences. There is no doubt, how- 
ever, of the difference of colour in this case; it is quite 
marked, and the name should stand. Our authors have 
registered this form as typical zosine zosine, but this is 
evidently an error — it is quite different to Hevvitsou's type. 

Ogyris zosine magna, B-B. 

This is also sunk as a direct synonym, but the extra- 
ortlinary part of it is that the authors absolutely re-name the 
very form under the name zosine araxes; they describe the 
male as bright purple with the costa near the apex splashed 
with white. 1 described my magna as rich purplish blue, 
with the apical tliiid and the apical half of the termen hoary 
in the male; Avhilst the female is described as having the 
basal fourth of the primary and the central area extending 
toward the tornus as metallic green. I describe the same 
areas as greenish blue, more greenish than in duaringa, and 
as lustrous greenish ; the types in the former case come 
from Dimboola and a similar form from Sydney — my types 
come from Brisbane. From the descriptions it would ap[)ear 
tliat the two forms must of necessity be the same — knowing 
the species as well as I do, I feel quite sure they are. 

Four female forms are in nearly all large collections : there 
is the type-form as indicated by Hewitson, and as selected 
by me (i)Ut, unfortunately, he figured a male), of the duller 
purple colour ; there is the pale bright blue lorm named by 
the same author genoveva ; there is the lustrous greenish 
form named by mo magna and by ^Vatelhouse and Lyell 
araxes ; and there is also a rich true-blue form, quite different 
from genoveva, not purple at all — it is in the British Museum 
from Townsville and iVoni N.W. Australia, and I suppose it 
is the form that our authors have called zosine tyi>hon. They 
are all separable at a glance, and anyone investigating local 



3S8 Mr. G. T. Betliune-Bakcr on 

races or constant varieties would without doubt keep tlie 
four forms separate with tlieir individual names. 

The authors, however, state in their })reanible to the 
.cpecies : " The original descriptions and plates provide some 
evidence tiiat the tj'pe examples . . . came from Moreton Bay 
(lirisbane) ; the type is purple with distinct black margins. 
The type iemale (Hewitson's Oyi/ns geiwveva) is described 
as blue, but figured as green." This is pure guess-work on 
their part. We have no evidence at all that the original 
three species come from Mor»ton Bay ; in fac^t, we have rather 
evidence to the contrary, for when, years later on, he 
(Hewitson) received a specimen from that district he 
definitely so labelled it and gave exact localities (as, Swan 
Eiver) whenever possible. Hewitson's type male has dark 
margins (not black), but by no means distinct on their inner 
edge and the j)urple is very dull in tone. The type female is 
the same colour as the male ; this, as already mentioned, I 
stk'Cted in my monograph in 1906, and our authors have not 
the power or right with a stroke of their pen to alter that 
selection — as firstreviser, my selection must stand. Hewitson's 
original material, dealt with in his Exot. Butterflies, con- 
sisted of a pair ( (^ and ? ) of the dull purple form, and a 
bright |jale blue $ (the genoveva ? ). I have made a special 
search at the British Museum (Natural History), and there 
is not any evidence whatever to enable us to say from what 
part of Australia those specimens came ; the pur})le ? is 
apparently identical with what Waterhouse and Lyell have 
renamed tijphon iberia, which therefore must sink as a 
synonym to zosine zosine, as I had already restricted the 
type $ to that form. Subsequently, Hewitson received 
another male specimen from Moreton Bay (it is labelled in his 
own handwriting). There can be no doubt that he (Hewitson) 
knew exactly what he was doing when he described the 
species. He had a male and female, dull purple, which 
he called zosine, and he had a second female very pale 
lustrous blue, which he thought was another species and 
which he called ^e«oyeya. This he indicates in his letterpress, 
so that, when I selected the adult pur|)le female as the type 
female form of zosine zosine, I was not only acting legiti- 
mately, but I was carrying out the original intention of .the 
firtit describer of the species; and it is contrary to the Code 
for a subsequent author to nullify the selection, and would 
also be very detrimental to progress. Taking up now the 
forms Waterhouse and Lyell mention, we have : — 



tlie Synonymy of the Genus Ogyris. 389 

Ogyrls zosine typhon. 

Apparently tlie form with the dull purple S and the rich 
true-blue ? , not the pale blue ? form. 

Ogyris zosine typhon, ? iberia. 

This sinks to zosine zosine, being the dull purple femal.e 
form already selected as the type-form oi' zosi7ie. 

Ogyris zosine zosine. 

I have no doubt tliat this is my zosine duaringa. The 
authors describe the (^ as rich purjde, so that it is quite 
obvious that this male cannot be typical zosine, as it is not 
like Hewitsou's type, figure, or description. 

Ogyris zosine zenohia, ? . 

'J'his is described as a rich purple form of the female, and 
is one that I have iiot seen. 

Ogyris zosine araxes. 

This must sink to my zosine magna — I have no doubt 
whatever on the point. The two descriptions coming from 
two different pens are practically identical. 

The .'synonymy, so tar as Waterhouse and Lyell and my- 
self are concerned, should be as follows : — 

Ogyris zosine zosine. Hew. (nee Waterhouse & Lyell). 
Syn. iberia, 5 form. 
The form with both sexes of a dull purple colour. 

Ogyris zosine genoveva, Hew. 

The dimorphic female of zosine zosine, of a lustrous very 
pale blue, occasionally slightly tinged with greenish. 

Ogyris zosine duaringa^ B-B. 
Syn. zosine zosine of Waterhouse and Lyell. 

The bright purple male with lustrous greenisb-blue female. 

My locality is Coomoobuolaroo (the adjoining district to 
L)uaringa). Waterhouse and Lyell's locality is Duaringa ; 
they also give Brisbane and the liichmond River. 



390 On the Sjuonymy of the Genus Ogyris. 

Ogyrls zosine zenohia, ? form. 

A biio;lit purple female form from Brisbane and tlie 
liiclimond liiver. 



Ogyris zosine magna. 
S^'n. zosine araxes. 

A very distinct race, thp most distinct that I know both 
in colour and size — the males being the richest purple and the 
females the most lustrous greenish blue, the greenest form 
I know. 

Localities. Brisbane, Sydney, Illawarra, Dimboola. 

I am rather at a loss to know why ^Vaterhouse and Lyell 
liave included Sydney in their localities, for they say of the 
female, " Sydney examples are not sufficiently distinct to be 
se|)arated as another geographical race." 

It is very many years since my old friend Mr. Waterhouse 
and I began to correspond, and, knowing as I do the careful 
and accurate work tliat he has accomplished, I feel sure that 
if he had been able to refer again to Hewitson's t^-pes and if 
lie had borne in mind the rules of the International Code 
on nomenclature, he would not have come to some of the 
conclusions laid down in the recent book, which, in spite of 
this, is a most valuable contribution on tiie Australian fauna, 
and one that no students of the Rhopalocera of that region 
ought to be without. 



Ogyris hahnaturia, Tepper. 

I only bad the ^ type of this insect before me, so, of 
course, could not make the correction the authors refer to ; 
there were, however, quite sufficient deviations from typical 
otaneSy especially on the underside, to justify the use of 
Tepper's name, and I left it with specitic raidc, with tiie 
express object of drawing attention to these deviations; 
for in the closing sentence of p. 277 of my monograph 
I broadly hint at the possibility of halniaiuria being a form 
of otanes, Felder, and I am quite willing to concede it as a 
race of that species. 



On llu HarcA of I)ieiiioin3's jiernyi. 391 



XLV. — The Races of Diomomys pernyi. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Publislicd by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The handsome squinel Dremomijs pernyi is now known to 
raii^e Ironi the C'hin Hills, Upper Binrna, eastwards across 
the whole of Ciiina to Aii-hwei and Fokicn, and it is not 
unnatural that in this huge area a number of local subspecies 
.should have become ditiV-rentiated. 

Air. Glover Allen lias recently pointed out reasons for 
giving special names to the forms of Ichang and 8outli 
Yunnan; and in laying out the Museum series of D. pernyi, 
about sixty in number, I liud that his races both deserve 
recognition, while four others apj)ear to need descrifjtiou. 

My attention was first attracted to this question about 189G, 
and as so much depended on the identification of the original 
Scmrus perni/iy which was said to come from the province o£ 
Szc-chwan, Prof. Milne-Edwards was good enough to send 
to us two examples representing the typical form, collected 
by Pure Soulie at Tse-kow, in N.W. Yunnan, close to the 
western border of Sze-chwan. In Mr. Allen's papers quite a 
different form is taken as the typical pernyi^ and I have 
therefore again consulted Paris as to tlie characters of the 
actual type collected by Perny. About this Prof. Trouessart 
has been so good as to give me such details as to show that 
it is really the same as the N.W. Yunnan form, as I had 
hitherto supposed. The grey form considered by Mr. Allen 
as typical pernyi therefore needs a new name. 

Tiic subspecies which I should recognize are as follows, 
passing from west to east : — 

1. Dremoniys pernyi pernyi, M.-Edw. 
Kev. Mag. Zool. (2) xLs. p. 230, pi. xix. (1867). 

Size comparatively large, an adult skull measuring 53*5 mm. 
in greatest length, with a tacial length* of 27'6. General 
colour saturate, rich brownish olivaceous, the postauricular 
patches strongly contrasted. Middle area of underside of 

* See P. Z. S. 1886, p. 75 (footnote). In these squirrels, where the 
length of the noae is of niiportance, and yet the nasal bones are too irre- 
gular posteriorly to furnish a satisfactory measuring-point, tho lengths 
of " face" and •* brain-case,'' as described iu the above reference, appear 
■worthy of utilization. 



392 ^Ii". 0. Thomas on the 

tail grizzled buffv or brown, varying a good deal, as it does 
ill all the races, but never clear grey. The btiffy colour is 
clearly shown in ]\[iliic-Ed\Yar(ls's original plate. 

Raiige. Chin Hills, Upper Burma {Mackenzie), Teiigyueh 
( = ]\lomein, "Western Yunnan {IJowell), Tse-kow, N.W. 
Yunnan (Soidie), Western Sze-chwan {Perni/). 

2. Dremomys ■pernyijlavior, G. All. 
P. Biol. Soc. AVasb. xxv. p. 178 (1912). 

Size small, the smallest of the forms, greatest skull-length 
about -iO mm., facial length 25. General colour distinctly 
olivaceous (approaching '" deep olive •'^), not so brown as in 
other subspecies. 

Ilah. S.E. Yunnan, Mong-tze {H. Orii). 

Seven examples belonging to the original series are in the 
British Museum. The type was one of a few specimens 
abstracted by a native from the collection and sent to 
America for sale. 

This is, perhaps, the most distinct from the rest of all the 
subspecies by its smaller size, delicate skull, and more oliva- 
ceous coloration. 



3. Dremomys lyerny'i griselda, subsp. n. 
Dremomys pernyi, G. All. Mem. Mus. Harvard, xl. no. 4, p. 228 (1912) 

Size about as in true 'peruyi. General colour much greyer 
than in the other races, back nearly approaching, though 
darker than, greyish olive of liidgway. Post-auricular 
patch not very strongly contrasted. Median area of underside 
of tail liberally mixed with long greyish-white hairs, which 
nearly or quite hide the buffy bases of the lateral hairs. 

Skull-measurements of type : — 

Greatest length 51*3 mm. ; condylo-incisive length 45 ; 
facial length 25'5 ; length of brain-case 26'5 ; upper tooth- 
series exclusive of p' 8'2. 

Uah. Eastern part of the mountainous region of Western 
Sze-chwan, at altitudes of 1*000 to 14,000 feet ; Nagchuka 
( = Ko-kou) and Yao-chao (Bailey); Ta-chien-lu, Nagchuka, 
Kaniala Pass, and Shuo-low {Zapjjcy). 

Tyie. Adult female. B.M. no. 11. 10. 3. 3. Original 
number 6. Collected at Nagchuka, 10,000 feet, 25th May, 
1911, and presented by Major F. M. Bailey. 

This is the form which, from its occurrence in Sze-chwan, 
Mr. Glover Allen identiiied with typical -pernyi ; but, as 



Iiac^8 0/ Dicniomys pcinyi. ',]0'.\ 

already oxj)l:iiiiO(l, it is the saturate form of N.VV. Yuiinaii 
aiul the extieiMc western (kI^c of Sze-chwan vvliich should 
hear that name. I myself also ori;;iiially i<l(nlilie(l Major 
Bailey's s))ecimen as JJ. perni/i\ ami may therefore, perhaps, 
liave misled Mr. Allen. 

D. p. (friaelda is readily distinguishable from all other 
forms by its <rieyish general colour and the long grey hairs 
aloiifr the underside of the tail. 



•4. Dremomys perui/i modestiis, subsp. u. 

Fur rather harsher than in the western and more highland 
subspecies. General colour more drabby brown, near 
" Saccardo's umber," the type oven approaching " buffy 
brown." Ear-patches comparatively inconspicuous, scarcely 
contrasting at all with the colour of the head. Under surface 
distinctly tinged with buffy, especially posteriorly. Middle 
area of underside of tail dull buffy. 

Dimensions of typical skull : — 

Greatest length b'2 mm.; facial length 2<)'5 ; length of 
brain-case 27; upper tooth-series exclusive ofy/ 8'4. 

Hub. Sui-yang, Kwei-chow. 

Type. Old male. B.M. no. 8. 8. 11. 41. Collected 
April 1898. Presented by F. W. Siyan, Esq. Three 
specimens. 

All the eastern forms of D. p/rtv/i (east of about 106° E.) 
have a more brownish tone than the western ones. D. p. mo- 
destiis is most allied to T). p. seiiex of Ichang, but is a paler 
brown, wiih less conspicuous ear-patches. 

5. Dremomys pernyi se/iej; G. All. 
Dremomys senex, G. All. Mem. Mus. Harvard, xl. no. 4, p. 2:.'9 (1912). 

General colour brownish olivaceous, not so brown as in 
the next subspecies or D. p. modesttts, not so olivaceous as 
in 7). p.jfavior. Ear-patches very conspicuous, usually rich 
ochraceous, but white in the type, a variation which occurs 
in other members of the genus. Under surface more or less 
suffused with buffy, whicli is si)ecially well marked on the 
area in front of the thighs. 

ISkull-dimensions of type (from Allen) : — 

Greatest length 53 mm.; upper tooth-row, exclusive of 

Hub. Ichang. Eight specimens in the British Museum, 
presented liy Mr. JStyan. 



304 0/1 the Races of Dremom3's peryni. 

Altlioufi;!! none of our spccimpiis ])nve white enr-patclies, I 
liave scon enoiiiili examjiles of this particular variation in the 
genus Dreinomys to feel sure tl)at J\lr. Glover Allen's type 
belonged to the same form as those obtained at Ichang for 
Mr. Sty an. 

6. Dremomys pernyi chintalis, subsp. n. 

General colour paler than in senex — in fact, of very much 
the same more drabby brown as in D. p. modestus, — but the 
ear-patches large and strongly contrasted. Under surface 
wholly whitish, with scarcely a trace of buffy suffusion, the 
area on the inner front surface of the thighs without the 
strong buffy tinge so marked in senex and calidior. Ochra- 
ceous area round anus smaller and less conspicuous than 
usual. 

Skull small, scarcely larger than that o^JIavior. 

Dimensions of skull : — 

Greatest length 49*5 mm. ; condylo-incisive length 43 ; 
facial length 24*8 ; brain-case length 26'2 ; upper tooth-row 
•without p^ 7*4. 

Hab. Chin-tell (also written Tsing-tJi), An-hwei. 

T^pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 99. 3. 9. 12. Collected 
29th October, 1896. Presented, with five other specimens, 
by F. W. Styan, Esq., to whom, as in other cases, the 
National Museum is indebted for much of its most interesting 
Chinese material. 

This, one of the brown eastern races of pernyt, is distin- 
guishable by its small size, pale colour, and the absence of 
the prominent buffy patches in front of the thighs. 

7. Dremomys pernyi calidior^ subsp. n. 

General characters very much as in D. p. senex, but the 
upper colour a much warmer brown, approaching " olive- 
brown." Ear-patches mixed white and ocliraceous, the bases 
of the hairs white and their tips ocliraceous. Under surface 
whitish, but ordinarily with well-marked buffy thigh-patches. 

Skull-dimensions of the type : — 

Greatest length 51*5 mm. ; condylo-incisive length 44*3 ; 
facial length 25"8 ; length of brain-case 26*3 ; upper tooth- 
series exclusive of;'' 8'2. 

Ilah. Kuatun, K.W. Fokien. 

Type. Young adult male. B.M. no. 99. 3. 9. 17. Col- 
lected and presented by F. W. Styan, Esq. Sixteen speci- 
mens examined. 



On a new Genus q/ Anthicitlaj (foleoplera). 295 



XLVI — A new Genus of Antliicida' {Coleoptero) from the 
hhinds of Mysol and Waijiou. By G. C CllAMlMON, 
F.Z.S. 

Mr. Blair liavinf^ called attention to the systematic position 
of tlie Australian genera Levwdes^ Leniodiuus, and Trichan- 
anca [At.n. & M:ig. Nat. Hi^t. (8) xi. pp. 207-209 (1013)], 
it is advisable to describe an allied genus found by the late 
A. R. Wallace in the above-mentioned Malayan islands. 
Specimens of this insect were acquired by Westwood for the 
Hope Museum more than fifty years a^^n, and others have 
also been detected amon";st the Lagriids in the British 
Museum. 

Lagriomorpiia, gen. nov. 

Head short, subtriangular, broadly truncated above the 
moderately wide neck, the eyes small, rounded, prominent, 
inserted at a little before the base, the epistoma transverse, 
depressed, confused with the front, and somewhat prominent, 
the antennje stout, rapidly widened outwards, inserted be- 
neath a tuberculiform ])roininence at some distance from the 
eyes; labrum short ; mandibles short, broad, feebly bidentate 
at tip ; mentum strongly transverse, supported by a broad 
gular process ; maxillary palpi stout, joint 4 strongly securi- 
form : terminal joint of labial palpi stout, ovate, obliquely 
subtruncate at tip ; prothorax subcampanulate, convex, ini- 
niarpjiuate laterally and at base, about as wide as the head; 
scutellum transversely quadrate; elytra long, confusedly 
punctate, the inflexed portion almost covering the meta- 
thoracic episterna, the epipleura narrow, incomplete ; pro- 
sternum sepaiated from the propleura by an oblique suture ; 
anterior coxal cavities widely open behind the large, conical, 
contiguous coxffi ; mesosternum long, very narrowly sepa- 
rating the middle coxas ; ventral segment 1 as long as the 
nietasternum, 2-5 comparatively short, subequal ; posterior 
coxaj rather large, well separated ; legs moderately stout ; 
tibise finely carinate towar<ls their outer edge, above and 
beneath, the spurs minute and scarcely visible ; tarsi with 
their penultimate joint narrow, deeply excavate above for 
the reception of the terminal joint, the claws sim[)le. 

Type, L. semiaerxdea. 

The Malayan insect forming the type of this genus would 
))erhaps be mistaken at first sight for a Lagriid ; but the 



30C On a new (/<>>) ?/s o/Antliicidne (Coleoptera). 

widely open anterior coxal cavities and otlier cliaractors 
bring it near Lemodes, Boli., and Trichananca^ Blackb., 
recently referred by Blair to tlie Aiitliicida^. The carinate 
tibia? and the ji^reatly widened onter jo'nis of the antennfe 
separate Lmviomorpha from both these genera, the general 
facie?, too, being very different. 

Lagriomorpha seniicccniha, sp. n. 

Elongate, depressed, a little widened posteriorly, especially 
in (J, subopaque, the elytra and under surface shining, finely 
])ubescent ; ochraceous or rufo-testaceous, the elytra with 
about the apical two-thirds metallic blue, the autennal joints 
from 4-6 onw^^rd ,(the rufescent tip of 11 excepted) black 
and densely pubescent, the posterior legs with the knees, 
tibiae, and first tarsal joint (and in one specimen the corre- 
sponding portions of the intermediate legs also) sometimes 
more or less infuscate, the abdomen in great part piceous. 
Head closely, shallowly punctate ; antennae moderately long, 
joint 3 slightly longer than 2, 4-11 more elongate, becoming 
rapidly wider, 8-10 very broad, triangular, 11 acuminate- 
ovate, much longer than 10, constricted at the middle; 
joint 4 of maxillary palpi broader iji cJ than in $ . Pro- 
thorax about as long as broad, rounded at the sides, obliquely 
constricted before the base, closely, shallowly punctate, the 
intersjjaces alutaceous. Elytra broader than the prothorax, 
more elongate in ? than in cj , slightly depressed below the 
base, closely, rather coarsely, confusedly punctate. Beneath 
closely, minutely punctate, with scattered larger punctures 
intermixed. 

Length 5^-8, breadth 1^-2^ mm. ((??). 

Bab. Mtsol and Waigiou {A. R. Wallace). 

Described from four females and two males, two of the 
former, from Mysol, belonging to the British Museum (ex 
coll. Pascoe), the others purchased b\' the Oxford Museum in 
1862 or 1863, one only of them (a k ) being from Waigiou. 
The males (one from each island) are smaller and less 
elongate than the females, and both of them have an 
indication of a faint, transverse or curved, pallid fascia on the 
disc of each elytron at about one-third or one-fourth from 
the apex. 



iNFr. R. S. Bagnall on neiv Thysanoptera. 



307 



X [j\\ I. — Brief Descriptions of new Thysanoptera. — VIII. 
By Richard S. Bagnall, F.L.S. 

Suborder T E r e b r a n t i A. 

Family JEolothripidae. 

Subfamily Oeoturipin^. 

Orothrips propinquus, sp. n. 

? . — Very like 0. australis, Bagn., l)ut stouter and larger 
(1"8 mm. loi)<^ as against 1*5 mm.) and also darker in 
coloration. The head is shorter than the prothorax ; the 
maxillary palpi are distinctly 8-joiuted, whilst the autennal 
joints 3 and 4 are practically subequal, the relative lengths 
of joints 3 to y being us iollows ; — 

0. }>i'opinquus, sp. n., 108 : 102 : 51 : 39 : 28 : 20 : 15. 
0. austrads, Bagn., 104 : 82 : 52 : 32 : 24 : 18 : 12. 
0. (enuicornis, sp. n., 165 : 126 : 66 : 48 : 50 : 30 : 19. 

All legs dark grey-brown ; fore-tibice and tarsi a shade 
lighter — yellowish-grey-bro-vvn. Colour of antcnnge as in 
O. australis. Fore-wings broader than in 0. australis, with 
the brown markings across middle and tip occupying only 
about 0*20 and 0*15 of the total length, the comparative 
extent of areas being: as follows : — 





propinqtms. 


australis. 


tenuicornis. 




Fore- 


Hind- 


Fore- 


Hind- 


Fore- Hind- 




marg-in. 


margin. 


margin. 


margin. 


margin, margin 


Clear . . 


.. 90 


8 


50 


4-5 


60 6-0 


Dark . . 


3-5 


5 -.5 


5-5 


GO 


6-5 60 


Clear . . 


.. 50 
.. 2-5 


30 


20 


2-5 


3-5 30 


Dark .. 


3 5 


3-5 


30 


30 40 



Comparative length . 20 IG 19 

Setae on veins of fore-wings minute. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Hah. Australia, C!reswick, Victoria ; on sweet pea, 
?3 only, 17. i. 15 (i?. Kelly). 

Orothrips tenuicornis, sp. n. 

?. — !Near 0. prapinquus, colour of abdomen lighter, and 
apical abdominal bristles shorter and more slender. Antennae 
more slender and the third joint long, clear lemon-yellow. 
Ann. ct- Mag. N. llist. Ser. 8. Vol. xvii. 27 



398 Mr. Ti. S. Bagnall on new Thysanoptera. 

Relative loiifrtlis of antcnnal joints and of the areas of fore- 
wing (which latter aj)j-)roximate auslralis more than pro- 
pinquus) as shown in tables under description of 0. pro- 
pinquus. Maxillary palpi 7-jointed. 
Setre on veins of fore-wings minute. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

IJah. Australia, Healesville, Victoria ; 3 ? s from flowers 
of Erythrcea australis, December 1913 [A, E. Shaw and 
i?. Kelli/). 

Family ThripidsB. 
P seudothrips acJicetus, sp. n. 

? . — Length I'l to 1-2 mm. 

Chestnut-brown ; fore-le^js 3^ellow, femora tinged with 
grey-brown and tibise lightly with grey; intermediate and 
hind legs brown shaded with grey, tibi» yellowish distally ; 
all tarsi yellowish. Antennse with joint 1 light grey-brown, 
2 concolorous with head, 3 yellowish-brown, 4-5 yellowish- 
brown to grey-brown and 6 to 8 grey-brown to brown. 
Fore-wing yellowish-brown, a shade lighter at base. 

Head transverse, about 0*6 as long as broad ; eyes large, 
not bulging, somewhat coarsely facetted, pilose ; ocelli 
large ; no post-ocular or interocellar bristles. Antennse 
longer and more slender than in parvus, Bagn., about 2*3 
times the length of the head ; relative lengths of joints 
approximately as follows: — 7 : 12 : 17 (including stem) : 
15 : 13 : 17i : 3 : 4. 

Prothorax scarcely longer than the head, and about 0"6 as 
long as broad ; hind margin with a series of moderately 
stout setae, but no prominent bristles at hind angles. Wings 
pointed at apex ; both veins of fore-wing regularly set with 
setfe, 

Setge at apex of abdomen stouter than in P. parvus, a pair 
of short curved dorsal set^ on 9, and posterior margin of 
tergite 8 not fringed. 

(J. — Smaller, lighter, all legs yellowish marked with 
brown ; sternites apparently without transparent areas. 

Easily separated from P. parvus, Bagn., by the dark colour 
of body, the comparatively shorter head, longer and more 
slender antennae, and the absence of prothoracic bristles. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 



Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Tliysanoptera. 399 

Hnh. S. Australia, Mt. Lofty Range, Adelaide ; amongst 
a tube of thrips from flowers of Acacia myrtifoUa and 
Epachris impressu, Aug. 9, 1914 (£". B. Potillon), Keg. 41. 

Genus Physothrips, Karny. 
a. SeticoUis group. 

Physothrips setipennis, sp. n. 

Tliis species is very closely related to the Western 
Australian species, Physothrips seticollis (Bagn.). The 
antennas are brown except joint 3 which is clear yellow, and 
the base of 4 yellowish. 

Head as long as or slightly longer than the prothorax. 
Antennae about 2"25 times the length of the head, longer 
than in seticol/is ; relative lengths of joints as follows : — 
12 : 16 : 27 (with stem) : 26 : 15 : 22 : 3 : 4. 

Prothorax with the bristles at hind angles (which are 
exceptionally slender and light in colour in seticollis) some- 
what stout and dark, about 0"6o the length of prothorax ; 
surface somewhat closely and irregularly set with minute 
setaj. In seticollis these setae are regularly disposed (includ- 
ing three widely-seated pairs down the centre), stouter and 
about twice the length. 

Apical abdominal bristles distinctly stouter and darker ; 
ninth tergite with a pair of rather short dorsal bristles, 
moderately widely separated and the posterior margin of the 
eighth tergite with a close and moderately long microscopic 
fringe. 

Upi^er vein of fore-wing regularly set with sette for the 
whole length as in seticollis. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoologv, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Ilah. Australia, Tlealesville, Victoria ; on cultivated 
white briar, 25. i. 14 [R. Kelly). 

b. ? group. 

Physothrips f/avidus, sp. n. 

$ . — Exactly as in Thrips Jiavidus, sp. u., but having the 
antennal style 2-segmented. 

In this case the type is distinctly of the genus Thrips, and 
closely allied to T.Jiavus, Schr,, and this as well as Physo- 
thrips albipes are named in the genus Physothrips as well as 

27* 



400 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thysanoptera, 

in Thrips to avoid confusion by other workers wbo may 
receive only one or otlier of the two forms. Further material 
may enable us to write upon this curious piiase, so far only 
noticed in Japanese material. 

Ti/pe. Hope Department of Zooloi^v, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Hah. Japan, Kobe ; 1 $ with T. flavidus, sp. n., June 
19lD {J. E. A. Leiois). 



c. PaUipennis group. 

Pht/sothri'ps pallipes, sp. n. 

? . — Length 1*1-1*3 mm. 

Head and thorax brown lightly tinged with grey, abdomen 
bhtck-brown. Antennal joints 1 grey-brown, 2 brown, 
3 clear yellow, 4 to 8 brown, with 4 yellowish at extreme 
base and 5 inclined to be lighter at base. Legs yellow, the 
fore-femora lightly and the intermediate and hind femora 
more strongl}' shaded with grey-brown. Outer margin of 
the fore and intermediate tibiae shaded with grey-brown, and 
the hind tibias with grey in some specimens. Fore-wings 
dark smoky-grey, basal fourth light grey. 

Head about 0*G5 as long as broad, broadest across cheeks 
•which are gently arched; eyes large, coarsely facetted, pilose. 
Ocelli large, anterior one protected by a pair of rather short 
.«5etpe. Aniennfe about 2'5 times as long as the head ; joints 
3 and 4 fusiform ; relative lengths of joints as follows : — 
18 : 32 : 48 : 45 : 30 : 42 : 5 : 5. 

Prothorax about 1*2 times as long as the head, about 0"7 
as long as broad ; surface sparingly setose ; hind margin 
depressed ; bristles at posterior angles stout, rather short, 
not much more than 0'4 the length of the prothorax. Setag 
on fore-wings rather long ; three widely spaced setae in 
distal half of upper vein ; lower vein with a series of 15-18 
and costa with about 30. 

Apical abdominal bristles moderately long, a short dorsal 
pair on segment 9 ; posterior margin of tergite 8 with a short 
irregular fringe. 

Easily separated from P. vulyatlssimus {palUjjeruiis) by 
the coloration of body, legs, and wings. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 



Mr. R. S. B;i^ii;ill on new Thi/sanoptera. 401 

llah. Japan, Kobe Ilunida ; on clirvsaiitlieiiiutii, 1j. xi. l;'), 
Reg. 128 and 12'J ; Kobe, vi. la/ U<'<r. 125 (/. E. A. 
Leivi.s). 

Phi/sothrlps iillji'pes, sp. ii. 

? . — Exactly the same as Tlirips albipes, Bagn., Init willi 
the aiiteniial style 2-segiueiitetl. iSoinewliat closely related 
to P. pallipes, sp. d. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Hub. Jatan, with T/in'p.i al/iipeSyBii^n., Okinawa, Luchu 
Isl., on nasluitium, v. I'.j ; Kobe, vii. 13 [J. E. A. Lewis). 

Dendrothrips sexmaculatas, sp. n. 

? . — Length 0-G to 7 mm. 

Like J), der/eeri, Uz., but smaller, approaching 1). salta- 
tn\v, (Jz., in size. 

Head, protliorax, pterothorax, and abdominal segments 1, 
and 7 to 9 dark chestnut-brown ; abdominal segment 10 
lighter, 2 and 3 grey-brown, 3 posteriorly and -4 to G light 
}ello\v to greyish-yellow, the latter three segments each with 
a pair of dark brown spots. Wings dark grey with the 
distal tifth (0'2) white or clear. Legs brown to grey-brown, 
liind tibiae inclined to be lighter; all tarsi yellowish. 

Surface of head near base irregularly striate, inclined 
towards reticulation ; protliorax sparingly and minutely 
setose. Antennai about 2*5 times the length of the head. 
{Segment 1 light grey-brown, short ; 2 dark chestnut-brown, 
globular, bigger and much broader than any of the others ; 

3 and i yellowish, with the slightest tinge of grey ; 5 greyish- 
yellow shading to grey distally ; 6 to 8 grey-brown ; 3 and 

4 subequal, relative lengths of segments 4 to 8 approximately 
as follows : — 10 : 11 : 11 : 4 : 4 ; — G narrowing to style and 
narrower than 5, not divided. 

Separated from fJ. degeeri, Uz., by the white band at base 
of wings, the entire sixth antenna! joint, the coloration of 
antennae and body, and the smaller size; and from JJ. s(dta- 
iri.v, Uz., by the white band at base of wing, the shorter 
intermediate antennal joints, and the coloration of body, &c. 

Ti/pe. British Museum of Natural History. 

JIab. Ceylon, Peradeniya, No. 47/13 (^1. Rulherjord) 
per the Bureau of Entomology. Reg. no. 240. 



402 Mr. R. S. Bagnall oti neic Tlnjsanoptera. 

Genus Euch^tothrips, nov. 

Head not quite as lonjr as broad, broadest anteriorly ; 
vertex broadly rounded, witli antennre seated below ; a dorso- 
lateral hump or prominence behind each eye. Maxillary palpi 
apparently 3-jointcd. Antennae with single-jointed style, 
7-jointed. 

Prothorax about as long as the head, a pair of long mid- 
lateral bristles as well as those at posterior angles ; antero- 
viarginal setce rather long. Wings as in Thrips s. s. Outer 
margins of all tibice with a pair of long outstanding slender 
hairs or bristles near apices and one or two, not quite so long, 
near middle. 

AbJomen sharply narrowed from segment 8 to apex, 
terminal bristles long and strong. 

Nearest Thrips (Bagnallia group), but characterized at 
once by the italicized features in above diagnosis. 

Type. Thrips hrdli, Schille. 

Genus Thrips s. s. 
a. Flavus group. 

Thrips flavidus , sp. n. 

? . — General colour, shape, and size as in Thrips flavus, 
Sch. (as described by Uzel). Antennas about 2'5 times as 
long as the head ; tirst joint white, 2 deep yellow tinged 
with grey; 3 lighter yellow with distal third grey-brown; 
4 dark grey-brown, yellow basally ; 5 dark grey-brown with 
basal three-fifths (0*6) sharply light yellow; 6 dark grey- 
brown, inclined to be yellowish basally in some specimens ; 
style dark grey-brown. Relative lengths of segments 3 to 7 
as follows :— 30 : 28 : 20 : 28 : 7. 

Prothorax about as long as head, more transverse than in 
flavus; setge at hind angles shorter than in T. flavus (16 as 
to 23). Apical abdominal setse much as in T. flavus, but 
relatively shorter. 

^ . — Smaller and more slender, whitish. Antennal joint 
6 with the basal two-fifths (0"4) distinctly yellow. Eighth 
tergite with a weakly arcuate series of long slender setse. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Bab, Japan, Kobe, June 1915 (/. Z. A. Leiois). 



J^fr. R. S. Bagnall on new ThysanopUra. 403 

b. P/ii/sopus group. 

Thrips griseus, sp. n. 

? . — Size and general lorm as in T. physopus. 

Dark grey to grey-brown; fore-tibiiu liglit yellow shaded 
on llieir outer margins with grey-brown ; all tarsi yellowish ; 
fore-wings entirely grey, hind-wings ligliter. Antennaj giey- 
brown, joint 3 yellowish and 4 brownish-yellow basally. 
5 lighter at extreme base. 

Head as in T. phi/sopus, transverse, with cheeks widest 
behind eyes and thence converging to base. Ocelli rather 
large. Antennje much as in T. physopus, but with the inter- 
mediate joints comparatively stouter; relative lengths of 
joints 3 to 7 approximately as follows : — 20 (with stem) : 
17 : 12 : 19 : 6. 

Prothorax wider than and at least as long as the head, 1"7 
times as broad as long ; bristles at hind angles moderately 
long and stout, 045 the length ot" the prothorax. Legs 
moderately stout, hind tibice with a double row of six S[)ines 
to apex within. Seta3 on costa and veins of fore-wings as in 
2\ physoptuSf dark. 

Bristles at a'pex of abdomen dark, long and strong, twice 
as long as tlie segments carrying them ; a short and not very 
strong dorsal pair on segment 9. Posterior margin of 
tergite 8 with a short frmge, the cilia apparently running 
in pairs ; segment 10 divided above. 

Sharply distinguished from T. pkysopus by the coloration 
and form of antennas, and the colour generally. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 

Ilab. Japan, 2 ? s, Kobe, vi. 15 (/. E. A. Lewis). 

Suborder TuBULIFERA. 

Family Idolothripidae. 

Genus GiGANTOTUiiirs, Zimmermann. 

1900. Gigantothrips, Zimmermann, Bull, de I'lust. Bot. de Buitenzorg, 

No. vii. 
1908. Piinurothn'ps, Bagnall, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland 

& Durham, n. s. iii. p. 208. 

Gigantothrips gracilis, Bagnall. 
Panurothrips gracilis, Bagnall, /. c. p. 203 (1908). 
This species is clc^ely relately to G igantothrips elegans, 



404 Mr. E. S. Bagnall on neto Thysanoptera. 

Zimm., but compared witli specimens of the latter in my 
collection [ex et teste Karny), gracilis is larger and has the 
tube very noticeably longer, about 0*5 as long again as in 
elegans (18 : 12) ; viz., in gracilis about as long as the 
abdominal segments 7-8 together, and in elegans about 0*75 
the length of those segments. 

Genus Elaphrothrips, BufFa. 

Jdolothn'ps, Hinds, Bapnall, and others. 
Elaphrothrips, BuU'a, liedia, v. p. W2 (1909). 

Genus Tdolothrips, Haliday. 

Idolothrips, Fro{?gatt, Troc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1904, pt. 1. 
Acanthinothrijjs, Bagnall, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland & 
Durham, n. s. iii. p. 207 (1008) (and others). 

Mr. Froggatt is undoubtedly right in assigning Idolothrips 
marginata and spectrum as ? and (^ of the one species, and 
1 ^Yithdraw' anything I may have written in 1908 on that 
point. I do not agree with him, however, in that /. lacertina, 
Hal., is a "smaller and more variable form of the cj" 
{spectrum). Regarding the female viargiiiata as the geno- 
type of Idolothrips^ I erected the genus Acanthinothrips for 
the strongly characterized species spectrum, but being sexes 
of one species they must be placed in the genus Idolothrips, 
and the Idolothrips of most modern authors must be known 
as Elaphrothrips. The females of the two genera are very 
much alike. 

Idolothrips marginata, IIalida3\ 

1852. Idolothrips marginata, Haliday in Walker, Homopt. Ins. Brit. 

Mus. p. 1096. 
1852. Idolothrips spectrum, Haliday in Walker, Homopt. Ins. Brit. 

Mus. p. 1097. 
1904. Idolothrips spectrum, Froggatt (with marginata ( 9 ) aiid lacei'- 

tina as synonyms), Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. pt. 1, p. 54. 

I. marginata, being the first used, would seem to be the 
name by which this species should be known. 

Idolothrips lacertinay Haliday. 

1852. Idolothrips lacertina, Haliday, /. c. p. 1097. 

1904. Idolothrips spectrum (in part), Froggatt, /. c. pt. 1, p. 54. 

The <^, apart from being noticeably much smaller and 
more slender than the S of marginata, widely and constantly 



Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thtjitanoptera. 405 

differs in the structure of the lateral al)doinii)al j)rocesses, as 
may be seen by the accoinpaiiyiu"^ table and rough figures. 



rncess 
(111 
^ ineut 



/. spectrum, ^ . 

A • 4. Approximate leiis-th 

Approximate 'Jl u • *i 

-^^ - - of spine or bristle 



leiiffth of 
process. 



compared with 
length of process. 

5 times as long as Spiiie 

breadth at apex. 0*3 as long. 
4"5 ,, ,, Spine 

about 0'-4') as long. 
4 ,, „ Slender spine 

0'8 as long. 

3 ,, „ Bristle 

3-0 as long, 
3-5 „ „ Bristle 

2'5 as long. 

4 „ „ Spine 

about 0"o as long. 
5"G „ „ Spine 

about 0-35 as long. 



I. lacertina, J 



Length of 
process. 



Length of 

spine or 

bristle. 



As long as breadth Spine 

at apex. 20 as long. 

About 2'0 as long. Bristle-spine 

3-0 a.s long. 
About 1"5 as long. Bristle 

6'0 as long. 
As long. Bristle 

6'0 as long. 
Slijrhtly longer Bristle 

than. G"0 as long. 

About 2"0 as long. Bristle 

4*0 as long. 
Spine 
About 2'5 as long, about as long. 



Fior, L 



Tis. 2, 







Fig. 1. — Idolothrips marginata, Hal., c?. 
Fig. 2. — Idolothrips lacertina, Hal., J . 

Left lateral processes of second (a), third (b\ and eighth (c) 
abdominal segments. 



406 Mr. R. S. BagiiiiU on new Thysanoptera. 

In lacertina the head is sliorter compared to its breadth 
and the genal spines are fewer, shorter, and less strong than 
in inarginata {($), whilst the third antennal joint is approxi- 
mately as long (compared to 1'25 times as long in inarginata) 
as the length of head behind eyes. The surface-setse of tube 
are, on the other hand, slightly longer and stronger com- 
pared to the breadth of the tube than in marginata. 

I have an abundant material of these interesting insects, 
chiefly through Mr. Kelly's kindness, and hope in the near 
future to make close descriptions of the two species. 

Family Megathripidse. 

This family will probably have to be reduced as a sub- 
family of Idolothripidse. 

Megathrips quadrituberculatus (Bagnall) *. 

1908. Idohthrips quadrituberculatus, Bagnall, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Northumberland & Durham, n. s. iii. p. 210, pi. vii. fig. 9. 

A female example sent to me by Mr. Lewis in 1912 is 
certainly the species I described as Idolothrips i-tuberculatus ; 
the tube is present and suggests that the species is a Mega- 
thripid. In 1915 I received a ($ Megathrips wiiich despite 
certain colour-differences is presumably the S of the same 
species. 

? . — Length (including tube) 5*0 mm. 

Sixth antennal joint (not described in type) with basal 
half yellow ; 7 and 8 black. Antenna twice as long as the 
head (which latter is very slightly produced beyond eyes) ; 
very slender, excepting the two basal joints ; relative lengths 
of joints 3 to 8 as follows :— 64 : 53 : 43 : 32 : 17 : 15. Joint 2 
constricted near base and curved outwards. 

Tube long, 1*8 as long as the head, slightly curved up- 
wards before apex ; about 6 times as long as broad near 
base, and with tip about 0"45 as broad as at base ; sparingly 
furnished with fine backwardly directed set?e. Bristles at 
apex broken off. 

(J. — Length (including tube) 4*5 mm. 
A darker specimen than the ? . Fore-tibias brown ex- 
cepting at apex and basally ; intermediate tibiae brown except 

* In a footnote to a paper on some Japanese Thysanoptera Dr. Karny 
mentions eight then-known species, and refers to this as Idolothrips 
tuberculatus. I mention this error to avoid confusion, as Hood has 
described an Idolothrips under that name from U.S.A. 



Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new 'ihysanoptera. 



407 



at apex, and liiiicl tibi«? brown except tlie extreme base and 
distal tliiid which are yellow. Antennai more than twice as 
long as the iiead ; relative lengths of joints 3 to 8 as follows : — 
61 : 50 : 45 : 33 : 10 : 14. 

Abdominal segment G furnished with a pair of lateral 
spine-like tubiform processes at anterior angles, slightly out- 
wardly directed but scarcely curved, and not quite reaching 
the line of the posterior margin ; 8 with a pair of lateral 
toolh-like processes near posterior angles. 

Tube about 1*5 times as long as head, stout near base but 
sharply constrictetl in the lirat fourth ; more strongly setose 
(and with lunger setio) than in the ? . Terminal hairs 
short. 

Ilah. Japan, Kobe, 1 ? , 1912 ; 1 cJ, April 1915, tho 
latter Reg. no. 139 {J. E. A. Leicis). 



Family PhlceothripidaB s. 1. 
a. Docessissophothrips group. 

Docessissophothrips longiceps, sp. n. 

? . — Forma aptera. Length about 5*5 mm. 
Colour deep blackish-brown, second antennal joint reddish- 
brown (rest of antennse broken off in the unique specimen) ; 
all tibiae orange-yellow, tarsi clouded with brown. 

Fi^. 3. 





Head and protliorax of Docessissophothrips longiceps, sp. u. 
A. Viewed dorsally. B. Viewed laterally. 

Head more than 4"5 times as long as the prothorax and 
2'7 times as long as broad at middle ; dorsum gently arched 
in ])roiile. Eyes small, finely facetted, not prominent; post- 
ocular bristle apparently absent. 

Fore-margin of prothorax strongly emarginate ; bristles 
moderately long, colourless. Pterothorax short; wings 
absent. 



403 Mr. E. S. Bagnall on neiv Thysanoptera. 

Abdomen nuicli as in D. major ; tube long, about 0'72 tlie 
length of the head, about 5"0 times as long as broad near 
base, narrowed in the distal fifth, the apex being about 0*6 
as wide as near base ; surface sparsely and minutely setose. 

At once separated from D. major by the length of the head, 
the non-prominent eyes, and the coloration of the tibiae. 

Type. British Museum of Natural History. 

Ilah. 1 ? , Madeira ( Wollaston). 

This makes the sixth species of the genus, eacli as yet 
known from but a single examp'e. Ignoring D. monstrosus, 
which becomes the type of a new genus characterized below, 
the remaining five species fall into two well-defined groups 
as follows : — 

1. Length 3*0 mm. or under, head shorter and broader, less 
than twice as long as broad ; containing ampliceps, Bagn., and 
laficeps, Bagn. 

2. Length more than 5*0 mm., head longer and 2 to 3 
times as long as broad ; containing major, li&gx^., frontalisf 
Bagn., and lonc/iceps, sp. u. 

Genus EGCHOCEPIIALOTHRirS, nov. 

Separated from Docessissophothrips, Bagn., by the extreme 
form of the head which, viewed dorsall}', is as figured in the 
original description of D. 7nonstrofius. It is extraordinarily 
adpressed and, viewed dorsally, represents the end view of a 
stoutish *' plate," with a slight swelling (representing the 
cheeks) on each side of the marked carina. 

Type. Docessissophothrips monstrosus, Bagnall. 

b. Trichothr'ips group. 

(Edemothr'ips (?) propmqnus, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 1"8 mm. 

Colour brown, the last 4 or 5 abdominal segments darker. 
Legs yellowish shaded with light grey-brown. First 
antennal joint light yellowish-brown, 2 slightly darker, 
3 brown with basal half clear yellow, 4 and 5 brown with 
basal thirds yellowish, 6 to 8 totally brown. 

Almost the same as (Edemotlirips (?) hrevicollis, Bagn. 
(Japan) in general form. Tiie head is not quite so markedly 
convergent behind, the prothorax is not so short compared to 
its breadth, and the tube is stouter. 



Mr. R. S. HagiKiU on new Thysanojitera. 409 

Antonnne al)Out 2*-i times the length of tlie liead ; relativo 
len^tli.s of joints \\ to 8 ai)|)roxiiiuitci}- : — 31 : 21> : 28 : 2-i : 
11) : U. 

Prutliorax about twice a.s broad as long ; sette at posterior 
angles widely spaced, somewhat short and stout ; the outer 
longer than the inner, about 0"4: the length of the prothorax. 

Tube short and stout, about 0*D as long as the head ; 1*45 
times as long as broad at base, and 0*4.5 as broad at tip as at 
base; terminal bristles light colourcii, about 0'7 the length 
of the tube. 

Yory closely allied to hrevicolHa, but at once recognized by 
the coloration of the body and the antennae. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 

Oxford. 

Ilah. Australia, Badger Weir, Healesville, Victoria ; 
1 ? on clover, 6. iv. 15, Ufg. 120 (i?. Kelly). 

c. f.eptothrips group. 

Gyuaikotlirips uzeli (Zimmermann). 

1909. Leptothrips Jlavicornis, Bagnall, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Xor- 
tliuniberland & Durham, u. s. iii. pt. 2, p. o'lS, pi. xiv. figs. 6-8 (from 
Madeira). 

1909. Phlnothrips lonr/ititbns, Bagnall, /. c. n. s. iii.pt. 2, p. 534, pi. xiv. 
ti-rs. 21 & 22 vfroiu"java). 

1910. Leptot/in'psjiavicornis, Bagnall, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. liv. p. 464 
(from D'cus cnrnosa, Madeira). 

1910. Leptothrips lonijitubus, Baguall, /. c. liv. p. 4G4 (rectification of 
generic position). 

I have long been aware of the identity of the Madeirair 
Leptothrips fiavicornis and the Javanese L. longituius with 
Marchal's F liloeothrips jicoruvi from Algeria, and I was 
surprised that the above were not included in Hood's lengthy 
list of synonyms in Insecutor Inscitue Menstruus (1912, i. 
p. 153). I was under the mistaken impression, however, 
that 1 had published a note on the synonyujy, and now rectify 
the OQiission. 



d. IJaplothrips group. 

Cephafothrips hLspatiicnSj sp. n. 

9 . — Forma aptera. Length 1'3 to 1*4 mm. 
Grey-brown, head and first two antennal joints chestnut- 
brown ; fore-femora yellowish at inner margin, fore-tibiic 



410 Mr. R. S. Bagaall on new Thysanoptera. 

yellow clouiled with grey to grey-brown basally and along 
outer margin; intermediate and hind tibiaj shading to yellow 
distally; all tarsi yellowish with brown spot. Antennal 
joint 3 lemon-yellow, 4 to 6 yellowish to light brownish- 
yellow ; 7 and 8 light brown. 

Head about 1"3 times as long as wide across eyes, widest 
just below the middle ; cheeks broadly arched ; eyes slightly 
protruding, coarsely facetted, occupying about 0*35 the total 
length o£ head and each about 0'25 the breadth. Vertex 
raised ; ocelli large, posterior pair on a line across the 
anterior third of eyes ; anterior ocellus forwardly directed ; 
postocular setae short, inconspicuous. Antennje about 1*7 
times the length of head, rather stout; joint 3 obconical, 
narrower than 2 or 3 to 5, 6 and 7 somewhat broadly and 
7 and 8 broadly united ; relative lengths of segments ap- 
proximately as follows : — 8 : 15 : 14 : 15 : 16 : 15 : 12 : 8. 
Mouth-cone reaching about 0*7 across prosternum ; apex 
blunt; joint 1 of maxillary palpus short, about 0'2 the 
length of 2. 

Prothorax about 0*75 the length of head and about twice 
as broad as long. All set^e present, colourless and therefore 
difficult to discern ; the pair at posterior angles largest, 0*4 
the length o£ prothorax. Pterothorax sligiitly broader than 
width across fore-coxae, about as long as broad ; wings 
absent; legs rather short and stout; fore-tarsus with a 
minute, sharp, but broad-seated tooth. 

Abdomen not much broader than pterothorax; elongate; 
roundly narrowed from segment 7 to base of tube. Tube 
about as long as the prothorax, 0'65 as broad at apex as at 
base, sides gently and evenly narrowed from near base ; 
terminal hairs about as long as tube, colourless except for 
basal tiiird or tliereabouts. Abdominal seta3 on segment 9 
about 08 the length of tube, other sette shorter; all colourless 
and inconspicuous. Wing-retaining sstai on tergites 2 
to 7. 

Separated from C. monilicornis (Renter) by the smaller 
size, shape, and coloration of the antennae, and the siiape and 
modest or normal proportions of the head. It should be 
noted that the Cephalothrips yuccce of Hinds cannot be re- 
garded as congeneric with monilicornis or hispanicus. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. 



Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Tliysanoptera. 411 

Ilah. Spain, Zara^osa ; 2 ?3 collected (with other inter- 
esting Thysatinptera) by the well-known neuropterist, Father 
Navas, IS.J., 6. iv. IW. 

Rhopahthrips froggatti, sp. n. 

cJ . — Length about 0'75 nitn. 

Apterous ; short and broad. 

Uniform brown, distal third of fore-tibife and extreme 
apices of intermediate and hind tibiaj yellowish-white ; tarsi 
yellowish marked with Ijrown ; apex of antennal joint 2 and 
wiiole of 3 yellowish, -l and 5 a trifle lighter biown than 
6 to «. 

Head much as in R. bicolor, Hood, but with the outline of 
eyes merged in the checks ; scarcely wider at base (where it 
is widest) than long; ocelli absent; postocular bristles short, 
broad apically, apj)arently infundibuliform. Antennai short 
and stouf, about 1'7 times as long as the head, shaped as in 
R. bicolor, but joint 6 distinctly constricted at base forming 
a short stem. 

Prothorax transverse, 0*6 as long as the head, and 2*8 
times as broad as long ; all usual setae apparently present, 
colourless, short, and infundibuliform. Pterotliorax short, 
transverse, only slightly broader than the prothorax. Legs 
short and stout ; forc-tarsal tooth strong, sharp. 

Abdomen short and broad, narrowing evenly from segment 4 
to tube; segments — especially 1 to 8 — very strongly trans- 
verse ; segment 4 about 7 times and 7 about 5 times as broad 
as long. Tube very short, broad, 0*5 the length of the head, 
about 0*8 as broad at base as long and 0'6 as broad at ajiex 
as at base ; terminal hairs pointed, colourless, and about 0"6 
the length of the tube. Abdominal setic short, colourless, 
infundibuliform. 

Ti/pe. Hope Department of Zoology, University Jiuseum, 
Oxford. 

JIuh. Australia, Upper Mangrove, N. S.W.; 1 c? and 
larvae from glands on the foliage of the black wattle 
{Acacia decurrens), Sept. 7th, 1900 {W. W. Froggatt). 

This, the smallest described species of the suborder, is one 
of an interesting collection of Tubulilerous Thysauoptera 
(chiefly Gall-causers) made by Mr. Froggatt, ujion which 
we propose to publish a joint |)aper ; and I have chosen to 
describe it'now, firstly, that I may name it in Mr. Froggatt's 



412 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thijsanoptera. 

lionour, niul, pecondly, on account of its general interest in the 
liplit of Mr. Reginald Kelly's "^ recent ])aper " Observations 
on the Function of Acacia LeaE-glands," wherein he mentions 
that microscopic insects, some white (? larval) and others 
bro\vn, are sometimes found in the so-called *' glands.'^ 

7?. fropgatti, apart from its minuteness, may be distin- 
guished by its very broad form, the broad intermediate 
antennal joints, the very short and broad prothorax and 
abdominal segments, and the short broad tube,'&c. 



Ixhopalothrips hrunneus, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 1'25 mm. 

Apterous. Very like R. froggatti^ larger and more slender. 
Dark black-brown, fore-tibije yellow near ajjcx, other tibise 
and all tarsi as in R.Jrongntt'i. .\ntennai with joint 3 yellow 
shaded with grey, 4 and 5 light brown, yellowish basally, and 
6 with stem 3'ellowish. 

Head as in P. froggatti, about as wide as long ; antennee 
1'8 times as long as the head, intermediate antennal joints 
not so broad compared to their length as m froggatti. 

Prothorax 0'75 as long as the head and 2"25 times as broad 
as lorig. 

Abdomen elongate, roundly narrowed from segment 7 to 
base of tube ; segment 4 about 4:'5 times and 7 about 3"8 
times as broad as long. Tube about 0"75 the length of head, 
nearly twice as long as broad at base and about 0'5 as broad 
at apex as at base ; terminal hairs pointed, a little more than 
0'5 the length of the tube. 

All setae as m froggatti, but longer. 

Type. Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, 
Oxford. • 

Hdh. Australia, Victoiia, on Acacia dealbata, 2 ?s 
(R. Kelly). 

Sharply distinguished from froggatti by its larger size, 
deeper colour, the coloration and more slender form of inter- 
mediate antennal joints, the less broad form, &c. 

The coloration of hoih. froggatti and hrunneus distinguishes 
them from the genotype, R. bicolor, Hood. 

* Vict. Nat. XXX., Nov. 1913, pp. 121-127. 



I 



in 



THE ANNALS 

AMD 

MiGAZIXE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 
No. 102. JUNE 1016. 



XLVILI. — On some of Ike External Characters of 
Cryptoprocta. By R. I. Pocock, F.R.S. 

The personal observations recorded in this paper are based 
upon an adult male example of Cryptoprocta ferox that died 
in tiie Zoological Gardens on Jan. 2, 191 A. 

Although the Fossa (^Cryptoprocta), as befits its im- 
portance, has probably received more anatomical attention 
than any single genus of Carnivora, no pretext is needed 
for publishing an account of its external characters, because 
the too brief account of some of its organs by previous 
writers has led to the omission of records of interest and 
the current descriptions of a ^ew require explanation or 
correction. 

Second-hand accounts of the animal, such as are contained 
in zoological text-books and natural histories, have not been 
quoted in the following pages ; but to avoid repetition of 
titles in the text, I subjoin a list of the principal original 
memoirs dealing with its external features : — 

Bennett, Tr. Zool. Soc. London, i. pp. 137-140 (1835). 
Mihie-Edwards and Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (5) 

vii. pp. 314-336(1807). 
Schlegel and Pollen in Pollen and Van dcr Dam, ' Faune 

de Madagascar/ ii. p. 13 (1868). 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1882, pp. 193-106 and 519-520. 
Filhol, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, cxviii. p. 1060 (1891). 
Ann, (JD M(tg. N. Hist. iSer. 8. Vol. xvii. 2b 



41-4 



Mr. R. I. Pocock on some of the External 



Beddard, Pioc. Zool. Soc. 1895, pp. 430-437. 

Lciuiiberji:, Bih. Sv. Vet.-Akad. IlaiKll. xxviii. pt. 4, no. 3, 

pp. 1-10 (1902). 
Carlssou, Zool. Jalab. Syst. xxx. pp. 419-467 (1911). 

The R'iinarium and Facial Vibrissce. — When Bennett 
described the rhinarium of an immature exami)le of Cri/pto- 
pructa as small, lie gave a very erroneous idea of its appear- 
ance in the adult, althougli it must be admitted tliat his 
standard for size was not stated. As compared with the 
rhinarium of the Felidje, that of Cryptoprocta is large and 
prominent as in most Viverridae. Its inferior border in 
front is continued downwards as a naked tract dividing the 

Fig. 1. 




A. Side view of head of Cryptop-octa ferox, showing the tufts of 

facial vibrissae. The mystacials are represented as shorter 
than they are in reality, so as not to conceal the two genal 
tufts below the eye. 

B. Rhinarium seen from the front. 

upper lip, but this tract is not marked by a central and 
dilatable groove as in most Carnivores that possess it. 
There is, however, a shallow groove extending approximately 
as high as the top of the nostrils, in the middle of the 
anterior surface of the rhinarium. The nostrils are widely 
separated, and the lateral narial slits are dilated through- 
out their length. The infranarial portions are deep beneath 



Characters of Ciyptoprocta. 4 1 n 

the nostril in front — a noticeable non-feline character^ — and 
their inferior edge extends oblicinely npwards, outwards, and 
backwards, with a slightly sinuous curvature, and they are 
continued laterally beneath the narial slits to their posterior 
end. The upper margin of the rhinariura is widely rounded 
on each side, and nearly flat on the summit, but for a very 
shallow median depression. In profile the apex is prominent 
and oljtusely rounded, 

Carlsson briefly referred to the facial vibrissae, recording 
the lengths of the niystacials and the presence of others 
below the eye and on the under jaw. As a matter of fact, 
the vibrissae are of the normal type found in predatory 
Carnivores, consisting of the mystacial tuft, two genal tufts, 
and a superciliary tuft on each side and of a well-developed 
median interranial tuft below. In this respect Crypto- 
pructa agrees with the Vivenidte, Mungotidte, Ilysfiuidae, 
and other non-feline .Eiuroids, and differs from the Felidae 
in which the interramal tuft is always absent. 

Ear. — Although in his brief description Bennett recorded 
the presence of the bursa, the ear was not fully described until 
the publication of Miss Carlsson's paper, where it is pointed 
out tljat the ear does not ditter in any essential points from 
that of the Felidse. She draws particular attention to the 
complete separation of the small ''annular cartilage" from 
the rest of the ear, as in the Felidse, as compared with its 
partial severance therefrom in Genetta and Munyos. Her 
figure further shows the insertion of the posterior flap of the 
bursa behind the rim of the ear and a deep rounded notch 
in the anterior flap as in Genetta and Felis. Beyond noting 
the presence of the marginal bilaminate bursa, I did not 
critically examine the ear in my example of Cryptoprocta. 

Feet. — As Bennett originally pointed out, the feet of 
Cryptoprocta resemble those of Paradoxurus in having 
retractile claws, naked soles, and digits united nearly to 
their ends, (rood figures of the feet were ))ul)lished by 
M.-Edwards and (xraudidicr, and inexact copies of these were 
reproduced by Alivart. Additional figures, with a short 
description confirming and amplifying Bennett's account, 
were published by Carlsson. 

Since the above-quoted figures represent the digits in 
contact, I take this opportunity of issuing new illustrations 
to facilitate comparison with the figures (;f the feet of other 
/Eluroidsl havepublished elsewhere; and the description that 
follows contains references to some interesting structural 
features not touched upon by previous authors. 

Tiie fore foot is broader than the hind foot and has moru 

28* 



ua 



jMr. R. T, Pocock on some of the E.vlenial 



powprFul claws. The claws are retractile in the sense that 
tlio terniiiial plialaiix can l)e withdrawn along the outer side 
of the lUMiuItiinatc phalanx, l)ut there are no lobes of skin 
constitntiiig i)rotective sheaths to the claws thns retracted. 
Altlioiijili the webs extend at least up to the proximal ends 
of the digital pads, the digits are capable of considerable 

Fijf. 2. 




A B 

A. Left fore foot with digits spread. pL, pollical lobe of plantar pad; 

c, double carpal pad ; v., carpal vibrissa?. 

B. Left hind foot with dig-its partially spread, hi, hallucal lobe of 

plantar pad ; int., double metatarsal pads. 

and subequal distension. The webs are quite naked beneath. 
Tiie poUex is comparatively long. The plantar pad is 
(juadrilobate, but the pollical lobe,, set behind the postero- 
internal angle of the internal lateral lobe, is relatively to 



I 



Characters of Cry ptoprocta. 4 1 7 

the other lobes considerably smaller than in Paradoxurus 
{Par/uina) larvatu.t. The c(ij,'e of the three main lobes, 
although sinuously curved, may be (le^cribcd as semicircular 
in a broad sense. Behind the plantar pad there is a niediaa 
depressed smooth area, flankecl by the two moieties of the 
carpal pad, tlie inner edges of which converge posteriorly 
and meet. The outer moiety, narrowed distally, where it 
abuts against the external lateral lobe of the plantar pad, 
is both longer and wider than the inner moiety, which is not 
narrowed anteriorly where it similarly abuts against the 
pollical lobe of the plantar pad. The two moieties of the 
carpal pad taken together are longer than the plantar pad 
and almost as wide as it. Above the proximal end of the 
carpal pad there is a tuft of carpal vibrissae. 

In general features the hin([ foot, so far as the claws, 
digital and jilantar pads are concerned, resembles the fore 
foot, except that the claws are a little shorter, the hallucal 
lobe is larger than the pollical lobe, and the third and fourth 
digital pads are tied much more closely together, though 
not actually conHuent as in Paradoxurus and Arctictis. The 
lieel itself is hairy, but the metatarsal area is quite naked 
and provided with two broad metatarsal pads or ridges, 
separated by a median depression which extends distally 
from the plantar pad, but is proximally cut off from the 
hairy area of the heel by the broad confluence of the two 
metatarsal ridges. The inner of these two ridges is broadly 
in contact distally with the hallucal lobe. It is much 
shorter than the external ridge, which touches the plantar 
pad distally and proximally expands where it runs up against 
the hairy area of the heel. 

The feet above described are essentially Paradoxurine in 
type, and do not differ more from the feet of Paradoxurus 
than the latter differ from those of Arctictis or Arctoynlidia. 
They are not Hemigaline and most emphatically they are 
not Viverrine, Eupkriue, Galidictine, Mungotine, or Feline. 
They differ, indeed, from the feet of the Felidie as profoundly 
as the feet of any yEluroid differ therefrom. 

The resemblance between the feet of Cryptoprocta and 
Paradoxurus cannot be attributed to close affinity between 
the two genera. It must be explained as the mutual 
inheritance of a primitive feature. 

The Anal Sac and Glands. — The area between the root 
of the tail and the scrotum forms a vertically elliptical 
thickened elevation which is closely hairy at the sides, less 
closely towards the middle, and then quite naked. In the 
middle of the naked area there i'i a deep ovate naked 



418 Mr. I?. I. Pocock on some of the External 

depression, at the lower end of which is situated the anus 
with its tumid marjiins (fig;, 3, B, C). From the lower end 
of the tumid margin of the anus a cutaneous ridge, called 
the frenum by Bennett, extends to the lower edge of 
the depression. This depression in the anal sac in a 
general way resembles that of the mongooses, except that 
the anus is placed near the bottom edge of the sac, so that 
much the greater part of the sac lies above the anus. The 
point is of interest, because in the hyuenas the whole of the 
anal sac is above the anus. Thus Cryptoprocta, with 
respect to this character, connects in a measure the anal 
sac of the mongooses with tliat of the hyaenas. Neverthe- 
less, the sac in Oryptoprocta is, on the wliole, more like 
that of the mongooses, because the anus lies within the 
depression, and the thickened edges of the latter close 
completely over the anus, meeting to form a transverse rima 
when the tail is lowered (fig. 3, A, as.). 

Mivart was, I believe, the first author to mention the 
anal glands of Cryptoprocta. In his enumeration of the 
characters of this genus (P. Z. S. 1882), he wrote (p. 196) : 
" One pair of anal glands ? ^' But subsequently he asserted 
(p. 520) : ^' There are constantly two anal glands, one on 
each side of the anus, in all ^luroids. The glandular 
structure may be a transverse band of follicles extending 
between the two anal glands as in (at least some) Herpestes, 
Crocuta, and Proteles. The anal glands may be augmented to 
three pairs as in Hycena brunnea, or even to five pairs, as in 
Crossarchu^. These glands, together with the anus, may 
open into a deep anal pouch, as in the Hysenidte, Crossarchus^ 
Suricata, and Cryptoprocta . . . ." Nevertheless, from the 
text of his two papers in the volume quoted, it is quite 
evident that Mivart had liad no opportunity of examining 
the anal glands of Cryptoprocta. His statement regarding 
them must therefore have been a pure inference. 

Carlsson dismissed the anal glands as follows : — " Die 
glandulse anales sind 2, die wie bei einigeu Herpestes- 
Formen (Mivart, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 520) durch eine un- 
paarige Partie miteiuander zusammenhangen." It does not, 
however, appear from this passage whether the information 
it contains is based upon what Mivart said or upon her own 
observations. But it is noticeable that there is neither a 
reference to the position of the orifices of the glands, nor 
does her figure of the anal sac indicate that point, which is 
of importance in view of the very unusual position of these 
orifices in Hyana, Proteles. and to a lesser extent in some 
mongooses. 



Characters of Cryptoprocta. 



4h^ 



Fig. 3. 



k 




A. Inferior view of anal and genital organs of ma'e. /., root of tail ; 

as., anal sac closed ; sc, scrotum ; p., penis ■withdrawn and 

showing as a subcutaneous thickening ; /w., orifice of prepuce. 
li. Anal sac in centre of devated area, as seen from behind when the 

tail (t.) is raised ; sc, scrotum beneath elevated anal area. 
C . Anal sac partially op<-ned, showing its smooth thickened rim and 

the anus {a.) in its inferior portion. 



420 -Ml. H.I. Pocock o)t some of the E.dernal 

L'timbcrg also, althougli lie examined the aual sac c:ire- 
fully, is s-ilent about these glands. But he described a pair 
of valvular orifices opening one on each side of the midd'e 
line close to the inferior margin of the pouch below the 
anus (fig. 4, F, d.). Each orifice leads into a saccular 
diverticulum which extends beneath the integument in a 
dorso-hiteral direction beneath and on the sides of the anus 
and also inferioily, where their position is marked externally 
by a pair of small, hairy, scrotum-like swellings below the 
inferior edge of the pouch on the perineal region (fig. 4, F, /.). 

Since LiJnnbcrg discovered no normal anal glands, it 
appears to me that these paired diverticula must represent 
them. In that case they differ from the anal glands of 
other ^hiroids in liaving their orifices widely diluted and 
placed side by side below the anus, as well as in the sub- 
cutaneous extension of the saccular portion of the gland. 
If these structures described by Lonnberg are the anal 
glands referred to by Carlsson, it is singular that the latter 
author failed to mention the peculiarities above recorded. 
If they are not the anal glands of other ^luroids, they 
must be interpreted as a special modification of the anal 
sac, peculiar to Cryptoprocla. 

In the specimen I examined, of which the skin had to be 
left intact, I could not find the orifices of the anal glands 
in the normal position ; and, not having read Lonnberg^s 
paper at the time, I did not look below the anus for the 
orifices of the diverticula he discovered. 

Lonnberg, however, so far as I can ascertain, did not 
dissect the anal pouch, and he speaks of his material as 
" not very well preserved," adding "the function of these 
jjouches is quite difficult to understand or explain .... 
There were no contents to be seen and no large glands 
could be detected. It is, however, possible that the sur- 
rounding walls contain small glands, the secretion of which 
is stored up in the pouch." From this it appears that he 
did not consider these pouches as the homologues of tlie 
true anal glands, but as secondary reservoirs for secretion 
emitted, presumably, by the walls of the anal sac *. 

Further testimony of the existence of aual glands in 
Cryploprocta and of the offensiveness of their secretion is 
supplied by two independent sources. Telfair, as quoted by 

* Owing probably to an oversight, neither of Lonnberg's figures of the 
anal .sac show.s the aims, allliough, both in the text of his paper and in 
the legend of the plate, tig. '2 i.s stated to represent the *' circumanal 
poucli more open, so that the constricted anus can be seen," as well as 
the op'.'niugs into the " subfrenal pouch " (saccular diverticula). 



Characters of Cryj)to|)rocta. 



421 




A. I.atPial view of glans penis protruded from prepuce (^-r-), its dorsal 

fcide upptrujost. cl , smooth davate portion ; o., anterior, and 
p., posterior portion of s, icular thickening. 

B. Inferior view of glans penis with preputial sheath (pr.) cut down the 

middle line and turned aside, o., orifice of urethra; other 
lettering as in A ; the two Haps of the anterior thickening (a) 
almost closed. 

C. Portion of glans penis showing the two flaps of the anterior part of 

the spicular thickening {a) spread opeu. 
1). Dorsal view of glans penis ; lettering as in A. 
K. Two of the spicules- enlarged. 
F. Anal and genital area of young female, adapted from I.iinnbei-g's 

figures and descriptions, c/., clitoris | rotruding from vulva (v.) ; 

/..hairy swelling in front of anal pouch (a.*.), containing the 

anu.« (a.) and the pair of diverticula {d.). 

(.Ml \ nat. f-ize. except fig. I'.) 



422 Mr. R. I. Pocock on some of the External 

Gray, says that tlie Fossa " has an anal pouch, and when 
violently enrajrcd emits a most disagreeable smell, very 
like that of Mephitis" ; and, according tol'ollen, the natives 
of ^ladagascar declare that, when prowling round the 
chicken-pens at night, the animal gives out a fetid odour 
which instantly kills the fowls. Though doubtless an 
exaggeration, this statement probably reflects the experience 
of the natives of the disgusting, very likely suffocating, 
nature of the scent described by Telfair. 

The External Genitalia. — The scrotum is large as in 
mongooses and most ^luroids, not small as in Hyaenas. 
The remarkable penis of Cryptoprocta was described and 
figured by Grandidier and Milne-Edwards and by Carlsson. 
But the brevity of the descriptions and my inability to 
reconcile them with my own observations suggest that the 
organ was imperfectly examined by these authors. I pro- 
pose, therefore, to describe it at some length before 
attempting to point out the discrepancies betAveen the 
observations of the French and Swedish authors and my 
own. 

The penis is of great length, and in a state of rest the 
glans is concealed within a sheath attached throughout its 
length to the abdominal integument, the orifice of the pre- 
puce opening as far forwards on the abdomen as in the 
Hysenidae (fig. 3, A). The skin in front of the prepuce is 
naked, the prepuce itself and area adjoining it being scantily 
hairy. 

The glans, lying within the preputial sheath, is of unusual 
length for the iEluroidea, and, as has been recorded by 
other authors, is provided with a long curved bone reaching 
from the tip almost as far back as the attachment of the 
skin of the prepuce. The curvature of this bone imparts a 
dorso-ventral curvature to the glans. The distal portion of 
the glans is everywhere quite smooth for about a third of its 
length and the smooth area is cylindrical posteriorly, but 
exhibits a marked expansion, more marked laterally than 
dorso-ventraily, towards its distal end, but it narrows again 
before the tip which is blunt. The orifice of the urethra 
opens just beneath the tip. 

Behind the smooth part the glans is enormously swollen, 
especially laterally, and this swollen area shows a transverse 
constriction and is, for the most part, thickly beset with 
curved sharp spinules, the points of which are directed 
backwards ; but in the dorsal middle line the shaft or axis of 
the glans is smooth, except quite at the anterior end of the 
swollen portion. The swollen part — at all events, when the 



Characters o/Cryptoprocta. 423 

glans is unerected — is grooved and more or less folded, 
sujigesting considerable capacity for expansion ; and these 
folds are jjarticnlarly wcU-devclopcd on the anterior portion 
in front of the constriction. The structure of this portion 
is peculiar. In its posterior portion it forms a median 
inferior angular flap, with the apex directed forwards, and in 
front of this flap the swollen portion consists of a pair of 
thick flaps or lamina; which are directed inferiorly and con- 
stitute together a sort of half collar or half sheath round the 
posterior continuation of the smooth portion of the glans. 
These two thick flaps or lamina; are cai)ai)le of meeting in 
the middle line inferiorly in front of the a|)ex of the 
triangular flap or of being ^Yidely separated laterally. Their 
inner surface sliows a few spicules near the margin, but for 
the most part this surface is smooth, as also is the middle 
of the axis of the glans which they overlap. The three 
flaps, combined with the median axis of the adjacent portion 
of the glans, enclose a space which is probably highly 
glandular in the living animal (fig. 4, A-D). 

In the light of the facts recorded above, Milne-Ed wards's 
description of the penis requires amplification and correction. 
He speaks of the distal end of the penis, with its bone, as 
forming a very pronounced projection in front and as passing 
greatly beyond the orifice of the urethra. From this, in the 
first place, it is quite clear that he did not detect this orifice 
just beneath the tip of the glans where the bone ends; and, 
in the second place, it is probable that he regarded the 
channel between the axis of the glans and the two anterior 
laminae of the spicular thickening as the orifice of the 
uretlira. He did not, therefore, perceive that this thickening, 
which he correctly designates " la portion renflee du gland," 
consists of two separable laminse ; nor did he notice ap- 
parently that the dorsal surface of the glans is smooth 
almost throughout its extent in the middle line. 

Carlssou^s figure of the glans shows a somewhat cucumber- 
shaped organ, the distal third of which is smooth and 
apically pointed, and the })roximal two-thirds thick and 
subcylindrical, but gradually thickening posteriorly and 
uniformly covered with spicules. Since, however, the 
examples of this genus she had for examination were 
immature and preserved in alcohol, it is needless to com- 
ment further on her brief contribution to this portion of 
their anatomy. 

The significance of the penis in the classification of the 
jEluroidea has never been properly appreciated, and since 
the penis of Cryptoproctu has been compared with that of 



4 2-4 On some External Charactera 0/ Cryptoprocta. 

tl\e Felida?, and even stated by Filliol to resemble it (R. Acad. 
Sci. Paris, exviii. p. 100*2, 1894), it is necessary to assert 
positively that no nienihor of the Felidie possesses a penis 
like that of Cryptoproda in any important characters. The 
penis in the cats is always short, the fjlaus is conical and 
spicular or smooth, the prepuce is close in front of the 
scrotum, and there is at most a small bone in the glans. 

The only zEluroid penis known to me, which, in the length 
of the glans and its armature of spicules, recalls that of 
Cryptoproda is the penis of VcKjuma and Paradoxvrus. In 
these genera the greater part of the glans is subcylindrical 
and covered with spicules above and below, but it ends in a 
short, smootb, styliform point, uponAvhich the orifice of the 
iirethra opens. This smooth-pointed termination is probably, 
I think, the homologuc of the very much larger and longer, 
smooth, clavate termination seen in Cryptoproda. Similarly, 
the undifferentiated spicular portion in Paguma is probably 
the homologuc of the very specialised spicular portion seen 
in the Mascarene animal. But, despite these somewhat 
remote resemblances, it must be remembered that the glans 
penis of Paguma and Paradoxurus, long though it be, is 
unsupported by bone, as also is the very long penis of 
Ilyana and Proteles *. 

The external genitalia of the female are no less remark- 
able than those of the male, as Lonnberg has shown (Bih. Sv. 
Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxviii. pt. 4, no. 3, 1902), The very large 
peniform clitoris is provided with a bone and armed 
anteriorly with spicules. It protrudes from a well-developed 
prepuce, about two inches in front of the anal sac, the 
urogenital orifice opens just behind the clitoris, and this 
orifice, with the prepuce and clitoris, is at the extremity of 
a conical, pendulous, and movable prominence (fig. 4, F). 
In their general arrangement these parts were compared 
both by Filhol and Lonnberg to the corresponding parts of 
Crocuta as described by Watson. No other ^luroid shows 
any special resemljlance to Cryptoproda, so far as the 
parts discussed are concerned. Certainly the Felidse 
and Mungotidse do not. 

If the current classification of the ^luroidea into Felidse, 
Viverridae, Hysenidse, and Protelidje be adhered to, there is, 
in my opinion, no escape from Mivart's opinion that CrypAo- 
procta must be ranked with the Viverridae, where Bennett 

* In connection with the long bony penis of Crypfojvocta, it is 
interesting to recall Pollen's record, made on the testimonj- of natives, 
that these animals copulate after the manner of dogs. So also do bears 
and h} SRnas. The method of cats is, of course, totallv different. 



On a new Rat /r>ni Teii'is,'<erini. A'2'> 

orif^inally placed it. The attempt made bv Milne- Edwards 
and Filliol, and. comparatively rectntly, by Trouessart, t(; 
include it in the Felithe or in a special family associated 
uith the Fclidx' must bring about an extension of the 
definition of that family or group, with the result that the 
dctinition ceases to be of scientific value. It is significant 
that no such definition was attempted. For ray part 1 quite 
agree with Lonnberg that the cross-resemblances Cnjptu- 
pructa exhibits toother families of iEluroids, coupled with 
its own peculiarities, entitle it to rank as a family by itself; 
and this family is susceptible of definition as precise as that 
of the Felidae or Hyaenidae. 



XLIX. — A neio Nat from Tenasserim. 
13y Oldfikld Thomas, 

(Published by permissiou of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Epimys ttnusteVy sp. n. 

Quite like E. cremo7-iventer, Miller, but much larger. The 
fur similarly spiny, the colour bufi'y or ochraceous with 
sharply defined under surface, and the tail similarly well 
haired, uniformly brown. 

Skull conspicuously larger than that of cremoriventer^ 
proportionally perhaps somewhat narrower. Supraorbital 
ridges well developed, evenly curved, not forming marked 
postorbital angles as in E. surifer. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the spirit-speci- 
men) : — 

Head and body 160 mm. ; tail 208 ; hind foot 33-3 ; 
ear 24. 

Skull: greatest length 42"3 ; condylo-incisive length 37*7 ; 
zygomatic breadth 18*8 ; nasals 1G"3 ; interorbital breadth 
0'8 ; breadth across parietal ridges 15"4 ; palatilar length 
17'8 ; palatal furamina 7 ; upjjer molar series 'o'h. 

Hah. Mount MuUyit, Tenasserim. Alt. 5000-6000'. 

Tijpe. Adult male. B.M. no. 88. 12. 1. r)3. Collected by 
\j. Fea, and presented by the Marquis G. Doria. 

This is one of two species put by me under the erroneous 
heading of Mus jerdonij Blytli, in my account of the Fea 
collection, the otlier being a smaller foru) recently named bv 
Mr. Miller Epimys gracilis, and closely allied to E. bulcit. 
E. tenaster appears to be only nearly related to the Malayan 
E. cremurivtnter, from which the dimensions given above will 
readily distinguish it. 



426 Mr. W. F. Griffitt Bhickler on a nei 



L. — On a new Species o/Microtus from Asia .]finor. 
By W. F. GuiFFiTj" BL.VCKLER, iM.A., F.Z.S. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Oldfield Thomas, I have 
recently had the opportunity of exainiiiing at the British 
Museum of Natural History a number of specimens of small 
mammals collected by me in Western Asia Minor a few 
years ago, and presented to the National Collection. On 
careful examination of a vole, of which three specimens were 
obtained in the vicinity of Smyrna, I have been led to the 
conclusion that they represent a new species of the genus 
Microtus, although they have at the same time a superficial 
resemblance to M. guentheri (Alst,), from Marash in Cilicia, 
and to M. hartiagi (B.-IIam.), from Thessaly, and I therefore 
propose to give it the name of : — 

Microtus li/dius, sp. n. 

Somewhat similar to the typical M. guenthet-i, but distin- 
guishable from it by its longer tail and greyish-white belly as 
well as by other minor differences. 

Description. — General colour above light fawn, presenting 
a slightly grizzled appearance on the back proper, where 
some of the hairs are tipped with black. Flanks more 
brightly coloured owing to the practical absence of black- 
tipped hairs, and slightly tinged with fulvous at the lines 
separating them from the greyish white of the underparts. 
The hairs are all slate-grey at their bases. Underpart of 
body, belly, throat, and inner sides of legs uniformly greyish 
white ; the hairs all slate-grey at their bases, and white 
distally for about a third of their length ; but, owing to the 
grey of the bases of the hairs showing through to a certain 
extent, the general appearance is greyish white to pale grey. 
In M. guentheri and in M. hartingi the greyish white of the 
underside is washed with yellow, giving it (especially in the 
former) a decided buffy appearance, which is totally absent in 
these Smyrna specimens. Ears moderate, very thinly clad 
with hairs along their outer edges. Hind feet moderately 
hairy on underside, but not nearly so much as in M. guentheri. 
Both fore and hind feet are coloured pale fawn on the upper 
side, a paler shade of the dorsal fawn-colour. Tail 
relatively short, covered with short hairs, whitish below, 
fawn above; it is roughly about one and a half times the 
length of the hind foot. 



II 



Species of M'lcwtns from Asia Minor. 427 

Skull. — It is difficult to compare this witli tliat of M.guen- 
theri^ as the skulls of both specimens of the hitter at the 
British Museuui are broken and the posterior parts missing. 
The length of the molar series is a[ii)roximately the same. 
Pattern of molars about as in M. (juenllieri, but the angles of 
the enamel folding less strongly acute or sharply pointed, 
and more rounded, and the dentine spaces slightly wider in 
relation to width of the enamel — a fact difficult to explain, 
but readily discernible to the eye. This is particularly 
evident in the tirst fold in the upper molar series. 

Diineiisions of the type (as measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 115 mm.; tail 2Q>', hind foot 18; ear 11. 

Skull : Condylo-incisive length 27'G ; basilar length 24*0; 
greatest zygomatic breadth 15*7; width of brain-case 12'0 ; 
interorbital breadth 4'0 ; nasals 7*8, palatilar length 13*0 ; 
length of molar series 'o'b ; diastema 8*4 ; palatal foramina 
4'7. The auditory bulk^ are rather small and slightly 
flattened on the exterior side. 

Hah. Smyrua. Alf. 400 ft. " Trapped in an olive 
grove." 

Type. 'Young adult male. B.M. no. 5. 10. 6. 8. Original 
number 46. (Jollected September 20, 1905. Presented by 
W. F. Griffitt Blackler. 

Two more specimens of an adult male and old female were 
examined, but unfortunately the skull of the former was not 
preserved, owing to having been badly smashed by the trap. 
This specimen, caught in January, is larger than the type — 
measuring, head and body 122 ram., tail 29 — and the colour- 
ing is not quite so bright, probably owing to seasonal change. 

This vole is distinguishable from M. guentheri and 
M. hartinyi, the only two species to which it is at all nearly 
related, by the complete absence of any yellowish or buffy 
tinge on the greyish white of the underparts, the longer tail, 
and the colouring of the upper sides of the feet, besides the 
slight variation in the molar teeth. 

I originally intended making it a subspecies oi M. guentheri, 
but, on examining the type of M. Iiartinji from Tliessaly, 1 
have come to the conclusion that it presents even greater 
differences from either of these two than these do from each 
other, in general appearance as well as by the characteristics 
enumerated above, and I consider it therefore as deserving 
of full ^specific rank. 



428 yiv. T. D. A. Cockciell — Dcfcriptions and 



]A. — Descri/>ti'o)i8 and Records of Bees. — LXXII. 
By T. D. A. COCKERELL, University of Colorado. 

Liphanthus sabnlosus, Reed. 

This insect was described by Roed as a new genus of 
Pliilantliid?e. Friese and Ducke refer it to P&aenytliia, but 
it is a peculiar little species, with remarkably long filiform 
mule antennae, and I am inclined to accept Reed's generic 
name. A specimen from the British Museum is labelled 
" Chili," and Mr. Meade-Waldo informs me that Pliilippi 
had proposed a new generic and specific name, which was 
not published. 

Tetndonia hirmtissima, sp. n. 

? . — Length about li mm. 

Robust, black ; the head, thorax, and two basal segments 
of abdomen with long erect white hair ; sides of face, vertex, 
and cheeks anteriorly with black hair; head extremely broad; 
mandibles robust, black, with no orange spot ; labrum 
covered with white hair; clypeus strongly })unctured ; 
antennge black, third joint almost as long as next three 
combined; raesothorax dull; no intermixture of dark hair 
on thorax above ; legs with hair mostly white, but black on 
inner side of basitarsi and dark chocolate on inner side of hind 
tibiae; hind spurs not hooked; tegulic black. Wings dusky 
translucent, venation ordinary. Abdomen with white hair- 
patches at sides of segments 2 to 5, that on 2 rather small, 
the others large, transverse, and brilliant white ; other parts 
of these segments (except second) black ; apical segment with 
shining chocolate hair ; venter with bands of white hair. 

Hab. British Columbia, 4. 11. 07 {Capt. G. A. Beazeley, 
British Museum). It also has a type-written label, " Toba." 

Among the North-American species it falls nearest to 
T. lata (Prov.), described from Vancouver I., but it is easily 
known by the long white hair and spotted abdomen. It has 
a South-American aspect, recalling such species as T. hi- 
punctata, Friese. The locality may be erroneous; could it 
have come from Chile, where the bees are so often black and 
greyish-white haired ? I do not find any S. -American species 
with which I can identify it. 

Protandrena scutellata, sp. n. 

$ . — Length nearly 7 mm. 
Rather slender ; head and thorax black, with very scanty 



Records of Bees. 4 29 

pale liair ; pale yellow markings as follows: — base of man- 
ilibk'H, upj)er part and middle of clypeus (but not lower 
coniors or luari^in, wliicli are brown), transverse supiaclypeal 
ni.irk, tubercles coniiectin*:; witb baud across prothorax 
(sli^^litly interrupted in middle), scutellum (except irregular 
anterior edge), and postscutelluu). Process of labrum brown, 
extremely broadly truncate ; clypeus sparsely j)unctured ; 
facial quadrangle broader tlian long ; eyes pea-green ; 
flagellum very bright ferruginous beneath except at base, 
and red at apex above; me.sothorax dull, minutely granular ; 
area of metathorax granular, scarcely defined ; legs rutb- 
[)icoous, the tarsi ferruginous ; anterior and middle knees and 
their tibiae at base outwardly pale yellow ; anterior tibijB 
ferruginous in front ; tegula3 testaceous, with a yellow spot. 
Wings |)ale brown ; nervures and stigma (which is rather 
large) dull red; b. n. falling far short of t.-ni. ; first r. n. 
joining second s.m. a short distance from its end. Abdomen 
rather long and narrow, shining black, with broad ferru- 
ginous